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ffi'- -iOH— 


IAN 7 !8-j6 







pni.i.RR, VOL. III. n 




|T. PAUL gave a great charge to 
Timothy to bring the cloak which he 
left at Troas, but especially Uie parcli- 
ments. Here we have the inventory i Tim. \\ 
of a preacher's estate, consisting of a few clothes 
and books, what he wore, and what he had written. 
But the apostle's care was not so much concerned in 
his clothes (which might be bought new) as in his 
writings, where the damage could not be reptured. 

> [This Lionel Crantielil was 
the second earl of Middlesex, 
and hii fitther, who bore the 
sanie name, was in great credit 
Bt court in tlie reign of Jameal., 
until his fall, and prosecution 
by the commons. " A gentle- 
" man be was hj birth," gays 
Dr. Heylyn, " but had his 
'■ breeilin^r in the city, (being 
" originally a merchant,) from 
■• whence by his onn wit aiid 

" industry he preferred himself 
*' into the court, where he was 
" first made master of the 
" wardrobe, afterwards master 
" of the wards, and finally ad- 
" vanced by the power and 
" favour of the duke [of Buck- 
" inghani], one of whose kins. 
'' women he had married, to 
" the office of lord treasurer, 
" and the honour of being 
" made the fin>t earl of Mid- 


I arn Madly M*iiHibl«* (thougli far be it fr««i bk to 
rorii|iap- »'<TiliMiii;r with wripture) what the l^n^k «.fi 
liliran ^•••iMTially of iiianuv*ript^) i* l«» a zxunKrf. 
v>\in^.t' Kookn liavr |>:iswhI Kuch hand* which made 
rp|«l:iiirf« of iiiuiiv, litit havixr f»f more. 

WaM it tiot rriH'ltv to torture a librarr. hr maimittr 
aiifl iiiaii;;liii;; tlu* authon» therein? neither k-avix^ 
nor takiii;^' th«'iii oiitin*. Would they had toa^k k*9*. 
that HO ^hat th(*y h*ft niif^ht have lieen U3<*ful to 
iii«\ or left h*«H, that k<» wliat they took mi^t haw 
Im'I'ii imrfiil to oth«*rH. Whereos now, misichieTtiaf 
i;rnoniii«'i* «li(l a pnjudice to me, without a pf^vfit la 
it-i'ir, 4»r aii\ hoilv rUe. 

Kilt woiilfl to (loil all niv fellow lirctlin>n, whkk 
with nil* iN'iiioan tlie loss of their IxMikM, with mr 
iiiijrht al-o njoirt* for the recovery thereof, thooj^ 

'* (lIoM'X. Ill tliiH otliot* Ik* hud 

" (li^'liii'^nl ttii* |iritu-c uheii 

" ho WAS ill Spain, hy ili'»- 

" Hiijfliii;; ami iliviTtiti^ thoM* 

■• Liri:!' «ii|»jih«-H \*hii"li \\ri«' 

** ri'<|«iiriMl t"i»r ihi* ii..uiit niiiiij* 

" «•!" Iitn |Mi*t ill .1 ftiri*ii:ti kin;:- 

" flmn. Ami hi* hill ilt^i)hii;:«-tl 

" t!ir iliik'V hv joiiiiti'^ in *^«iiiii* 

• »i-trr! pr ii tin-H to ir.:iki' him 

" ','r<i%« h*« • uml l^«^ in hi^t iii.u 

• *\ ^ 1 1". iitir. 'rh«'V h.ul 

•p.i». ••r^iil tl..- turn i»f th«' 

> It :i..iii«. i!i ilr.i\«in^ the 

biri/ h\ iht-ir iiililUitMl ilil- 

" i^-.fl'.i.if.* • fii i!>*4»l\r xhf 

*r« i*\ . »T,'! *),•■ i-ii!i.ii:iin« 

II 't'i iifr-% Mri«* tlii-ir ttirii 
,r »■»■••* • '1*11. • • I I. ill til 

I !•■ - I . I 1 !•• •! 

.. U )..< h 

• M • 1 1 ' t .• . . V 

** th:it in the «nd hr 
** tonri*d in thr hcm«r of 
** to bi* «l«*pririNl <»f thr i* 
** of hirtl hif;h trrasurvr otf 
** Kn^ljiul.toU* fined 5s. i^:;/ . 
** and ri'in.iiii a |iri«t>uer in iW 
" Toucr dtirin}; hi« majealTt 
*' uill and pU^uurc. It vm 
** iiiitvrd :il<u> tti def*radr kia 
•• frnin all tiller of 
** hilt in that the biUiom tj 
" hu friond*. and dA«lird tW 
** nu»tii>n" Lifo of L^ud. p- 
12: S mil* MCn»ant of tk» 
nohlrnian k father and famdf 
liia\ ai^i In* found IB TW 
\Vort)iit*«. \o Art. I^^Miuo. 
p. : 1 I . I'd fii!. i^''*;. And tr.c«T 
I'nIU in (•ootlinan'« MctDo«n. 

I ,. 



not the same numerical volumes. Thanks be to 
your honour, who have bestowed on me (the treasure 
of a lord-treasurer) what remained of your father's 
library. Your father, who was the greatest honourer, 
and disgracer of students, bred in learning. Honourer, 
giving due respect to all men of merit: disgracer, 
who by his mere natural parts and experience 
acquired that j)erfection of invention, expression and 
judgment, to which those who make learning their 
sole study do never arrive. 

It was a gift I confess, better proportioned to 
your dignity than my deserts, too great, not for your 
honour to bestow, but for me to receive. And thus 
hath God by your bounty equivalently restored imto 
me what t/ie locusts and the palmer* wormy Sfc. have 
devoured ; so that now I envy not the pope's Vatican, 
for the numerousness of books, and variety of 
editions therein, enough for use, being as good, as 
store for state, or superfluity for magnificence. How- 
ever, hereafter I shall behold myself under no other 
notion than as your lordship's library keeper, and 
conceive it my duty, not only to see your books 
dried and rubbed, to rout those moths which would 
quarter therein, but also to peruse, study, and digest 
them, so that I may present your honour with some 
choice collections out of the same, as this ensuing 
history is for the main extracted thence, on which 
account I humbly request your acceptance thereof; 

whereby you shall engage my daily prayers for your 


. .i,«..i,«*.4f iihI til* lOiiMCje^^ •€ 1'Ur 

..f' -<*riii Hi«v i iliiTnan irstrrr. 
'..»■ 'hi II Til »r irn ii-^-afi*-! HfjCOcrr— c^a 

' 'ml II* iml ii»vi»r H**^ ^••^•Tiirrir-i in' 

.• Ml- -'ii'/ iii'v v'liisii' !!• :ni«»rTu:t i::--' ^ 

M..t .? iii-rr .iiiit.iui "niii(':iiv**nf^#K. "::t- -r-w* 

..1.,...- ,1 iitit ■•j»iiinii*niii**i "lii*!r H*!U"»-ai*if ::*^>• 

I » .. • I i-ii 'iii-ni iitMiinir ui ur^-^nxt-?:'. » 

ii.i.i.» >»•■ *t'T. w!iirn Tn* lev^r ">r %-?^ 

II ... >. w i»f ' nt-^'T uiv r^^tini-'.Iiact c xa» 







|0D hath always heen ambitiouB to pre-A.D. igoi. 
serve and prefer little things, the Jews ''vil'' 
the least of all nations i David their p^^ 
king, least in his father's family ; '''''^ '^^IVSL 
Benjamin the ruler ; little Hill o/9^'» pro- 
ffermon ; the Virgin Mary, the lowliness of thy 
handmaiden : God's children severally are styled his 
little ones, and collectively make up but a little fock. 
And surely it renders the work of grace more 
visible and conspicuous, when the object can claim 
nothing as due to itself. A pregnant proof hereof 
we have in divine Providence, at this time preserving 
the inconsiderable pittance of iaithfiil professors 
against most powerful opposition. This handful of 
men were tied to very hard duty, being constantly to 
stand sentinels against an army of enemies, till God 
sent Luther to relieve them, and the work wa.9 

8 Thr Church Hutory book v. 

A. n. 1501 made Ii^lit4*r, ^itli nion* liaiulH to do it, a^ in the 

I « llf tirv 

vii. ' M'4|nrl of our st4)n\ (mm! williiijr, will appear. M 

tiiiH* wf iiiiiM n'lneiiilHT, that Ilenrv Deaii* uuc- 
riiMliiI in the place «»f arrhlH«*hop Mortoiu latc^lj 
(h-reaMNi, and eiijovnl his honour but two vearn, then 
h*a\iii); it to William NVarham, one well qualified 
^\X\\ l«*aniin^ and diHcretion. 
^«ni. 2. Now it is no small praise to BuckiiijiftianiHhire, 
Ih^imM. that lH*ip;r one of the* l(*SM*r counties of Knjrlaiid, it 
if^oiur had nion» niartvr* and confi^M»rs in it, lK*fon* the 
tiMtniiii. ijj^j^, of liiitlier, than all the kiiifrdom l>4^ide<i: where 
William TvUworth waw bunit at Amersham'', (the 
A.D. i5o6.ri*nde/vouM of (ioil's childn*n in thosi> days) and 
•loan his 4»idy «lau^hter, and *'a faithful woman, wa4 
'* com|H*lhsl with her own hand;* to s(*t lin> to her 
•• dear father.*' At the same time sixty pri»f(*?«v>ri 
an<l alKJve did luMir fa^^»t*i for their iH»iianct\ and 
Wen* eiijoinni to we:ir on their ri^ht ••ht'ves fur 
Mime yiiir* aft^T, a Mjuan» piece of cloth, as a di.*- 
f^nxci* to theniMdvi***, and a dirt\»n*nci» from other*. 
But ^hat is nioHt n*niarkahle, a new punishment 
was uow found out, of l)ran«lin)f th(*m in the ch«*<*k. 
The nianiM*r thus**: tln^ir iie(*ks were tie<l fast to a 
|Hi^t \iith tovif*ls« aiifl their han«ls h«dd<*n that tlie; 
mi;rht not ntir; and m» the hiit in»n ^it«* put to tlitii 
chifk-. It '\H not certain whether hrande^l uith L 

f«»r L^J/firtl. or // for I/n'tilr, or uhi'tln-r it \ia- nnU 


a fi»nnli**H print of inm, (yi»l nevrrtln-h-^s |iainful.» 
tluH in '•uri', that thru hnn* in (htir /MH/tf% fh* in»:rk^ 
9*1 th* A^/i'/ .A WM**. And no doulit thev had m* \irll 

11' •!.««! *. l.ji.U'th. 1; An;:l p. 1;: 

K« *• »; ; .»ri ! •%4« ^iiivit-t1«fl ^ [K«»\. Act* \f I p i-i ) 

I \ W ■ : . * *.n w o isi't !I. t! ' Fi»i. I' I ' r • 

M • : I'lrk. n All. •* Ua\ *: i- 


of Britain, 

leame<l our Saviour's precept, that rather than they a. d. 1506. 

a a Henry 

would have revenged themselves by unlawful means, 
to them that smit them on the one cheeky they would 
have turned the other also^. Surely ecclesiastical consti- 
tutions did not reach thus far, as to impose any corporal 
torture: and whether there be any statute of the 
land that enjoins (not to say permits) such punish- 
ments, let the learned in the laws decide. This I 
am sure, if this was the first time that they fell into 
this (supposed) heresy, by the law they were only to 
abjure their errors ; and if it were the second time, 
upon relapse into the same again, their whole bodies 
were to be burnt. Except any will say, that such as 
by these bloody laws deserved death, were branded 
only by the favour of William Smith, bishop of Lin- 
coln ; and one may have charity enough to incline 
him to this belief, when considering the same Wil- 
liam (foimder of Brasenose-college in Oxford) was 
generally a lover of learning and goodness, and not 
cruelly disposed of himself ^ However, some of 
God's children, though burnt, did not dread the fire. 
And lather Rever, alias Reive, though branded at 
the time, did afterwards suffer at a stake ^; so that 
the brand at the first did but take livery and seisin 

« Matt. V. 39. 

' [Born at Faru worth in the 
pari!^ of Prescot in Lancashire; 
educated either at Oriel or 
Lincoln colleges^ or perhaps 
successively in both. Retiring 
from Oxford for fear of the 
plague, he became fellow, and 
afterwards master of Pembroke 
hall in Cambridge. About the 
same time he was made arch, 
deacon of Surrey, dean of the 
cIiajK'l, St. Stephen's, West- 

minster, doctor of divinity, and 
incorporated in the same degree 
at Oxford. In 1492 he was 
created bishop of Litchfield; 
in 1495 removed to Lincoln, 
and died in 1513. The in- 
scription which was engraven 
on his tomb, with an account 
of his benefactions, is printed 
in Wood's Athenae, I. p. 650. 
See also Godmn de Prscsul. 
p. 299. 323.] 
% Fox, p. 101 1. 

10 The Church Huiory book v. 

A.iii5</>. in tun cluH^k, in token that hi^ whole body nhoukl 
viT ' afterwanlH tie in the free and full |)Offiemon of 
the fin*. 

TWcrtMi 8. They who de«ir<» further information of the 
nunilMT and nanu^fi f»f nuch nn MitTert**! aU^ut thb 
time, may n^fmir to the Acts and Monumentn of 
Mr. Fox ; only ThomaM ChaM» of Amernham must 
not Im» lien* imiitte*!, In-inji: Imrlmnuixly lMitchen*«i by 
bhxMly liandn in the prinon of WiMibunie**. Who 
to rover their cruelty, gave it out that he luul 
hanp*^! him^Of, ami in colour tliereof, cau««<Mi hiM 
bixlv to Ih» buriiNl bv the hiirhwavH* hide, when* a 
Ntake kn4N*ktHl into the ffrave in the monument ^*ik^ 
rnllv enH*te<l for fi^lonn ///• sr, Fmr wpt fhtur^ Maith 
iniT Saviour, who kill the Itfnly^ and nfi^nrftrffM harr 
no morf that ihnf ran do: Imt tlM*«<» men'n malict* 
end(*av4»unM| to do mon*, having killtNi hi«« IxmIv, U\ 
munhT luH niemorv* with slandenm?* n'|M>rt?i, althimgh 
all in vain. Vox the priMm it^Of did |>lea4l for the 
inuiMvnee of the priMiner lienMU, Inking a place <i«i 
liiw ami little, that he could not fitand upright. 
Ik*^ilh'««, thi* uonian that naw hi*i d(*ad InhIv, (a ximM 


com|H»tent \*itne^H in thifi ca>i4»,) dt^clan^l that he 
ua*« Ml hiadtMi with manacles and inms that he 
couhl not well mov(* either hand or frwit. Ittit we 
K*nve tin* full diM«UHsing, and tinal dtH*iding hi*n*<if to 
llini ulio niaki*^ inquinition for bhNNl. at that da% 
i»ht'n ••urii iliingH n** have Ini^n dfin«» in M-cn^t '•hall 
In* niadf* manifrM. 
Ti»#r«i* I. Hv tlii»» time we mav Inildlv «iv, that all the 
limp VII am%ip* of money flue to thi* |ni|h>, fur |ianlon«» in the 

^* "III till' l»t«ht>|r% |irt«Hi cmllrtl LiUlc KaiM** My% V\.%\. 

1. |i. ICI I ] 


of Britain, 


year of Jubilee, five years since were fully collected, a. d. 1506. 

'I'l Henry 

and safely returned to Rome by the officers of his vii. 
holiness, the lagging money which was last sent share the 
thither came soon enough to be received there. We^oL^be- 
wish the sellers more honesty, and the buyers more ^^*** ^®™' 
wisdom. Yet we envy Rome this payment the less, 
because it was the last in this kind she did generally 
receive out of England. Meantime king Henry the 
Seventh did enter common with the pope, having 
part allowed to connive at the rest^ Thus whilst 
pope and prince shared the wool betwixt them, the 
people were finely fleeced. Indeed king Henry was 
so thrifty, I durst call him covetous, not to say 
sordid, had he been a private man, who knowing 
what ticklish terms he stood upon, loved a reserve 
of treasure, as being (besides his claims of conquest, 
match, and descent) at any time a good title ad 
con'oborandum. (And we may the less wonder that 
this money was so speedily spent by his successor ; a 
great part thereof being gotten by sin, was spent on 

i [Parker's] Antiq. Brit, 
[p. 452. But lord Bacon, in 
his History of the reign of 
Hen. VII. is of opinion that 
the king had no part in it. That 
writer speaks thus; "It was 
*' thought the king shared in 
*' the money. But it appeareth 
*' by a letter which cardinal 
'* Adrian, the king's pensioner, 
*' wrote to the king from Rome 
'* some few years after, that 
*' this was not so. For this 
" cardinal being to persuade 
" P. Julius on the king's be- 
*' half to expedite the bull of 
'* dispensation for the marriage 
*• between prince Henry and 

* the lady Katharine, finding 
' the pope difficile in granting 
' thereof, doth use it as a prin- 
' cipal argument concerning 
' the king's merit towards that 
' see, that he had touched 
' none of those deniers which 
' had been levied by Pons 
' [the pope's commissioner for 
' effecting the exchange of 

* money for indulgences, &c.] 

* in England." p. 200. (Eng- 
lish ed. 1629.) Archbishop 
Parker's words, as referred to 
by Fuller are, ** At ne rex 
** tantse fraudi obstaret pro- 
'* misit ei papa suae prscdte 
*' partem."] 

12 The Chunk lintory siHti i. 

A.I). 150H. Hill.) Was it then charity or remorse, pirinir cr 
^vii.* restoring, that liereu|)oii king ilcnnr the S-Ti-nth 
founded the rich hospital of the Savoy in the Strunl 
with the finishing whereof he enchnl his own lifr. 
And it is (|uestionablt* whether his ImnU' \\i*> in ni«irr 
niagniKct*nce in that stately and costly tonih and 
chaiH*! of his own crtn^ting, or whether his iiii*iii«iry 
liv(*s nion* histingly in that k^anunl an4i cun«»o« 
history, which the lord Bacon hath written cif hi4 
reign ? 
iimry 5. Ileiir}' the Eighth, his son, succc<Hle<l hini\ 

c0fdc«h hii OIK* of a lM*autiful |K'rson, and niaji'stic pre^-ikce. 
iiiMmnich that liis |iictun* in all placin, is knomii at 
the first sight. As for the chanicti»r of his mind, all 
tlu* virtues and vices of all his pHMh^ce^^sors from the 
<*on(|nt*st may s4H*ni in him fully n*|)n^*nt«HL Uith to 
their kind and degree, h*aniing, wiMlom, vah»ur, 
ma<rnifieence, cnudtv, avari<'e, fiir>*. and lu-t ; fnl- 
lowing liis plcasun^s whilst lu* was young. anH 
making tln^m c«imc tn him wh(*n he was tdd. Manv 
nu*mt»nihh» altcnitioim in chun*h and state ha|»|H*mil 
in liJH age, as, (hmI willing. hcn»after shall ap|N-ar. 

A.p. l5o<^ (). On tin* third dav of Juiu* \\v was Mdcmnk 

II ' * 

riKhiiM* marrinl to th<* lady Katliarinc dowagi«r, fomii-riy 

JJ^JJ^*"' \MtV to his linither princv Arthur, dcHH-aseil. Two 

Arthur pnjH'^i took tln* niatt4*r in hand to di^tcu-H ami fI«*<Mile 

tin* la\U'uhH-**H th4'n*<if, Al«*xand4*r the Sixth, and 

V\\\^ tli«* Tiiird ; Kut iMith dird lN*fon* the l»u*>in«^^ 

Ma** full\ I'tVectcd'. At hint conn*** |ni|h* .luliu** the 

^ April :i. 1; «/ ' rinl. Hut arrlil»i«h«>p W^rham 

N.inili'r^ ill' M'li;«* An- liatl s** |hiv«4*%%i<«1 thr V\t^ 

^luvlitl. I p - [Tin* tir^t l»till i&|:.tiii«C It, that 111 Junr i*. 

i%*f i mirai'tin^ thi« :i:jrria|{e K >. th<* priniv by hi% fjt}i«'r'« 

^% I* ntit Dit- :'•. '^''V ruttiiiijiiil mode .1 iirotr^tdtHui 

ii|M*ii \4l.ii!i t!i«-\ \\\tv mar. a^aiiMt it. uhicli hr tkx'laml 

The fhurrh J/ittuiy 


JLD.tiat.wUIU contintwd utd tnenaaocl on the |MM>r 
'vnT (m tbey call tb«ii> after slyiinlion. forreil to i 

~the fi w h ion of a bggotwrouj^t in tlircnil. ur } 

on duir left ileereii, nil tlip tlavH '>r titnr liTcn; 

beii^ death to put ott tlinr rlntlien Kitliuut iti 

eogninnoe. Ami imlovfl (o pmir |>i<«pU> it « 

pDt it oC and t'e liurned, ktv|i it on. unl Iv i 

mmng none ncncmllr wnuld PK't ttmn <»n wotfc | 

nurietl tbat badjte almut ihom', 

A-D.I1II. 8. On this arcount William SvetJng : 

•Ml Bn«- Urowster wen* n*-iiiipri«out>(l. lo vain <i 

*" 'pl«wl lliat ii4' H-BM ronintandnd U* leavv off 

bv th<^ rontmllcr «r lh«* earl or OzTnrd'a* I 

waa Dut 111 ixmtrol tbp ordera of the I 

And, as littU- did Htn-tiag'a plea | 

[NU»on of Mary Ma);vlalenr*a in Colehoator-j 

htm t» laT Ilia fiigjP't attide^. ThMc. like 1 

baro tbvir fitfofotN on tbuir barlu, wliicb i 

bare Ibcsn, tbejr botb beiqg burned 

Soiithfield. TW fmfiaU rc^ioft, tbat lb 

at their death attain to al^jim* their i 

truth whcTPof iow <lar Nhall Rpitnu*. 

true, let tlir mi|ianial Imt judgi- which ^ 

fankj. tbeae poor nwn for want of coRMtanry I 

defiai^ or their jodgea, for want »r rbarity in i 

Mccfitfaig their abhuatiaB. 

*;P.i/ i» 9- Rirlianl lliinno, a wi-altb; citisrn of I 

W^m* ' impriMmi-*! in Ixlbu^l'i towvr for maintaiiiin|f t 

,1 ^ t ttf WickllO^'n o|»iiiioiia, bad bia neck therein i 

pwwrfiMp ■■iwi* them. M« 
ftuwl't M.\ p. u.] 

- [Ukm 6, Vm.J 

rPov. Acu, *cll. p-ii. 

rif fratn lu»i." Fm, ia.] * 


of Britain, 


broken"'. To cover their cruelty, they gave it out ad. 1514. 
that he hanged himself; but the coroner's inquest vin7 
sitting on him, by necessary presumptions found the 
impossibility thereof, and gave in their verdict, that 
the said Hunne was murdered. Insomuch that Par- 
sons hath nothing to reply, but that the coroners 
inquest were simple men, and suspected to be 
infected with Wickliffian heresies*. But we remit 
the reader to Mr. Fox for satisfaction in all these 
things, whose commendable care is such, that he 
will not leave an hoof of a martyr behind him, 
being very large in the reckoning up of all sufferers 
in this kind. 

10. Cardinal Bainbridge, archbishop of York, being a.d. 1514. 
then at Rome, was so highly offended with Rinaldus CanUnai 
de Modena, an Italian, his steward, (others say his why p^sra. 
physician, and a priest,) that he fairly cudgelled him.^*^*^*^®* 
This his passion was highly censured, as inconsistent 
with episcopal gravity, who should be no striker^. 
But the Italian shewed a cast of his country, and 
with poison sent the cardinal to answer for his fact 
in another world, whose body was buried in the 
English hospital at Rome^. 

' [Fox, Acts, &c. II. p. 13. 

Burnet's Reform. I. p. 27.] 

> Examination of Fox his 
Mart, for the month of De- 
oemb. p. 279. 282. 
* I Tim. iii. 3. 
^ Grodwin de Frees. Ang. 
p. 700. [Christopher Bain- 
bridge was born at Hilton 
near Appleby in Westmoreland, 
educated in Queen's college, 
Oxford, of which society he 
became provost. After hold- 
ing several dignities in the 

church, he was in 1505 made 
dean of Windsor and master 
of the rolls, in 1507 bishop of 
Durham, and next year arch- 
bishop of York. In 15 11 the 
pope created him cardinal of 
S. Praxedis for the service 
which the archbishop had ren- 
dered him in persuading king 
Henry VIII. to take part with 
the pope in his wars against 
Lewis XII. of France. He 
was succeeded by Wolsey. 
See Wood's Athense, I. p. 65 1 .] 


7'/ir Church Ht>(oty 

»ooi \. 

A.i>. 151^. II. Uiclmni Fox, luHhon of Wincliet^tiT, foun€|<>il 

'viTi7 and mdowtMl Coqms-diristi college in Oxforti, lie- 

Thrfcittiia. Htowing then*on landx to the yearly value of four 

!!!!LniKMi hu"<l'^'J and one |K)undMy eight shillingx, and two 

?!;";«*.'" iH»nre^. AntI, wherea.^ thiH foundation in charactemi 

hy an Oxford man to )>e cjt omnibtui minimum^ ret 

cf^tr tx mhiimix unfim\ at thin day it ac<]uittelb 

itHcOf in more than a middle equi|iage amongvt other 

foundations. KraHmuH in very large in the prmine 

thereof, highly affectiHl with a library, and study of 

tongues, which, acc4)nling to tlie founders wilt 

fl4>urishe<i then*in ; insomuch that for some time it 

was t4*nne<l, Tlie college of the thnn* leametl 


P^t l<Knis Oxonii. possum appelUro triHngut* 
Musa*uin, a Cliristi Corpon* nomen habensT. 

Sun* I am. that for all kind of learning, di\ine an<l 
human, this houM^ is {paramount for eminent persons 
bre<l therein. 


B uk 0p * . 


1516. John i Urimmd. 
I5j;. R4il«tt Morwcnt. 
i«ftM. WiUuMn CltM Hin 
I55«^ Wtlham BuitImt. 
15^1 TbiHnM iirmt 
I «AM. WOliam Coir. 
I ((/I. John lUrnaUa 
• 60;. Jnhn Spmvr. 
1 1*14. 'Tliiwna*^ AiuAu. 
i6iy fjohn- ll'iit. 

i<V40 (lUilvn Nt^lin.; 
164I. [Rilmun^] ScM 


John J0mri. 


Bmf/mttmr§. ' t^tmrtkeH 



Hufh OUham, j it^w^r 
biahof <i# Ex - I n^^ 

■ fJohn Jr««a 
iUy. , [Jdhn R47'. 

Mr. [Rulwrt] rr. 
Monrmu^tr. Bruut Tvyaa^ 
c%mA pom- tlir induacn- 
4tfnt.; ' (MM ftBU^uam 

WOlMin FrtMi. UiHiat^. 

Mf% M.VWV. I>r JarkMT^ 

I>r. JokA IUy. 

Sr ihvrjgt 
Paul, kn^t. ; 

« OcKiviin in \he liuhop* of 
Winche»trr, i>. 3^7 [WcmmI'i 
AanaU. vol. 11. p. 7. Hbuify 

of Col U»|(rA, he, 1. p. 3H2.] 
■ Pitura* dr Acad. Okcmi. 


of Britain, 


So that a president, twenty fellows, twenty scholars, A.D.1516. 
two chaplains, two clerks, and two choristers, be- vin7 
sides oflScers and servants of the foundation are 
therein maintained, which with other students, anno 
1634, made up threescore and ten. 

12. This Huffh Oldham, in the front of bene- Hugh pM. 

ham his 

factors, because he was bishop of Exeter, for names- bounty. 
sake intended his bounty to Exeter college. But, 
suffering a repulse from that society, (refusing at his 
**request to make one Atkin a fellow,) diverted his 
liberality to Corpus-Christi college ; so bountiftil 
thereunto, that, as founder is too much, so bene- 
factor is too little for him. He was one of more 
piety than learning, courteous in his deeds, but very 
harsh and rugged in his speeches, making himself 
but bad orations, yet good orators, so many eloquent 
men were bred by his bounty. Nor let it be for- 
gotten, that as Fox, the founder of this house, was 
fellow and master of Pembroke hall, so Oldham also 
had his education in Queen's college in Cambridge*^; 

y John White, [Diacosio- 
martyrion, p. 86. ed. 1553.] 

« [Wood reckons twelve bi- 
shops to 1782.] 

^ See more of him anno 

^ Godwin in the bishops of 
Exeter, p. 473. [Holinshed, 
p. 839. The same writer gives 
the following account of Old- 
ham*s bene&ction. *' Bishop 
«' FoK was of the mind and 
" determination to have made 

the college for religious men. 

But bishop Oldham (whether 
*' it was b^»use he flavoured 
" not those sects of cloistered 
'* monks, or whether he foresaw 




" dissuaded bishop Fox what 
" he could from that his pur- 
*' pose and opinion, and said 
*• unto him ; ' What, my lord, 
*' shall we build houses and 
" provide livelihoods for a 
" company of bussing monks, 
'* whose end and fall we our- 
selves may live to see ? No> 
no, it is more meet a great 
' deal that we should have 
care to provide for the in- 
*' crease of learning, and for 
*' such as who by their learning 
'* shall do good in the church 
" and commonwealth.' "p. 840.] 
c See Jo. Scot his tables. [At 
the end of Isaacson's chrono^ 




any fall toward of those sects) logy.] 


Sfl TV ChurrA ttutan/ »ooi « . 

AD. I1IK.IIO mnrh hath Oxfrrrd bn*n liehnlilinf; to bcT nc>ptH*w'» 
I viiL or Mittfr'« t*l)iMr(>n. Biit hh ntm' Kphmn nuij (<• 

^^^ AbnUiAm, ll'ifil in thai /mitriji tk*^ aud m**f n, 

^^^k Mich ihvir tniituftl kflL'Ttimi. ft nwlton not wtiM 

^^^^L fiiTciur one utater fm^lT br^toweth nti Ihc otbrr. 

^^^^iQtW^ 13. John (.'ok-t, Avtu\ of PniilX tliott thin jfor, in 
^^^H^Si^th(> finy-thinl Tear nf his nffi'. "f ■ |>t<^ilfntfml 
^^^HQI^ ■wi'Attnfr, nt Sh*-no in Surrrj. Ho wmi Ibc vXArtt 
^^^m (Mill Htio nirvivinji:) child of rir llrnry Colrt. 

^^H mi^nH^T, twice loni iiujur of I^ndon. who with hi* 

^^^H k^ w>nH AtiH aji miutT ihiu);1ilcni uv (Irjiirttn] in • 

^^^H 1^*** wimhiw iin tb«- north iii<li> of St. Anthutir'ii, 

^^^H (romijillj^ St. AntlinV) tu which Hiurrh ho wm m 

^^^H (ir^**! bont'fiirlur'. Ilin no John foiui<lo<l the frt^p* 

^^^m Khotil of St. PsulV aii() it » bard to mt, wbothor he 

^^^ IcA bvtKrr taw* for tbe gQwrament. or bada far 

nuiatoouee tbcicoC 
r«f 14. A fWiCHKhool Indeed to all nativM or fonHign* 
en of what mtinlrr socrcr, hort> to havp tbrir odo- 
eation, (none bt-iny i-xotuilei| hr their nalivHy. 
^^^^^^^_ which excliulo n«t theni«elTL« by thdr unwortlit- 
^^^^^^^h arw.) to the niimhcr of uim> hundred fiflr and Xhnn, 
^^^^^^^B (ao many fifths a* wore mught in the net by tlie 
^^^^^^^1 :^ioatlea*,> whrnnif cverr Ti«r Kiini* appearing oral 
^^^^^^^Kffegiiuit (by unpartial cxoniinatjon) harv lalariw 
^^^^^^^r ■llowed thorn for xort-n ymn, or until they gal 
belter luvfennvnt in the rhurrh or univfinty. 
^ 15. It nuy flctiu (Um? Latin. Oiat tfaia ColM 
n bebig dean of Sc PaulN, the aebocd 


• tM 

[Aoori. Km. Hn Kai|kt^ Ufe if 
»«• aMl tlMa dMglrtwm, ^ •Jount.M. 

i-fcB Cairt «W tW Mly MM 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 19 

St. Paul, and distanced but the breadth of the street a. d. 15 19. 
from St. Paul's church, should not be entrusted to viii. 
the inspection of his successors, the dean and chapter 
of Paul's, but committed to the care of the company 
of the mercers for the managing thereof. But 
Erasmus ^ rendereth a good reason, from the mouth 
and mind of Colet himself, who had found by 
experience many laymen as conscientious as clergy- 
men in discharging this trust in this kind, conceiving 
also that whole company was not so easy to be 
bowed to corruption as any single person, how 
eminent and public soever. 

16. For my own part, I behold Colet's act herein. Out of pro- 
not only prudential, but something prophetical, asldence.^'^ 
foreseeing the ruin of church lands, and fearing that 

this his school, if made an ecclesiastical appendant, 
might in the fall of church lands get a bruise, if not 
lose a limb thereby. 

17. William Lily was the first schoolmaster w. LUy 
thereof, by Colet's own appointment. An excellent mut^. 
scholar, bom at Odiham in Hampshire, and afterward 

he went on pilgrimage as far as Jerusalem : in his 
return through Italy he applied himself to his 
studies^. And because some perchance would be 
pleased to know the Lilies of Lily, (I mean his 
teachers and instructors,) know that John Sulpitius 
and Pomponius Sabinus, two eminent critics, ware 
his principal informers. Returning home into his 
native country well accomplished with Latin, Greek, 
and all arts and sciences, he set forth a grammar, 

^ In his Epistle unto Jodo- this letter he gives a general 
cos Jonas. [Epistolse XV. 14. account of Colet's life.] 
p. 697. ed. Lond. 1642. In % Pitz in Vita, p. 697. 



The Churrh History 


A.n. 1519. which 8tin ffiK*H uniler his immo, and i^ univfrwiIlT 

* ViiT.'^ taujfht all oviT Kiiplftml^'. 

II » cT«m. 18. Many wen* the tMlitioim of thi^ pmnmmr*, tho 

^»^ fii^t wt forth aniui 1513, (when PaiirH whmil \ia.« 
foun<UMK) ns ap{M»an>i hy that instanre, meruit suh rtp^ 
in dallia, n»latiiip to Maximilian thi' (M^nnan rni- 
|H»n»r, \s\\n then at th«» sicp* of TlM'nivt'nnc in 
FlaniU»iN fonj^lit nrnhT tlu» Imnner of kinp Henry th«* 
Kiphth. taking an lunnlnMl eniwn- a <Iay for hi« 
|>jiy^. Anotlier t'^lition anno 15*20, wlu*ii aitHitn 
rnft' IhprtJtrruinm /^rnfiriAri, n'fi*rH to tln» kin*f'« 
hjKHMly jounny into ( aiiterlmr}", then* Uf pve i»nt<T- 
tainineiit to (1iarlc*fi the* fifth eni|H>ror, lately lainhNl 
at Dover. 

^ [He vnu a dem\ of Ma^. 
daleti cnllri^ Oxfctrd in 148^). 
U*in;; tht*n i*i);ht4*i*n ytnim «}f 
■Kt*. Having taken hiii di'gree, 
lio travel led almiad, and Im.*< 
tidm rial ting Jeruudum, on hit 
rrtnrn made Mitne utav at 
Rhode*, where he probahlj 
acquired a proficiency in the 
Cireek language. He wa» tkiu 
pointed to the»ter*hip 
of Ht. Fault school in 151a, 
which he iiniiie«liatelir raiaed to 
auch a reputation, that Kraa. 
mnt in one of hia letters. ( ibted 
1514.) speaking of the progresa 
of a lad entrusted to his charge 
to educate in Latin, ohaerret : 
" lUud andacter afinnabo, il- 
" lum plu« scire I^olinitatia 
" quatn fu(*rit in ulla schoU, 
*' ne Lilianam quidetii evcipio, 
*' triennit) consecuturus.*' iK- 
ptst p. 436.) He wms upon 
term ft of the greatest intimacy 
with the celebrated sir Thomas 

More, who in one of hit letter* 
addresscnl to dean Colet sav« , 
'* I jvuM my time with Hu*^ 
** cine. Linacre, and Lillie 
'* the first being as you kn«>w 
•• the director of mr life ta 
** )<)ur absence, the necood the 
*' master of mr studies, tW 


*' third my roost dear coou 
'* panion." More's Life cif sir 
Thomas More, p. 34. e«l. 1716. 
Lily died of the plaeue ia 
1533-3, and was buried in iW 
north yard beUmging to the 
cath^-dnd church oi H(. Psnl's. 

His epitaph, uhich was eiu 
graren on a brass plate, and 
five<l near the great iH»rth d«mr 
of St. Paul's, is quoted by Ful- 
ler in his Ap|>eal, part 11. 
p. 56.] 

* [See an acomnt %»i thaa 
and his other works in Wood's 
Athena*. I. 16.] 

i (fodwin's Annales, p. ilL 
[ed. i^>5.V^ 

CKNT. XVI. of Britain. 21 

19. Formerly there were in England almost asA.D. 1519. 
many grammars as schoolmasters, children being ' Vin.'^ 
confounded not only with their variety, but some- And pnW- 
times contrariety thereof, rules being true in the one JS^orfty. 
which were false in the other. Yea, which was the 
worst, a boy when removed to a new school lost all 

he had learned before : whereupon king Henry en- 
deavoured an imiformity of grammar all over his 
dominions; that so youths, though changing their 
schoolmasters, might keep their learning. This was 
|>erformed, and William Lily's grammar enjoined 
universally to be used. A stipend of four pounds a 
year M'as allowed the king's printer for printing of it, 
and it was penal for any publicly to teach any other. 
I have been told how lately bishop Buckeridge 
examining a free-school in his diocese of Rochester, 
the scholars were utterly ignorant of Lily's rules, as 
used to others ; whereat the bishop exclaimed. What ! 
are there puritans also in grammar^ ? 

20. I deny not but some since have discovered since 
blasted leaves in our Lily, observing defects and by many, 
faults therein; and commendable many persons' pains 

in amending them ; however it were to be desired, 
that no needless variations be made, and as nmeh 
left of Lily as may be : the rather, because he sub- 
mitted his syntaxis to the judgment of Erasmus 
himself, so that it was afterward printed amongst his 
works^. Indeed Qure genus was done by Thomas 
Robinson, and the Accidens (as some will have it) 
by other authors, after Lily was dead, and prince 

J [In 1530 tbe couvocation shortly after "by tho king's 

finding that uniformity in this *' proclamation the matter was 

matter had not been effected, ** generally effected. " See the 

|)ii8sied an act enjoining obedi- Appeal, ^c. part 11. p. 56.] 
ence to the king's wishes, and ^ Pitz. ib. 697. 

C 3 

tl TAr CAktcA ffitlory mxw v. 

A.ixu^Edmrd born, of and for wbom U wm mU, Gd- 

Tiii. nrdiu i» my proper name'. And ihtta we take 

our leavu botb of Lily and Paul's M^hool. Sooiiildiig 

at thin ilar on mneb oa ever, nndor tbo txn of Mr. 

Jobn Lanf^ir, tlio alilu uid rellgiottii MhoolBnHter 


Kwii'"' ^'- KirifT lltTirv luul laU'ly M_>t frtrtb a book apumt 

v'tMb Lather, omlearourin^ thr confutation of hi<t 

faitTr ai novel and umound. None vuqioct Ihii 

lack of Icuratng (tboogh nuui; bii laek or 

ftom hb pleawrea) for soeh a dengn ; bowtrrer' 

probable MMne other gardener gatbeivd the flowen; 

(made the ootleetkmi.) tboagfa king Henry bad tho 

hononr to wear the posy, earryfaig tbe crvdit in tbe 

title lliereof". 

itrM kf 88. To requite his palna, the pope honoured bfm 

DvillXrifand Us anccnaon with a speciotu litlf, a iVfender 

^''*^ ot the FUth". Indeed ft ii tbe bounden dntjr of 

• tPnfrim MM tmrittu, and of Fabw, that U «m giwiwDy 
Jt to fTM wi i f t. with tka Bag- MpfiMnd to karc bcm wrkMa 
lU faMrprMMka, w«ra niimd hj dMt fnfato : l^lip. f. jfll 
«bA pabliA«d hf Join Rk- ad. 1739: wke aa Jtrtnofc Ito 
wlM, Ulr's MMMMT, abtwt Mran of it aaiMt ' 
1530.] InrtaMwvrof Mwtfa 

• [- AjHTtio M|«Mi acn- b • work aatilMt " 
1 adnnu Mmia. ~ lio nfia ■■ wr t i o ii h 


" tvtlMrwB, adita ob faivietb- " BabjrloBkw auiii*{Mi 
"shw Aai^ at Fi aacl a Golan. 1515. aad AMw. ijaa, 
" raga, at do. ItybirBia Haiu accnrd it to Snypa'a 3lta.L 


" rtnt M«a aaaaiafa octara." 40.] 

PriM»d by y ju a u a. Jdy istb. ■ [Tkb «m by 

1511. Km hm X. WH M mw tkb, tW ■ 

««n atUad with tUi 6mm- bam vaad I7 iom JbUm A 

aMifaa ti Hanr'a loydty to to Hawy Wl (P«. II. m. U 

tW olbofie ^Btb. that h« aad by tba wUnnity •/<)•. 

a i M liitoantbawadma^lt bed ta ibajr a44n» to B«^ 

lafclgiaeifcftaayaatB.«d V.iat4i4. 8aa WOkiaa' Oaa> 

fl»«MyyMdrafaM.(wMaaar dL ml IIL p. j6o. Sa« dta 
iMT dan i I Mimaa Lmt.) flMhM'a Olanary ■• *• 
lUt daO aMaa ia hfa Ufa »^ .idaacla..] 


of Jiritain, 


©very Christian, earnestly to contend for the faith a.J),\s2\, 
which once wa^ given to the saints^ ^ but it is the dig- vifi. ^ 
nity of few men, and fewer princes, to be able 
effectually to appear in print in the vindication 

23. There is a tradition, that king Henry's fool His jester's 
(though more truly to be termed by another name) 
eoming into the court, and finding the king trans- 
ported with an unusual joy, boldly asked of him the 
cause thereof, to whom the king answered, it was 
because that the pope had honoured him with a 

style more eminent than any of his ancestors ; " O 
good Harry,'' quoth the fool, " let thou and I defend 
one another, and let the faith alone to defend 
** itself." Most true it is, that some of his successors 
more truly deserved the title than he to whom it 
was given : who both learnedly, then solidly engaged 
their pens in the asserting of true religion. 

24. At this time, though king Henry wore theWoiseyhis 
sword, cardinal Wolsey bare the stroke all over the JJ^^ and 
land*i; being legate rf(? latere^ by virtue whereof lie^"**®* 
visited all churches and religious houses, even the 

friars observants themselves, notwithstanding their 
stoutness and stubbornness that first opposed him^. 



o Jade, ver. 3. 

P [Burnet's Ref, I. p. 37. 


<l [*' For although the king 
bore the sword, yet he (Wol- 
sey) bare the stroke, making 

" in a manner the whole realm 
to bend at his beck, and to 
dance after his pipe." Fox, 

Acts, &c. II. p. 243.] 

r Fox, Acts, &c. II. p. 243. 

[Hairs Chron. in Hen. VIII. 

f. 35. Bishop Burnet in his 





Hist, of Ref. I. p. 39, says that 
Wolsey obtained a bull from 
liome for this purpose, by vir- 
tue of which he intended to 
visit and suppress the mona^- 
steries, and convert them into 
bisliuprics, cathedrals, colle- 
gmte churches, &c. And though 
he w<is diverted from this de- 
sign for fear of the scandal it 
would cause, ** yet he coninm- 
•' nicated his desinn to the 
** king, and his secretary Crom- 

c 4 

A.D. igii 

■ jttwT 


S4 The Chmrek HUlary warn v. 

Phpal Mnl royal power met hi Urn, bei^ the ehM»> 
raltor of the land, and keeping lo many biabopriM 
rn ettmmeHJam, hh Trarif nuMMUO in laid tn eqnal If 
not eioeed the rcTenoc* of the crown*. 
I S5. Tlip mure tho pitj. tltat liavin^ of hfai own 
(fwli a flock of preferment, notliinff but the poor 
nuui's i-wi- lamh* would ple«M) him ; m* that bvfa^ lo 
fiKind two enllfgci. be adiod on iwi finrt-r than fbttj 
Muall noMUteriM; twnfng tbrir uihaUtantf out of 
boiBO and boiws and converting tbHr nteam ptfn- 
dpalljr to a eolh^ in Oxford. Thk alieaatiaa ««■ 
nmfinni>d Xtj the ivcaent pope Cieoent the 

"«iU aadMMndfK ^ «»• 
«'llwMbr iMlnMM how to 

vmmosAm MHib whnuwy 
**mal ibMtt Um lotal mb- 
'■■II III «HI»«niii«itlii.- 
TW £M(J«n «wt nwl. at 
■id 10 W wammimA bjr Dr. 
ABm Md Cnmvn ia IW 

"H I "! ■ •' *~ "~; 
iWriw, WMant ifwtMaMaf 

riM aitkk uT kh imfttA- 
■HaL Oot WoImt'i L««Mr ia 
kli awa Miam to ib« kioa, 
■aJ Ka%lK'i Lmm In WaT. 
■rf . Stela I^iHfi, rol. I. pn. 
1^. 366. la tUa laticr tW 
wit M i Mn I " 1 hara l i n ij 
-Ika lda( aid ■ lili.i. 
'mmk laaidiUa |1|I|«| af 
• ia m •< Mr. Ahra lad 

"CVia n.' OrDr.AIka. 

aa rw. Aatk ka. IL ^ m] 


- arai aida bUa- of Uaaila 
" wUHi aaa Um k« fciifcii|ita 
■ »Ua Ml >aM la lUi Vtf 
■d— .aftaf IfcalapaaiwJaal 
"Ihaibridia U dMt b 

- BvUd aU Uacola aad aaa 
••da ankbUap aT Vack, 

' aad Wab W_ da-tia^ 

* tiMt m» mm oivaa la kto| 
' tka tW ikk; a( 9l AIHB 

* aai 8**aa la Um im m^ 

* Mf arf aw ; ha aatt pvHA 
- aiili Dull nd Wala id |M 

* tW lanhuwic of OafMB 
audi W - 


•HI am ba a Hat <ai bb aia. 

"T'f^ Ha a_ im -ada 
•Uik>r°'Taanar ' 

till llllrf 
. MhaAadi 
» Oal ka kad la U> an lall^ 
-Ikt Hat aiaalid »a a Mi 
*.idaaaf J)l» 


of Britain. 


so that in some sort his holiness may thank himseIfA.D. 1594. 
for the demolishing of religious houses in England", viii. 

26. For the first breach is the greatest in effect : a precedent 
and abbeys having now lost their virginity, (diverted ?owed7 ^^ 
by the pope to other,) soon after lost their chastity, 
prostituted by the king to ordinary uses. And now 

the cardinal was busied in building his college, con- 
sisting of several courts, whereof the principal is so 
feir and large, it would have equalled any prince's 
palace, if finished according to the design, all the 
chambers and other offices being intended suitable to 
the magnificent hall and kitchen therein^. 

27. Indeed nothing mean could enter into thiswoheya 
man's mind, but of all things his structures werewnger"' 
most stately. He was the best harbinger that ever 

king Henry had, not only taking up beforehand, but 
building up beautiful houses for his entertainments, 
which when finished, as White-hall, Hampton-court, 
&c., he either freely gave them to the king, or 
exchanged them on very reasonable considerations^. 

n [Who granted him a bull, 
April 3, 1524, to suppress the 
monastery of 8. Frideswide in 
Oxford^ which was followed by 
many other bulls for other re- 
ligious houses and rectories 
that were impropriated. They 
are mentioned in Wood's Hist, 
of Colleges, I. p. 414. sq. See 
Bumet*s Ref. I. p. 45.] 

▼ [Wood's Annals, vol. II. 
p. 23. Hist, of Coll. I. 414.] 
'w [" That Hampton Court 
was either freely given by 
Wolsey or otherwise ex- 
changed on very reasonable 
terms, I shall grant as easily ; 
" but Whitehall was none of 
" hia to give, as belonging to 







" the archbishop in the right of 
'• the see of York, and then 
" called York place. But the 
" king's palace at Westminster 
being lately burnt, and this 
house much beautified by the 
" cardinal^ the king cast a 
" longing eye upon it ; and 
'* having attainted the cardinal 
** in a prosmunire, he seized 
" upon this house %vith all the 
" furniture thereof, as a part 
" of the spoil. Which when 
'* he found he could not hold, 
" as being the archbishop's 
" and not the cardinal's, he 
" sent an instrument unto him 
'* to be signed and sealed, for 
*' the sorrendry of his title 


6 The Ckimh /tistory wmK v. 

38. Some njr be intended Uiii hi* colkycn to be an 
vtii. unirpnily tn ma vadrenity, tn that it fthnuld have 
ilu>Hi thordti br itMtlf |iroftMsnn nf all ofte and tteiennw: 
' but «v niny bplK>vi> that all tlxio gn but )ir jpusM, aa 
Dnt knowing tlu' nuilinal'i mind, (wbo kmtw mi hia 
own.) ilallr ttahnting new dcrigna of m ag nWcW Me 
tw the vmerfeacy of every oceaiioa. Yet kt not 
till' ^«tn«as of his baildinft* ffwallow up io i 
th[> DKinory and commembtMo doTotion of 1 
Illti|^ arrhbMio]) itf C'antcrbunr, who fuundi*d Can- 
lerbnry ooUf>gu, taken in witb thu cardinal's mi- 
finislifd foundation. 

S9- However, too tart and bittir waa the ex- 
praanon of Uofliilphus (iualtcnn. a (jcttBan, friw 
oomparinf; thu canlirial'a imijert with hia ywfiww * 
maeo, aud of him, iiutituit ciJI^tHm tt tA»otril pufi- 
WUH. "ho bcftan a colU-jfi* and ttiiilt a kitrhen*." 
For had he not been avilly dvfunct, U-fon.' natnrallj 
dead, not a pane of f[laa^ nor pq of wood had beco 
wanting In that edifies. 

SO. More wit than truth waa in anothcr't return, 
who bt4ng denuuidt^l wbal lie Iboii^it ronermlng 
tlio amplenesa of this foumlatioD, nuidi< tbi* hanu>> 
nyniont annrer, Fmmdatitme nikU mmpUiu, ** Tliefo b 

"Mi MtatollMMis: aaaaot " llw wililiiAinii rf Ytk wUk 
" <MUM to Imm fannl k " aaoilM hamt hiloagiw | ihn 
" tftm Uh. iJw <wdiMl W " to Um m* of Nonridk aaJ 

" MMir aKWim itk JMhiUtf "mw «im y«riutMM».' 

*■ to Mukv fMA llw innt. \m H*%\im im " TW AmaT 4 

"cMMiidlbtdMn Md«hMMr p.B.p,S7- >w8Um^«8ar« 

•-•rYarktofliaiMlWMM of LmU. MlitiM by IT 

" Mto U« mJot tMr «M- fol. tl. |k. Mo. A 

" WON wil fai Am tmnt til kw t ■bova w wigii i i , , 

"wkidi bni«t sla^anl ud pdlf to 1m*» bm 4«i««d.) 
'- MwJi MiM bntMNd apm • [Fu. Acu, Itc raL IL 

« It to b« p. Jo>.] 



of Britain, 


"nothing more (or more stately) than this founda-A.D. 1524. 
*^ tion ;" whereas indeed had not he himself been viii. 
unexpectedly stripped of his estate, he had left more 
and better lands to this house, than king Henry 
conferred upon them, who conceiving church means 
fittest for Christ-church, exchanged many of their 
best manors for impropriations. 

31. This college did thrice change its name in Three 
seven years, accounting it no small credit thereunto, one college. 
that it always ascended, and was advanced in every 
alteration ; first called Cardinal's college, then King's 
college, and at last Christ's Church, which it retain- 

eth at this day. 

32. King Henry took just offence that the car- The pride 
dinal set his own arms above the king's, on the cardinal 
gate-house, at the entrance into the college^. ThiSoUi^rs. ^ 
was no verbal, but a real ego et rex meuSy excusable 

by no plea in manners or grammar ; except only by 
that (which is rather fault than figure) a harsh down- 
right hysteresis ; but to humble the cardinal's pride, 
some afterwards set up on a window a painted 
mastiff dog', gnawing the spade-bone of a shoulder of 

y [Wake s] Rex Platonicu8> 


* Idem, p. 45. [But Wake 

states that Wolsey himself 

placed it there : " quasi nee 

" sui immemor, nee parentelse 

'' pudens." A similar reproach 

was also cast upon Wolsey on 

another occasion. The king 

licensing him to "\\q in his 

'* mannor of Richmond" upon 

his resigning Hampton Court, 

the common people, and such as 

had seen how much Henry VII. 

esteemed that place, exclaimed, 

*' See a butcher's dog lie in the 

" mannor of Richmond !" Fox, 
Acts, &c. II. p. 244. Dr. Fiddes 
however, in his Life of Cardinal 
Wolsey, p. 5, discredits the 
tale of the cardinal being a 
butcher's son : and observes 
upon this passage of our au- 
thor, that *• there is now over 
" one of the windows in the 
•• front of Christ Church di- 
•• rectly over the cardinal's 
^ arms a dog gnawing a bone 
*' but not the spade-bone of a 
•• shoulder of mutton. Yet 
*' that figure seems to be placed 
" there by mere accident, there 


ne Ckurth History 


A.ii. iti4.Tnuttotu to mind the canliiial of Xiia extraction, Unn^ 
* vin'^ the Hon of a butcher, it l)ein;j utterly improbable 

(that Mome have fancieti) that that picture \%a« }>lare<l 
then* bj the caniinars own ap|Nuntment, to be U\ 
him a monitor of humilitv. 






I'* it;. 


Jiihfi liyi(il'Ni.* 
Or. M««iirr> 
Jiilin flljrrr 
Kta-Kani C '<!««>. 
Kkfuinl MvtUl. 
(^ruTifr r«jprw. 
TV«iuu SunpMm. 

THiiatM i 't*9fmr. 
Jiilitt l*im. 
T<il»v Malliev. 
WiUuun JjuiM**. 
TImicium Katjrv. 
Jiihii Ktrn«t. 
WtUiAiii (l^«iil«vn. 
KirlianI CVvfwt. 
Itnaii I>«i|tfitt. 
[.Niniurl FHl. 
i!4l«i«nl Kr)ii«J*l*. 
«luhn 0«ru. 

Hiskop^ I Utntjmcimt, 

KM-li*nl Tov. 
ThnraM iUA- 


Thtwn. C4 


Jiibn l*trrt, 


Mrrf^rt Wf^u 
|»)iAJtn|C, bi- 
•Invfi i4 He- 

tii»htifiof l)ur> 

Km h. C oH^rC, 

tHt)w>|» f/ Nar> 

«i N h 
\l iIIiAtn l*MT«. 


mmI UVIU. iHipptt, 

(niM> NVhoi. 
•cm, mtr uf 

Moo/, in 
and fur. 
ni%hinif a 
fair li l»rarv 

l^mmtd irrtl^rs. 

>ir Plult|» ^«l. 

William' 1*4 

Itilvrt I Ml 

*' Immiij u|ii>n the •aim* roiiti. 
** iiianl Itm* utth it iki*\«ral 
•• iilluT Biitto at pr^n^•r ili»- 
*' taitct*^. iiitoiidetl arci»rtlin}; to 
•• X\w arvliittvturo at tiiiu* 
*• i%*f tin* cTi'^Atrr il«ti»rati.»i» t»f 
*• ilif IhiiUImi^." Sit* a!*** C'a- 
%«*iHit%h L ti* •! \Vo!%*'\. !».'»'>, 

» [Stf iho K-tt4*ra.|Kit<*tit ot 
the kiii^ apiHiiiitiii); J«»lin \\\f,' 
lion to thi* oilici* of clt*cui m 
thi« ci»t!t*p*. 4ii«l John Ro|«*r. 
Johnt '«*ttt«ti>ril. KichjU'dC*n»ke, 
Hichartl C urrcnt. and Wilium 
Frrfklidiii. A% |tn»ff"«M>n of thciu 
l*V7 * HoUrt I'ortrr, J«ilio 
IlaaUiigB. TbucnAS Cuaimt, 

CKHT. XVI. of Britain. 29 

Here I omit the many eminent writers still sur-A. 0.1524- 
viving, Dr. Meriek Casaubon, and Dr. George ^ viii.'^ 
Moriey, both no less eminent for their sound judg- ' 

ments than patient sufferings ; Dr. Barton Holiday, 
and Dr. Jasper Main, who have refreshed their 
severer studies with poetry, and sallies into pleasant 
learning, with many more in this numerous founda- 
tion. Beholding, as for his wealth to king Henry 
the Eighth, so for a great part of the wit and 
learning thereof to his daughter queen Elizabeth, 
whose schoolboys at Westminster become as good 
schoohnen here, sent hither (as to Trinity college in 
Cambridge) by her appointment ; so that lately there 
were maintained therein, one dean, eight canons, 
three public professors of divinity, Hebrew, and 
Greek, an hundred and one students, eight chap- 
lains, eight singing men, an organist, eight choristers, 
twenty-four almsmen ; at this present students of all 
sorts, with officers and servants of the foundation, to 
the number of two hundred twenty-three. 

33. Kjiow that John Hygdon, first dean of thisPer»e- 

«« t, cudon in 

college, was a great persecutor of poor protestants, the cart- 
as by the ensuing catalogue will appear. I^ ^^' 

^^ John Gierke. Bayley. 

John Frythe. -f- John Friar. 
Henry Sumner. Goodman. 

ward Leyghton, Henry Wil- in Wood's Hist, of Colleges, 

Ijams, Joim Robyns, and Ro- I. p. 437.] 

belt Wakefeld, bachelors of c [Wood reckons seventy- five 

theology, as secular canons, bishops to the year 1783.] 

18 July, [153a.] Cat. ofTran- ** Such whose names are 

scripts for the Foedera,p. 174.] noted with a cross, did after- 

^ [Moore*s name is not men- wards turn zealous papists, 
tioned among the list of deans 

Tht Churrh ItUtuty 

>6 11-1*7 

^ NMbntu Ilftrmiui. 
+ MifducJ Drunumi''. 
William UMt^'. 

[Thaauu] Lkmnej. 
RiohanI Cos'. 
Iti«)ianl Tsvomar *. 

AH ihnte wcir questionct) for their ivIigioD. hinnfr 
out into a [iriaon hi a (U<u|) cave unltT i^ntuiMla 
U'horv tlio mlt Ash of the t-ollcgi' wu ki*|it, Um 
irtdich whi-n.-«)f iiuuk* tioinc »>t tlii'in tu Hkr mmiq after* 
anil nthcrs omv|niI with grrat diflicHill}-. l^renMr 
mu exccllnillj- nkilkHl io music, on which i 
ho escaptNl. itioti^li Tt>b4.>m<>ntt7' accuwd, the c 
|>1<ttillng for him, that bo was bat a miuieiiui, ti 
■ftcrwanl hu repented, to hare aet ttuMi 
manr |Ktjiuh rltttiea^. 

34. \\v must xuA. forirct that all in the f 
cntalopie, whu«e Chriotian namca are cxfM 
' wrre originally C'ambriilge men, and iaritnl I 
conlinal im (>romlM< of prefennviit, to plant I 
Ibiinclatian; houdu >*lon.-i)C(.% a DumtuJcan, i 
Akon* and nuuijr ninrv famiHtN for thi-ir lei 
which at tfala time n-mnvitl to OxfunI, i 
both wHb good hfinun^ and true religiua*. 
W-A-T-* 35. Know abo this. John llygdon, flivt deu. «M 

' [Strrpc c^k luB Joka. p. j. 4. Pukvr, 5.] 

Life i>r ParW. |>.6i » •!» ' [r<n. AMi.Sm. Il.p.)04-] 

don L'kiu* Uo AntM|. CUteh. ' Cuu <U Antiq. Ctac 

p. IO].] Aad. [p. SOI. vd. 156I, 

• [A mbIou BfoltMnU, af- ' 
' riaphhi M Abbs 

lit dU aboM I j)} oMvMidtRUMupCnMMr 

lit dM aboM isn iilikHiaiHliliiilii 

or icM. tmi wMMMMtdM^ lad hilMr. tbta ■ 

•nUUop Pkriwr. SVTP**' ■> Cm^MV' •» I 

hAar. p. 7.] CruwNv. p, j. Fofcaibl 

'[AlbtwwdtfayMpurKlf.] AadbtaidntlMMir 

t[AthMtw»nMiarflM«igf iito. 

ibMt pOTMM b |[iTM b; Fos. Clwr 

b hb A<«^ fcc II. p. yay Bm CkriMM* Lkhvi\ 

^ ia Ml] 


of Britain. 


he, of whom cardinal Wolsey (when fallen into dis-A.D. 1524. 
tress) did borrow two hundred pounds, therewith to viii. 

pay and reward some of his poorest servants, giving 
them money on this condition, that hereafter they 
should serve no subject but only the king himselfj, 
as if this had been suscipere gradum SimeoniSy for 
those who so long had attended on a lord-cardinal. 
But this happened many years after ; we return to 
this proud prelate, while he flourished in the height 
of his prosperity. 

36. Their heads will catch cold, which wait bare wdsey 
for a dead pope's triple-crown. Wolsey may be an waitbiginto 
instance hereof, who, on every avoidance of St.*^®"^ 
Peter's chair, was sitting down therein, when sud- 
denly some one or other clapped in before him. 
Weary with waiting, he now resolved to revenge 
himself on Charles the emperor, for not doing him 
right, and not improving his power, in preferring 
him to the papacy, according to his promises and 
pretences. He intends to smite Charles through the 
sides of his aunt, Katharine queen of England, en- 
deavouring to alienate the king's affections from her^. 
And this is afiirmed by the generality of our his- 
torians, though some of late have endeavoured to 
acquit Wolsey, as not the first persuader of the 
king's divorce*. 

J Wake's Rex Platonicus, 

P- 43- 

^ [See Antisandenis^ p. 10. 

Mach unfortunately of the his- 
tory of this divorce has been 
taken by Fuller, Herbert and 
Bnmet from this very apocry- 
phal book. It is written in 
the shape of a dialogue, and 
pretends to be the report of a 

conference held at Venice by 
some Roman catholics, touch- 
ing the divorce of Henry VIII. 
It was printed at Cambridge 
in 1593, 4to. with the initials 
of A. L. Its credit appears to 
be of about the same value as 
that of the book against which 
it was written.] 

1 [Fox, Acts, &c. II. p. 326. 


TAr Chunk Wtton/ aooi t. 

S7. In<lc<ed ho was hcholilinff, fur the ftnt biat 
tlicnitf. to tho SiiBiiiartiji tlu-inwlTp*. For, when tbe 
LmIt Marr wu tit)<U>n>4) in marriaffe to Philif\ prtnee 
nf S[«in, tliu SpaaUk amlNMvlijni m>4>i»04] to make 
wniM* ilifficultT tbrreof. and to doubt bi-r nttntctimi, 
M iM^den on a luotlirr rurmerly iitamod to bar 
liiwliand'ii rldiT brotht-r. Wu1m*v now put tb» scniple 
iulo the hfad of bi>tho|i Uitigtancl. ilic kinfr's cdo* 
ftvBor, and he iosmuatv] tbi> totnp into the king'i 
roiwrictK^' : advbiiiig him hrn-anor to abtliuD fima 
the rompuiT of hiit (|ti«>n, to whom ho wai utUaw- 
fullr iiuuTJiil. Addiii]; morPOTcr. thai after a divurw 
proeuntl (which the p«i|K> in jiuUre could not dM^ 
tlw* kin^ might diapoae bia a&«iioai 

F ass 

BbtoM'* Rtfbnn. I. p. 3. 
It M Mnr *«TTgHMmU)r ina. 
Mdad tliU WdlNjr wu oot tfc« 
H^orMftUbmalc. Aisnrd. 
tag i> WAh Bomrt (Elirt. 
Bt L a. 76.^ tW Um Ua. 
Ur ^ BAwwn^b At 

Ofuft rVBOCdf WW 

mtnaoav of Dr. 



pM. -IlMTChMtdl] 

" ant ST." u h M iM H 
ia Ui MS. Bh flf A 1 

iiiiinMlawUwbMfcofrflia. Mm) - tlM b oaa mU Aft I 
oola (Laagfaad) £1 M Mg' ** bUion (HmI ruawar na ^is 
■Ml ihHi iiflw 1 bat t£i " UaibihUaMtur; aalA^ 

CttHi iiflMl bat tfca 
J Mag BOMMd Willi ibaai 

» fer Am 

ta ttMt ikMa. Thk k ■fan 

ffmdr tka Mwaat wUdi U. 

wJtAglTairftiifc aHUM-la 

kh lifc «l We 


wvtk'a wt*. Bm Falbr hi* 

Q Wooold -Bott, «■ 

• lircd to kaow of Uai tba 
hnsk tbe BMitar aftar llM 


Mt «l WsIht. p. 104. •• Ui 
ep.i*i.MdDr.W«f^ "ddi 

ritlrahu mmAm of WoWy '• 

laariag •• !*■> tU ■■• Mnpit 

■' aatO Im had won Ua M alw 
hk aoaMBt, tt wkM hb 
ddap W aid famkhk 1^ 
- MtfHidMMBMdaAwwwiki'* 
Nm awwd ia VU>f^% Ub 
■f Mr TlwaM llet*. a. )k 
ffifiri ad. iBt), aad Cb«m> 
dkfc. Ufc of Wolwy. p. uu 
Sw aka liib «r ndwr. p.**.] 


of Britain. 


pleased^. And here Wolsej had provided hun a a. 0.1547- 
second wife, viz. Marguerite, duchess of Alen9on, vnL 
sister to Francis king of France ; though heayens 
reserved that place, not for the mistress but her 
maidy I mean Anna Boleyn, who (after the return of 
Mary the French queen for England) attended in 
France for some time on this ladj Marguerite^. 

88. Tinder needs no torch to light it, the least The king 


spark will presently set it on flame ^ No wonder if embr»oeth 


>B Qln 1522 when the em- 
peror Charles was engaged in 
war with Francis the French 
king, and found it to his ad- 
vantage to keep on good terms 
with Henry, he came personally 
to England when a new league 
was agreed upon between them, 
and it was sworn on both sides, 
that the emperor should marry 
oer verba de pnrsenii the 
lady Mary, the king's only 
child by Katharine, when they 
came <^ age, under pain of ex- 
communication and forfeiture 
of 100,000/. But five years 
after, when the emperor had 
succeeded in his projects and 
was desirous of uniting Portu- 
gal to his dominions, he not 
only broke off his sworn al- 
liance with the king of En- 
gland, but did it with an heavy 
imputation on the lady Mary, 
asserting that she was illegiti- 
mate, and bom in an unlawful 
marriage. See Fox, Acts, &c. 
II. p. 326. Burnet's Ref. I. 
p. 9. The same demur was 
also made by the French am- 
bassador Gabriel de Orammont 
bishop of Tarbes, in 1537. 
Upon what grounds see Bur- 
net, ib. p. 73. See also the 
State Papers, vol. I. p. 197, 


where Wolsey in a letter to the 
king details a conversation 
with the archbishop of Canter- 
bury of the knowledge of the 
divorce coming to the ears of 
the queen, and how he had told 
her that nothing had been done 
except for discovery of the 
truth ''proceeding upon occa- 
'• sion given by the French 
" partie, and doubts moved 
•* therein by the bishop of 
" Tarbes." See also p. 199.] 
^ [Appeal, &c. p. II. p. 59.] 
o [The first dispatch upon 
this business was directed by 
the cardinal to sir Gregory 
Cassali the king's ordinary am- 
bassador at Rome, dated 5 Dec. 
1527. (See the heads of it in 
Burnet's Hist. Ref. I. p. 90, 
and entire in the coll. N. 3. 
p. 19.) A dispensation was 
granted about the end of the 
same month, for the cardinal to 
hear and discern the cause. 
This however being deemed in- 
sufficient, on Feb. 10, 1528, 
Stephen Gardiner and Edward 
Fox were dispatched to RomQ 
to obtain a bull with all the 
strongest clauses which could 
be imagined (Burnet, I. p. 
104. Strype's Mem. I. p. 89.): 
by their management Camp^io 

M Tkr ObarA HUtory KNW V. 

A.D.ijiT.kiDf Hemy greedily rcMRitifd ttw motloo. MJb 

'*^ii7 ime be nnicb wanUv). and ■ ycnuig female mam tm 
wbom to beget itP. Aa far qneca Kalhadne^ Iw 
rmtbt-f rvwpeeied than aflertcd ; ratbf r hoooared, tbaa 
loTuil lier. She had gut an habit of miacmnyfa^ 
acareo cuiable in one of her af(p, intimated in one of 
the kiogfa priratc pa)»pr«, «« moHnu imcm r wUi § \. 
Yet pablicty ho dl-vit laid oitber Eralt or defeekjo 
bcr diargt' ; that, not dialike of her 
tiona, but only princtplea of pom 
teem to put him upon endeaToon of a dnrofve. 
• rf» 99. Tho buKJnoaa is hnmglit into the court of 
""^ Roni«. tburo to be ibjcidMl by |Mip(> Clemtnit tlM 
•eventh. But the [x>[m.* nt this time waa not mi 
jmiit bring a prisoner to tlie emperor, wbo eoi^ 
■lantly kept a guard about h[^l^ So that ooe ^Mfy 
mU, it «M DOW moat true, P^ta mm foletl trrm% 
"The pope could not wander," aa eoopod np aad 

mm affotelsd ImM* is «> ta " ni 

It^ail to tiy t£« vilUHr ol " hum aboirt 

tk iwriMw ia flaniaactioa ** ptnlj of bar 

wkh <Mdte) W«b>r. wIm dk - tiMM. ud liT mmm it Hat 

kjrad ko"***" p(o««*<lfa« lU- " 1 «iNiU NMMw hn M liMl* 

Ikar tai Ottob* iBUoirfa^ - m I nur mm.~ Sm ^ 

** Mag ion vmad W t£a Mcntwy Vwt»\ Lmtm to Wfll> 

" aoM.' weoHiag to C«vm- ht la llie mmm Vm\Utlntm, 

da.Luw«fw«iw7.] a.1.} 

r [la tW OoOMtiMi of SUU 4 [CvdiMl Wokn i« b 

ftyw^ 4t«. I lie ml. I. p. 1, lantr to Jolui C«Mali iW ^k 

h a IMMV to Wobn from tU ba—Jar'i hrMlMr. ia »kM W 

Um, rdadH hb mj gnai Wh^p iwikM aU tka «b». 

aaoMjr w ha*« «Mlwr day. mmMb wUck ■ mwm mi mm 

la dHb btaw W mm. " T«* adad aoaU iavwi. to iadM* 

** tUafi tb«« W wkiBh b« to llw pop* w KTaat iW kJMs 

*■ iMnt tliat tiMT mam ma at Jwiwi. vi^[ m mmmm 

* tUitiattowiWtojrBNai;. fwy daiiW to dkn; ifin^l 

"mU: tk« OM i*. dMt I Innt de am iad it ia mj a/ fc 

" tfct fBMM ■; Witt bt with kiM'a tftwn. rW Ownm'* 

- (UM. iW MUr b Uw <4kr R«t Cull. nJ. I p^ j;.] 

- fMat why I aai to laih to ' [BanM't Ref. I. f. »«.] 

cBHT. XTi. of Britain. 85 

confined. Yet^ after some delays, the pope at last, a. d. 1528. 
to satisfy the king, and clear his own credit, dis- ^Viil7 
patched a commission to two cardinals, Wolsey, and 
Campegins, an Italian", at London to hear and deter- 
mine Uie matter. 

40. Campegins was the junior cardinal, and there- The ch». 
fore the rather procured by Wolsey to be his col- campigiui. 
league m this business, whose pride would scarce 
admit an equal, but abhorred a superior, that any 
foreign prelate should take place of him in England ^ 
Ab Wolsey's junior, so was he none of the most 
mercurial amongst the conclave of cardinals, but a 
good heavy ioian, having ingenium par negotio^ nei- 
ther too much nor too little, but just wit enough 
for the purpose the pope employed him in. Wolsey 
might spur Campegins, and Campegins would bridle 
Wolsey, keeping them both strictly to the letter 
of their instructions. Wolsey hearing Campegins 
was come to Calais, with an equipage not so court- 
like as he could have desired, and loath that his own 
pomp should be shamed by the other^s poverty, 
caused him to stay there, till he sent him more 
splendid accommodations (at least in outward shew) 
and then over he came into England. But see the 
spite of it. As the cardinal's mules passed Cheap- 
side, out of unmliness they chanced to break the 
trunks they carried, which were found full of nothing 
but emptiness, which exposed his mock-state to the 
more scorn and contempt". Empty trunks, the 

> [At that time bishop of XIV. p. 29.] 

Salisbury^ which bishopric the ^ [Fox, Acts , . p. 243.] 

king gave him in the year ^ QFox, ib., says that the 

1524 at such time as he was treasure of the cardinal caused 

the pope's ambassador here in no small scorn and laughter, 

England. Cavendish, Life of " especially of boys and girls, 

Wolsey, 208. Rymer's Feed. " whereof some gathered up 




nW CAmk* Uiitary 

Hrdy emblcni of tliif oanHnkTi legmcy, coming hither 
with intent. «ih1 lilstniotJon to do little, and gutng 
hoDcv hftTtng done notlUiig at alL Howertr k coint 
ia •olemnljr odlcd, uid the eudinab (baviqg int 
read their oommiMkm) wt the ma e l Tei to *— "^hw 
the matter. 

41. It «a« fiwhioiulile omongit the faeatbeiu at 
the celebnUiun of their niiti'imrr aolenuUtiea, wUefa 
n^umod but onn> in nn bundrcd jeam, to have an 
boialil |>ubllclj tn proclaim. "Come liither to behold 
** what juu never «w befon*, and oeTcr ore Ukdj to 
** He again." But bfn> liafpened nich a ipecCade 
(in a great room call^-d tlio [mriiament-cbainber faa 
Dlark-Friam) m never before, or after. 
Kngluiil, \\x. king Heitrr summoned in hit 
lanil to appear beforu two jud](«a, ttie one W< 
diieetljr his nitgect by birtli; the other hfai nifajerC 
oeoaiionally b^ bin piffomient. C'iint|>t>puji being 
lately modu bisbnp of Silinbunr. SimimiiDod. ha 
appeared peivoaallr, and the (|uc(^i did the Uk« the 
fint day, but afterwards b«>tb by their doctoci ". 
M, For Um Mi«. For tbo qoMo. 

gilh flMi|Mon *. Jaha Ball ', Km. WmI, W^dtOj^i 
INrtarand Jain Ti^r«vWL John Fiiber. UihG^ U 

RoohMter; liw. 8tM- 

-piMM of 

nber faa 

•• * BikoU Mv is MT lord ar- -• im m trWrn te hk mn 

•• AHTMmMivr'BMCBvn. " wkbvMi Ttrntim Bw, 

«* Irik a nn M9mwM ufa, " dm IWtli pW** 

AmOJ haw bm ml— iiJt n.. > (Pui. 

«t««l M WiifcfcMlli. ari m Lvd llrt 


ArtB. Ace. ILp laS. 

ii>^i iim. Vin. 

f.ifii. Ilarsrt'* K«f. L p. 141. 
lair* Lifr of pMbv, p. 74.] 

csKT. XVI . of Britain. 37 

Here the queen orose^ and after her respects dealt to a.d. 1599. 
the cardinals, in such manner as seemed neither un- ^ vin!^ 
civil to them, nor unsuiting to herself, uttered the 
following speech at the king's feet, in the English 
tongue, but with her Spanish tone, a clip whereof 
was so far from rendering it the less intelligible, 
that it soundeth the more pretty, and pleaisant to 
the bearers thereof. Yea, her very pronunciation 
pleaded for her with all ingenious auditors, pro- 
viding her some pity, as due to a foreigner far from 
her own country. But hear her words : 

« Sir, 
** I desire you to take some pity upon me, and Q"««^ . 
** do me justice and right : I am a poor woman, a her speech. 
** stranger, bom out of your dominions, having here 
** no indifferent council, and less assurance of friend- 
ship. Alas! wherein have I offended, or what 
cause of displeasure have I given, that you intend 
thus to put me away ? I take God to my judge, 
I have been to you a true and humble wife, 
ever conformable to your will and pleasure, never 
gainsaying any thing wherein you took delight, 
without all grudge or discontented countenance; 
** I have loved all them that loved you, howsoever 
" their affections have been to me-ward ; I have borne 
you children, and been your wife now this twenty 
years ; of my virginity and marriage-bed, I make 
God and your own conscience the judge, and if it 

▼ [Wolsey's chaplain, after- places Dr. Ridley. Hist. Ref. 

wards bishop of Chichester.] I. p. 1 46. So also does Caven- 

^ [Afterwards bishop of dish. Life of Wolsey, p. 213. 

Worcester. Cavendish, ib. p. Several other names are men- 

21a.] tioned by Hall, Life of Fisher, 

» [Instead of West. Burnet p. 33.] 

D 3 



Tht ChvrA Hutory wmk *. 

A.D. igiv " ntlKVwido be pmvod. I am conUmt to be pat from 
' Till " you with nhamo. The king jroiir father, tn kls 
" time for windom we« knnwn tn Iw a Rerood S(4o- 
** Dion ; and Fenlinandn of Spain my hthcr, wv 
" cnuiited the wJMitit UDoog their kings ; rotild thcj 
** In thia matrh be fto fiir oventeen, nr an* then now 
" wiser and more K-aniL-d men. (hitn at that tine 
" wviv? Surely, it neemeth wtinderful to me, tkat 
" my marriap* after twenty yean Rhuuld be tbni 
" called in quotion, with new invention agabut mc^ 
" who never intendod buC bcmoity. Alaa, air ! I im 
** I am wmnged. having DO oonneil to qnak for we, 
- but Buch u are jonr ntl^eeU, and cannot be laBl- 
" lerent upon my part. Tht*Rrforp I mnat hombly 
" baaeec h you. even in charity to irtay Ihio mane. 
■* oDtil I have adTi<^c and couq»*1 from Hpain ; if 
" Dot. your graee's phiaiiro be done '." 

This her Kpcc<eb ended, Ae departed the eoart. 

and thuugb often reenlled. wotdd not return : wbcfv- 

opon ahe was prooooiiMd ooatuniaf-ious. ftlany 

•uding the frentocH <4 her njMrtt, and more 

T BbmJ, (hi IIm. VIU. a. (lf«a nmOm mifaa of iWa 

id. |. 69. TUi ifMch MfM MMdi. ofaMrvfa^ OiMk wm 

Uub cIm l^a ■■ ■ hritoxal delinrad la Pr»di. wU Ite 

at Hm ^Mva's wmnh m Ca* W lud '•—'-—' h m wM m 

" ' Uh ml WalMjr. o. 1m nmU hum Um aam if 

I h**e mat hmm Mm oardiaal f'trntfi^ 

tmy MS., mm io 1 Bmrmt }m npi 

flma whaM daeUadaiifakMi ■!«■ Aa j 

Ct..| t. 

I Of !■■ ■■•«■ • wmmat tm 

[ *mi\A. Uh J Wttmy. 

K •i4.bMl h**e Mt faMB I 

m m AMmr »r ms., » d 

■ lUik tkat SpMrf. Aow »1 

W WMmmifM K iwMkhwl 

[^ BMcb H h ttM imD* atl« 

I fat b wadiMca wiUi 

I <rfifawiiyi.>hi 

I Ifa Hums, fat wtMwd 

[ MOOT. Aad tU> b midi 

■MM iiMbahki fa ifa Ml 

MM «r Hall. A» fa« I 

Hv of tfaw • 

a/R«r III. P.S9. Ul 

«4. 1, p 

fat la ■»wbHiiw Willi %hm Traetk. vnl. I. 11. 33, 

of Itaw Jayi. •farf4 Rfjr of tkit u»d oiIm 

w te iw d tJw sttanrf at tlw trial. > . , 

Ami tUa la raaJa w J fron a dHacatil watc* 


of Britain, 


oondemning the stoatness of her stomach, as every a. d. 1519. 
one stood affected. viu. 

49. The most pmigent passage in this her speech, Thetting 
was her appeal to the king's conscience, that he["J^ 
found her a virgin, when first coming to her bed ^ 
Her words gained the more credit, because coming 
from one generally known to be spare of speech, and 
such may be rationally presumed to take best aim 
at the truth, who so seldom discharge in discourse ; 
the rather, because she saying it, and the king not 
gainsaying it, many interpreted his silence herein 
consent. Whilst others imputed the king's silence 
to his discretion, because both of them were parties 
who though they knew the most, were to speak the 
least in their own cause, remitting It to the trial by 
the testimony of others*. 

« [Of this however, see Bur- 
net's Ref. I. p. 68. Cavendish 
Snts a long and very impro- 
able speech in the mouth of 
the king, in which he is fol- 
lowed by Hall in his Life of 
Fisher, and other Roman ca- 
tholic writers.] 

• ['• Upon May 31, the king 
** by a warrant under the great 
** seal gave the legates leave to 
** execute their commission 
upon which they sat the 
same day." (Burnet's Ref. 
I. p. 143.) After the usual 
oaths had been taken, the le- 
gates "ordered a peremptory 
*' citation of the king and 
" queen to appear on the i8th 
'* of June between nine and 
" ten o'clock, and so the court 
" adjourned. The next session 
" was on the iSth of June, 
" where the citation being re- 



" turned duly executed, Ri- 
'* chard Sampson dean of the 
'* chapel, and Mr. John Bell, 
" appeared as the king's 
'^ proxies. But the queen ap- 
*' peared in person, and did 
*' protest against the legates 
*' as incompetent judges, al- 
" leging that the cause was 
*' already advocated by the 
** pope, and desired a compe- 
** tent time in which she might 
" prove it. The legates as- 
'^ signed her the list, and so 
" adjourned the court till then." 
Burnet, ib. On the aistthe 
king and queen were present 
in person, when the queen 
spoke (if we may credit our 
chroniclers, as Stowe, p. 543. 
HoUingshed, p. 907. God- 
win's Annals, p. 127.) in the 
manner here related. The 
court then adjourned to the 

D 4 

TAt CUmrtk Uutorf WMC t. 

l^^m- 44. A« for the qoero'ti rooiMcl, (wbich, ihoogh 

Till. MBJguM to her, appear itot dcart; kcoepled hf hci; 

rt OS chown mthpr by nthem for her. Uuui by hv fcr 

''^ hemeir.) I finr) at tliin present little of memmt 

pl(.4ulo«). or jierfDnupd hr tbum. Only biihnp Ftakir 

mffinnnl. that no more nrvdcd to be aaid for the 

vmliditj of tbo inarriafre, than. Whom 6W AaCA 

joined togtAer, let no man pul atmuter. A ooit 

true {MMition in iliclf, if ho oouM have dearrd the 

applw^ion thcrpof to his roral rlient, bat Aoe mkt 

praianditm : the contnuy, " that God never jobmi 

- tbem toge^er," being vebementljr tugged lay htr 

■dvermriea *. 

4S. Not withstand infT the qaocn'a ahaeoee^ the 
rourt pronx'dptl : and fimt the king*! proeCocs put ia 
their cxceptionH a^iwt both bull and breve of pofe 
Juliuii the wvoni). dixpetwing with the king^ mil 
rtago with hi* hmther'a wife; riz. 

I, Tliat they were n<*t to be fonod amongii the 
original reoonls in Itonie. 

ii. That they were not extant in CbartaphytadB^ 

Rcf. I. p. I jj,), fne»t^mp m 
tobcr. Mbr* 

I chaliMi for 

•ahmwd aU the 
• tflltlM> iKoT Oe- 

I tW 51I1 «f 


a^jowwd Aafut witk 

*; IW Uai'i aau>l n> k (Br Wolajr 
WltMk] Omm loth* Mik. UftofW^lMy.l 

CM ll» <Ikrf 

WolajrUaafe «■ 

41k. UbclVilmj.f.aU'] 

cswT. XVI. of Britain. 41 

amongst the king of England's papers (most con- a.d. 1529. 
cemed therein) but found only in Spain, amongst the vm. 
writings of a state officer there. 

iii. That in them it was falsely suggested, as if the 
same were procured at the instance of Henry, prince 
of Wales, who then, not being above thirteen years 
old, was not capable of such intentions ^. 

iv. That the date thereof was somewhat discre- 
pant from the form used in the court of Rome. 

46. After this, many witnesses on the king's sidesecreum^ 
were deposed : and though this favour is by custom J^jj; 
indulged to the English nobility, to speak on their J^^y '*• 
honours ; yet the canon law taking no notice of this 
their municipal privilege, and for the more legal 
validity of their testimonies, required the same on 
oath, though two dukes, one duchess, one marquis, 
many lords and ladies gave in their depositions. 
These attested, 

i. That both were of sufficient age, prince Arthur 
of fift;een years, the lady Katharine somewhat elder. 

ii. That constant their cohabitation, at board and 
in bed. 

iii. That competent the time of the same, as full 
five months. 

iv. That entire their mutual affection, no difference 
being ever observed betwixt them. 

V. That Henry, after his brother's death, by an in- 
strument produced in court, and attested by many 
witnesses, reftised to marry her, though afterwards 
altered by the importunity of others^. 

c [See Wolsey's letter to the were started by the cardinal.] 
king. State Papers, vol. I. ^ [Printed in Burnet's Ref. 

p. 201. From which it appears book 11. No. 2, of the CoUec- 

that these and other objections tion. See also vol. I. p. 71.] 

4£ The Church Hisiary Moi v. 

A Ujtu^. y\^ That, by several expremiom of prinoe ArtlmrX 
%'nf it appeare«l he had carnal knowledge of the lady 

The tiedN cif private |>enon8 are comfiaflKd with 
curtatniit of princes veile<l also with canopiea, to con-* 
real the pawtagefi therein, to which modeitT ad- 
niitti'tli no witneMCfi. Pity it \% that any, with 
Pharaolu hIiouM discover what is exchanged betwixt 
Isaac and Ilcbekah; all which are best stifled io 
secresy and silence. However, such the nature of 
the pn^si-nt cause, that many privacies were therein 


A^irw4 47. C)tNK*rve by the way, that, whereas it 

gi*ni*rally alh^ginl in favour of the queen, that prinre 
Arthur hail not carnal knowledge of her; becanae, 
soon after his marriage, his consumptiontsh body 
MH^minl unfit for such |ierfonnances ; this was r^ 
tfirti^l by ti*Htimonies on the king's side, his wit* 
n<*sM('s ilc*|MMiing, that generally it was reported and 
twIifviNi, the princ<* im|iainHl his health, by his over 
lilNTal imynient of duf lifuevolence. 

An«ti4in 4H. It wa« ex|Hrt4Hl that the canliiuils should 
now pnNH*<»«l to a definitive Hent4>nc(\ according as 
mnttrnt wi»n» nllogi'^1 and provctl unto them*. TTie 
rathi*r lM*cauH4* it ww* g«*nerally re|M>rt<Hl, that Oun- 
|M*gio brtiu^lit over with him a ImiII d(vn»tal, to pn>> 
nounn* a nullity of the niat(*h, if he saw just cause 
for the turner Which rumour (like the silken fly 
when*with anglem clH*at the tiMh<-*i) was only given 
out to t4*nipt king Ihniry to a longi*r patience, and 

* llumrt't Hr(. I. n. 149 ] hare i*nfif(miidrd it willi an- 

' [ It citinnt U* «loiitA<Hi but (>tlH*r pnirrYed in the (ottos 

that t Ani|M*Kio du\ fifing a bull Librmrr. Srr Biimrt** Rcf. 1. 

iaio l^gktMl. AillMMigli Mjmc p. ten/, it6. tq.] 

cEMT.xvi. of Britain, 48 

quiet expectation of the OTent. But by this time a. d. 1529. 
queen E^tharine bad privately prevailed with the viu. 
pope, to advoke the cause to Rome, as a place of 
more indifferency for a plea of so high concernment. 
Whereupon Campegio took his leave of the king, 
and returned into Italy 9. 

49« The papists tell us, that cardinal Campegio Loire letten 
sent over before him some amatorious letters, which Hm^kept 
passed written with the king's own hand, betwixt yj^^^ 
him and his dear Nan, as he termed her. These are 
said to import more fiuniliarity than chastity betwixt 
them, and are carefully kept, and solemnly shewn in 
the Vatican to strangers, especially of the English 
nation, though some suspect them to be but forged \ 
For though the king had wantonness enough to write 
such letters, yet Anna Boleyn had wit and wariness 
too much to part with them. It would more ad- 
vance the popish project, could they shew any return 
from her to the king accepting his offers, which they 
pretend not to produce. Our authors generally agree 
her denials more inflamed the king's desires. For 
though perchance nothing more than a woman was 
wished by his wild fancy, yet nothing less than an 
husband would content her conscience. In a word, 
so cimning she was in her chastity, that the fiEtrther 
she put him from her, the nearer she fastened his 
affections unto her. 

50. Still was the king's cause more delayed in the No haste to 
court of Rome. If a melancholic schoolman can king*! cause 
spin out a speculative controversy with his pro's^^^"^' 
and con% to some quires of paper, where the profit 

K [On the 19th of July the net. Ref. I. p. 153.] 
pope sent a messenger with the ^ [Published in the Harleian 

aTocation to England with a Mis<^lany. See also Tytler's 

letter '* to the cardinal." Bur- Life of Henry VIII., p. 245.] 

A.n.ijtv-i" Hule to 
"vut^ fyinfr hk 

CAurrA Hittary 

i aom to himwir. i 

• [»[' 



~ wonder if the eamiift« at Rome (tho»e euni 
Uts of (leftlirf) roiild lonj(tI»*n out a 
high conrrnirtH-nt, luid »o jrw^*'? b«iHI( 
thcin. For. Ktiglixh ^iIvit now itm nim-nt, and war 
^ilii volant in tlir pofK''!) oourta. v-hithtrnioh niaaHa 
of iiiouf?j dmlly were tn[u<|>ortL*d, Kngland knew net 
oerteinlj what waa expeoded, nor Romr what rc>- 
oejved bcrolD. Yf», for mtcq fcan wa« tfau Kdc 
depending in the pope's conrt ; after which appnn- 
tloeditp, the indentun-8 woru nut intended to be 
flBiwdled, hat the eauw Htiil to lie kept on fooC k 
balllf for the intcroil. to hnre it alwars in doing and 
DBVar done. For, wIiIIm t( defieadiMl, t)ie pope ww 
aura of two great fricudt; but, when it wan ooeo de^ 
ddod, he waa aura of ooe great foe, cither the «■- 
penir, or oar king of fo gt and. 

I Al. It wa« a maxfnrtrue of all men, but 
king llenFT, OmMin mwa frmpmniii mimi 

^ (who would have not only what, but wbun 
hinuelf) waa voxcd with an many dek] 

ferringi, ivtaidliigi, proragatioaa, 

crsMination*. lietwixt two p»|*oii (an one majr aav) 
t'temi-nt that wm*. and Wolsey that woiiM be. He 
that all this while, after mi murh ado, there waa 
nothing done id hta boainaB, whirh now waa ne 
neanr to a flnal oooeiuaiao, than at the tint begin- 
afalg tbofeof. Yea. now began cardinal Wolaejr •■ 
deeUne fai tlw king'a bvoor, ao^ierting him for atl 
cwdial in Ut cvtto. and aacribing much of the ddi^ 
to hie backwrnrdncai bert-in. More hot did the di^ 
plea au ie of queen Katharine bum againal him. be» 
hoWog Un aa the chief engine, who M-t the matter 
of bcr df Tone bit in motioo. 


of Britain. 


52. Be it here remembered, that in persuading a.d. 1529. 

3 1 nciirv 

the king's divorce, Wolsey drave on a double design; viii. 
by the recess of the king's love from queen Katha- ^j^^^j^^ 
rine, to revenge himself of the emperor; by the looks two 

WRV8 Id 

access of his love to Marguerite of Alen^on, to oblige this design. 
the king of France. Thus he hoped to gain with 
both hands, and presumed, that the sharpness of his 
tveo-edged policy should cut on both sides: when 
God, to prevent him, did both blunt the edges, and 
break the point thereof. For, instead of gaining the 
love of two kings, he got the implacable anger of 
two queens; of Katharine decaying, and Anna 
Boleyn increasing in the king's affection ^ Let him 
hereafter look but for few fair days, when both the 
sun-rising and setting frowned upon him^. 

i [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 158.] 
^ []•* I heard it reported" 
(says Cavendish » narrating the 
interview of Wolsey and Cam- 
p^o with the king at Graf- 
ton) "by them that waited 
'* upon the king at dinner^ that 
'* mistress Anne Boleyn was 
'^ much offended with the king, 
'* as far as she durst, that he so 
" gently entertained my lord, 
'* saying as she sat with the 
" king at dinner^ in communi- 
*' cation with him, ' Sir/ quoth 
" she, ' is it not a marvellous 
" thing to consider what debt 
^ and danger the cardinal hath 
*' brought you in with all your 
*' subjects ?* ' How ao, sweet- 
" heart?' quoth the king. ' For- 
" sooth,' quoth she, ' there is 
** not a man within all your 
" realm worth 5/. but he hath 
** indebted you unto him,' 
" (meaning by a loan that the 
*' king had lent late of his sub- 
•• jecto.) ' Well, well,' quoth 
'* the kilig» * as for that there 

'* is in him no blame ; for I 
'* know that matter better than 
• * you or any other.' * Nay sir/ 
*' quoth she, * besides all that, 
'* what things hath he brought 
" within this realm to your 
'' great slander and dishonour? 
" There is never a nobleman 
" within this realm, that if he 
'* had done but half so much 
'^ as he hath done, but he were 
" well worthy to lose his head. 
*' If my lord of Norfolk, my 
^' lord of Suffolk, my lord my 
" father, or any other noble 
'' person within your realm had 
" done much less than he. but 
" they should have lost their 
'* heads ere this.' ' Why then, 
" I perceive,' quoth the king, 
" ' ye are not the cardinal's 
" friend ?' ' Forsooth then,' 
'' quoth she, ' I have no cause, 
" nor any other that loveth 
'' your grace, no more have 
'* your grace if ye consider 
" well his doings.' " Life of 
Wolsey, p. 241.] 






Corner Minmt (twft waiis metling in ihem) art poliskM 
with i/tr more cHrioiily, aitd piaced triih mart carrfmi- 
pteMM. So aUo rffntrr btines {om I fna^ iay) wkick do 
dtmblr #/M/y , nfid allend Ihe aervice of l%rojamlM^ (mi ike 
eihtHc and knte^) are rarely Jised Ay the provuirmee ^ 

Thh MeetioM being in Ihe Inntimg of rtligkmu^ {I he goimg 
onl iff Ihe o/f/, and coming im of Ihe nnr,) oaghi lo kmre 
beepi done with nnut induniry^ dificnity meeting' thereim 
with dark in$trnetionM. Hdwet-er I hafe eHdemnxtmred 
my Htmfuttf {tknngh falling $hort of the merit m of the 
pnatter^) and dtmht not but jfom will be as enndkl im ike 
pernMing^ at I have detired to be earefnl in the wriiiifg 

* [Arm*. i;til«>«, a cUUpliiii friend Mr. fWiuMi. 
It vmbmrrd. or. C>f Uits I bcc« shW to 
iadivtaiial nritWr km my fmiker pwtkskfft.) 

CBNT. XVI. The €hurch History of Britain. 


The f^.««n^«u 

his servant. 

NOW now in the next year, the lords ^•'^•'sso. 
in parliament put in a bill of forty- viii. 
fonr particulars against Wolsey*'. The Accused in 
most material was his exercising ofSdJ^* 
power-legatine, without leave, to theJ^'^Srf* 
prejudice of the king's crown and dignity*^. 
bill is brought down into the house of commons, 
where Mr. Cromwell, then servant to the cardinal, 
chanced to be a burgess. Here he defended his 
master with such wit and eloquence, that even those 
who hated the client, yet praised the advocate who 
pleaded in his behalf**. This was the first time that 
public notice was taken of Cromwell his eminent 
parts, and advantageous starting is more than half 
the way in the race to preferment, as afterwards in 
him it came to pass. As for Wolsey, though at this 
time he escaped with life and liberty, yet were all 
his goods of inestimable value, confiscated to the 
king, and he outed of most of his ecclesiastical pro- 

b [Burnet, Ref. I. p. i6i.] 
c [This was an extreme in- 
justice, since a l^atine power 
had been procured and exe- 
cuted for the last hundred 
years in this realm, notwith- 
standing the statute of pramu- 
nire, which from 1428 or there- 
abouts was never acted upon. 
And still more flagrant was the 
injustice of involving the clergy 
in the penalties of the same, 
whilst tne commons, many of 
whom were liable, were par- 
doned without further trouble.] 
d [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 349. 
Whether Cromwell obtained 
favour with the king ham his 
conduct towards Wolsey I can- 

not tell. It is certain however 
that he was gaining much in- 
fluence with Henry at this 
time, and according to cardinal 
Pole, who had the account 
from Cromwell himself, he ad- 
vised the king to take the suit 
into his own hands, and declare 
himself head of the church 
(Poll Epist. I. p. 120.) See 
Wolsey's letter to him in State 
Papers, vol. I. p. 356, and 
Cavendish, Life of WolseVt 
pp. 259. 275. Undoubtedly 
Cromwell saw the bent of the 
king*8 mind towards Wolsey .3 
^ [Upon which occasion an 
Act was passed " that no per- 
" son or persons shall sustain 


The Ckurck HUiary 


AD. 1530. S. Court*faTourito9» when it is once past noon« it 
'ViiT'^ ^ presently night with them^ as here it fared with 
WoliH'y. His enemies, of whom no want, follow the 


llL^!^ blow ifiven unto him. For they beheld him rather 
^ in a swoon, tlian as yet dead in the king*s favour, 
and fi»ared if his submission should mec*t with t!ie 
kiufi^^s remembrance of his former services, they 
might prinluce his full restitution to {>ower and dig- 
nity. Tlie rather l)ecause the cardinal was cunning 
to improve all to his own advantage, and the king 
(as yet) not cruel, though too |>erfect in that k*»«on 
afterM'anls. His enemies would not trust the car- 
dinal to live at Lfcmdon, (nor at Winchester within 
fifty milt^s thereof,) but got the king to command 
him away to York, sending him thither, whither 

*' any prrjadice by infant of 
*' the AtUinder of the lord car- 
" dinal, hv mean* that tlie naid 
*' cardinal wtkn ■rix4*d in their 
** landi t(> dirert u«ei." S««e 
the Auth. (\)lli*cti(>ti of the 
Statute*, rol. III. p. 316. 
Among the new tranacripit for 
the Fcrtlera by the Record 
CocnniiMionem there u an in- 
dentarr, dated Oct. 3 3, 1539, 
between the king and WoUey, 
in which the curdinaJ acknow. 
ledges that he it guilty of a 
prgnmmmire by pretence of boUa 
obtained br him front the court 
of Rome, which he haa prcu 
cured by divert meant to 
attain tundry etfectt amtrary 
to the pwd ttatutea of Kng. 
land ; that he haa inquieted aa 
well the prektea at other th« 
ktng'ttubjecta,that accivrdingly 
be date r vet to tuffer, not oolj 
tbs p s n a hiea ordaiAed by tbs 

ttatute of proriaion, but ako 
perpetual impritonment for th» 
tame, and to forfeit to the kiag 
for ever all hit landt, oftcea. 
goodt, Ace. ; in conatderatioci of 
which he grantt to the king all 
hit nid potactainni, wHb all 
the rerenuet anting from tbe 
teet of York and Wtncbeatcr, 
the abbey of St. Albana and aU 
other hit aptritual beoeftcea. 
The king on hit part tIaUa 
that he doea not intend in cvm. 
tideratioci of the taid c o nc e *" 
tiona, to forbear any tuit aa 
may hereafter be cutnmeiicpd, 
by proceat of ftntmmmire agaiw< 
the nid legate. See ( bftMi. 
Cat. of Matenak fnr the Fow 
dera, p. 167. To thia tades* 
ture he probably refera in kia 
letter to Cromwell, {fkum 
Fapert I. p. 360.) See boar* 
erer R3mier» rol. XIV. p. 57 1.3 


of Britain. 


his conscience long since should have sent him, a. d. 1530. 

• •*."■• 1 • 1*^ Henry 

namely to visit his diocese, so large m extent, and viii. 
reride therein. 

3. Indifferent men thought that he had enough, La»«e 

means al- 

his foes that too much, only himself that too little lowed him. 
was left unto him. Pride accounts the greatest 
plenty, if without pomp no better than penury. 
Yet he had the whole revenues of York arch- 
bishoprick (worth then little less than four thousand 
pounds yearly) besides a large pension paid him out 
of the bishopric of Winchester. Was not here fuel 
enough, had there not been too much fire within, 
such his covetousness and ambition ? 

4. Earthly kings may make men humbled, God "e states it 
alone humble. Wolsey began to state it at York as 

high as ever before, in proportion to his contracted 
revenues ^ Preparation is made in a princely equi- 
page for his installation, attracting envy from such 
as beheld it^. All is told unto the king, and all 

' [During the whole time of 
his impeachment Wolsey was at 
fisher, a house near Hampton 
Court, where he continued for 
the space of a month, " without 
*' beos, sheets, tahle cloths, 
** dishes, &c., and was com- 
** pelled to borrow dishes to 
** eat his meat in from the 
** biahop of Carlisle." Caven- 
dish, p. 257. From Esher he 
removed to Richmond early in 
Feb. 1530. See the Letters in 
the State Papers, vol. I. p. 348 
sq. and note at p. 356. Thence 
to Southwell where he remain- 
ed from April 27 to the end of 
Aug. 1530. (lb. n. p. 361.)] 

% [This was a mere calumny. 
The very plea used by his ad- 
versary Norfolk to the king to 
induce him to send Wolsey to 


York, was that his presence 
might be a stay and support to 
the country. And though the 
enthronization of the arch, 
bishops was a magnificent cere- 
mony, as they were the greatest 
ofiicers of the county, yet the 
fi;randeur of Wolsey's instal- 
lation fell rather below than 
above the usual mark. When 
preparations were making for 
the ceremony, and it was ob- 
served that he ought to go 
upon cloth from St. James's 
chapel to the Minster, which 
cloth was afterwards distri- 
buted to the poor ; Wolsey re- 
marked : " Although our pre- 
" decessors went upon cloth 
" right sumptuously, we do in- 
" tend God willing to go 
" a-foot from thence without 


Thg ObrreA HiOvrjf looi v. 

Lftii^iiMde wmw hj t«llinfc H. oomplainittg WolMjr would 

^VuT^ Devor toaw hU pmlu, till Ulb Hnt left btm. Hb 

~ old fiuilto are reiiTed uid afgrniTBted, aiid the I 

fnceiUMKl afrMb sftaiiMt him. 

*.au iB. 5. The tsri of Nortfaumberland bjr the e 

BVMB m4 ftvn thr Idnfc snvstcd littn of high trawon, hi \ 

own duuiitior At Cnwood. Ilv fitow and short 

joamirjii be netteth forwrnrd to London, meeting bjr 

tbe wsy with eoDtisr^ mewigw from the king: 

, ■onwtimw he ww tickled with hopei of pardoo and 

prefeiment, Kotm^imM pinched with fean of a di»- 

UTacernl death, mo tliat he knew not how to d uy oae 

hi* mim). t» mirth nr oiauming*'. A|ic and angnith. 

bntuxlit liiii ilimwso of the djMotcry, the [Nun Irinit 

mnch ill liin jruU. iDon in hb heart. l->[terialljr 

after sir William Kingrton was aont unto him, who 

being licntetuuit nf the Tower Mcmied to ourr a n- 

•tialnt in his lookii. Coming to Leicester be died. 

being btuied almort as obacnraljr •■ ho wai bam. 

** Hj Mcb glarf , is dw *Mm 
" af Mv bowa. For I ld» 
" CM to b* mr wr >i%* 
"that I ufM W« not to M 
• W fcr Mrt f • ' 

" nJB-ffloc;, hot ««hr b> falil 
•*1lw nUwTaapi md rain «f 
■•ibtdMKli; tolW which M 
E-**!* mf I an kmd. AW 
f « UmAn I Ml imhm na 
MaU to hoU roa iiiiliilil 
^* w fch wy ttm fBtitf. wwl aha 



to Wolaay to Jwrnrnmi Iha m. 
MffMtiaa of tWgral ^d. Ha 
waa lanaachodOT a prwwttnKn^ 
plnM rdllT mwl kb Midi 
fariUui Bm .bou ll» tan. 
dn U» kiw OM Ua • i^ 
W fcllo»l«| ll» lifM iMMrf 
Ua IW a. rf Volii aMkta 

• ite br .Ir Jida Rual iM 

• ajfictlul W U bilni 
Ui i««> ^ (Sa W.4>py7t«- 
Nr l» iba ktag « '" 

I. )«S.) b lb 

" lk.T nmmmij vmt, mJ jMMfT bk va4ia sa 4 
••liU k aad; aid dnu M U a nrh • a.^ 

lllliliibiiii laa. .• Ik. M 
I«fOili l ii («aaan 

Uw da laand a Ua >k« 
■■daadi a tW laoH rf 

«S7* y^ ?'■ •f"i'*»_" 

rf NaUk Md Srfbdk Ihna'i RWaa. 

MHfdtag M 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 51 

6. I know not whether or no it be worth the men- a.d. 1530. 
tioning here, (however we will put it on the adven- ^ vin.*^ 
ture) that cardinal Wolsey, in his life time was in- woisey's 
formed by some fortune-tellers, that he should have ^^^ 
Lis end at Kingston. This his credulity interpreted J'yS^y, 
of Kingston on Thames, which made him always topropi»ecy. 
avoid the riding through that town, though the 
nearest way from his house to the court. After- 
wards understanding that he was to be committed 

by the king's express order to the charge of sir 
Anthony Kingston, it struck to his heart, too late 
perceiving himself deluded by that father of lies in 
his homonymous prediction ^ 

7. Anna Bolejm did every day look fairer and The king 
fairer in the king's eyes, whilst the hopes of his mar- with delays 
riage with her seemed every day farther and farther 

from him. For the court at Rome meddled not 
with the merits of the cause, but fell upon by points 
therein of lesser concernment. Yea, they divided 
his case into three and twenty particulars ^ ; whereof 
the first was, whether prince Arthur had carnal 
knowledge with the lady Katharine ? This bare about 
a year's debate; so that according to this propor- 
tion, king Henry would be, not only past marrying, 
but past living, before his cause should be decided. 
This news put him into a passionate pensiveness, the 
rather, because meeting with sadness here, many 
populous places in England, and Cambridge parti- 
cularly, being at the present visited with the sickness. 

8. But it is an evil plague which brings nobody Dr. Cran- 
profit. On this occasion Dr. Cranmer retired tOtoWai- 
Waltham with two of his pupils, the sons of Mr.*™' 

» Hon. lord Howard in his ^ Hist, of Council of Trent, 
Book against Prophecies, [fol. p. 69. 
p. 130. ed. 1620.] 


n The Ciureh Ilirtwy wm>k «. 

^^"J- •»» Crewjr, a name uttirty extinct in tlint town, wbore 
VIII. Ood kath Sxml inv |>n>«<.'nt habitftticm, Utufg btv 
fniv tlio miinonr of any aliu''. hut, rnnmltinjr 
WwvcrV Fuwnil Monumi'iitfl of Wnlthuii rhurrli. 
(tnorf truly than n4*nlly by liitn (NtmiKw*!,) I fitwl 
thorvin thill cpitApli : 

Hi'nT lyi-th Jtm and Jons Onmf, 
On whtMK aualy* Jem hav mnrey. Abmu'*. 
It Kemii |Hi|N.'r iiuin4^>tinu-» m mitrv lastiiif; than 
bian; oil tlio ancient (<|)ita]ili« in that rliurrh liriit|t 
dubced by •umc barbarous haniLs wbii pcrrbaaec 
one day may wont a gniTe for thenwolvM. 
hiiiftii^ 9. Tlir king cotnin)( to Wallhatn. [>r. Fox bb 
toihf^lflfclia|)lain and almom^r <aft«nmrd« Uidtop nf tlav> 
fun]) is I'xlf^tl in Mr. Crcaiy'a boaw: diaroiuiiiiit 
abont tlie kinj;'* divorce. Cimtuner eoncvivi<d tfaat 
tlip spoodiost omirao wmH to prnw the unlaafulnw 
of liifl luateb by Bcripiiuv; whiotcc It vuuld follow, 
that the |>o[>u at first had no power to diipe— 
thcn-wiib : and tluU tho nniTendtics of Christendan 
would txMmcr anil truer decide the caac than ths 
court of Romu". Thia paango Fox niiarta to tba 
king; who, well pleaaed tbereat, pmfi<wca Ibat thia 
man bad "the mw by tbn riglit car":" an car which 

> [Donrt'k Rcf. I. p. ij^.] Donwl'i Rvf. I. RMonk. p. 
M In Fmn, fi. &4j. llat 141.). vUdi iiBcintkMillv** 

«« Uw famw fut of Cma. mmah^ bvfan tka tisM at ite 

■wt'* lib oatil Ihia Umn, b abm-awnlkBad taotifmm. 

>m Hiturj at CmMim. 8h aW atrn*^ Ctmh*. 

> {OdlMr in U« BcdM. p. 5. IW dak* •« «■■> 
Him. *aL II. p. 51. obMniM imm bi ban bMi tka tM 
dw ^b b iHwaAli'rt. For vrmm wka WMaailH M «• 

pcnon who MMfMl 

Ibftka iMraarf mb rf 
aad Moratary F«a. WM IB Aoe- kkawarMlai. SMCawtth. 
iKio. Bm Um dataniaaliaa lifaof WuImjt. p. tii.l 
af ika MimaitT of Orlwaa > Fax. AcM tad Moa. iSft*. 
~ a la tka kW« Mniiff" [llalT. Ufc of FUmt. p. 97.] 
a April 5. 15*9. (Sat 

CENT. XVI. - of Britain. 58 

the king never left wonying till he had got it off, a. 0.1530. 
and effected his will therein: Cranmer being sent viii. 
for, comes to the king, who very lovingly entertains 
him. Indeed he was a most comely person, having 
an amiable eye (and as the soul sees much by the 
eye, so is it much seen in them) and pleasing coun- 
tenance, as by his lively picture doth appearP. Glad 
was the king to see, more to hear him enlarge him- 
self on the former subject, that it was above the 
pope's power to dispense with God's work in the 
king's case. And now what fitter nurse for the 
child than the own mother ; what person more 
proper to manage this matter than Cranmer himself, 
who first moved it*'. The king resolves, and Cranmer 
consents he should be sent to the pope, there to 
make God his position. Leave we Cranmer for a 
time, preparing himself for his long journey; and 
come briefly to state the king's controversy out of 
God's word, and several authors who have written 

10. It plainly appears that a marriage with a Marriage 
brother's wife is unlawful, because expressly for- Jenj' i^« 
Diaaen. bidden in 

LeVIT. XViii. 16. scripture. 

T/lOU sJialt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother^ s 
wife^ it is thy brother's 7iakedncss. 

Wherein we have, 

i. A prohibition. Thou shalt not micover the 
?ia/tedn€ss of thy brotlicr's wife : see all these laws 

P Which I have seen at and Germany with the earl of 

Chesthunt in the house of sir Wilts, to dispute the subject 

Thomas Dacres, done as I take at Paris^ Rome, and other 

it by Hans Holbein. places, carrying the book with 

<l [In 1530 he was sent by him which he had just written. 

the king into France, Italy, See Strype's Cran.p. 13.] 

£ 3 


The CAmkA BiMturji 

A.U. i5ja. <^rv maik' !■■ moii; it being pmumed that th(> wnLkvr 
'ViiT^ wx (whom; part it in to take, iH»t U-ndct; tuvept, doI 
~i>ffi'r Ion-) would U' mo nio«k>fft m nut t« ii(l*(9ituiv 
of thomvplTM on any iocratiunis art. czcvpt fint 
Mi)irit«d hj men llit>minto. 

ii. Tlio nwmi) thrivof. // m Utjf brolArr'a maJud- 
HtMt. (im) rouUl, Brrording to hb doauDion, pe- 
ntniftimlr bAVi> Frirltiddon tbu aanH>, withoot i«o- 
dcriufr a ivaiHiti of hift pmhibilion; bnt that nwn 
roiglit |>ar Ibo more witling obedienrc lu hi* law, ho 
tnakfth tboMe who wvn> to ko4'|> it in amno aort 
judges of tlw jostiMM tbercof. fnilnrnuring to con- 
vince tlior comeioneM, ami inmkc tbdr ■ook mo- 
■ible oX the natmml anrlowuien of tocb an art. // 
it tijf hrolker't nakedmeu. 

8ach marriaget are again (biWdden In another text. 
Nnr ran I n-ndor other raaaon uf this dajdlralc, 
whemw otiien are bat om«, Uiat tlii^ tboald be 
twin* prohibited; mve that flod, foruKoing In bh 
provi<leno«> men's eomjpt inclinations, prmie boni to 
climb uvor, did tfaiTrfoiP tbink fit to make a 

Lrvft. XX. St. 

And if a mam JtaB taltt kit bnlktt*4 wife, it 

l u iidbi liimf ; ke AofI uneorend kit hrtftkft'a 

mo M me u , tLg tkoO b» tkiUteu. 

Hen ve hate the prohibitioa borked with a — miii 

baUod of beiqg ehUdkaa, which it TarkKtsly tntcfk 

ptetcd, eithrr that they ahall nerpr haTe children, «r 

if baring them, tbej tthall not mrriTo th<^r patently 

or if mrviTiog, thojT shall not Ix* rount«<l chiMna, 

bai baatard% iUegitimau> in tho court of heoTo*. 

TUa eomarinnlbn of being ebiMlew. aa appBed W 

I, fcQ bcsTj on king Henry the Eighth ; who 

here to 


CENT. xvf. of Britain. BB 

sensible that his queen, though happy often to con- a. 0.1550. 
ceive, was unhappy ahnost as often to miscarry. ^Vin!'^^ 
Henry his only Christian son, by her, died before a 
full year old ; a second was nameless, as never living 
to the honour of baptism ; and of many blasted in 
the bud, Mary only survived to woman's estate. 

11. Such as inquire into the nature of this lawThisproved 
find it founded in nature itself, being only decla-JJ ^^^ 
ratory of what true reason doth dictate to man. 
God in making this law did not imprint a new 
writing in men's hearts, but only rub off some old 
rust from the same; wherefore it is added, Levit. 
xviii. 27, 28. For all these abominations have the 
men of the land done^ which were before you^ and the 
land is defiled ; that the land spue not you out alsOy 
when ye defile ity as it spued out the nations that were 
before you. Surely the land would never have 
vomited out the heathen for not observing a positive 
precept, never immediately delivered unto them, 
which plainly shews it was imprinted in nature, 
though partly obliterated by their corrupt customs 
to the contrary ; and their consciences in their lucid 
intervals were apprehensive thereof. This would 
make one the more to admire, that any should 
maintain that this law, the breach whereof made 
the country to avoid her pagan inhabitants, should 
be only lea; imposititia et ecclesiastical ^ " an imposed 
" and church law." To hear of a church law amongst 
the Canaanites is a strange paradox. 

12. It is objected this could not be a law ofTheob- 
nature, because almost at the beginning of nature the oon- 
men brake them by the consent and permission of '™^' 
the God of heaven ; for Cain and Seth, with the 

' Sanders de Schism. Angl. p. 3. 

£ 4 

Tht CAwcA Wtlory mnu v. 

yh. I'ltlt-r sunn nf AiluB. miwt he allowvd U> have duutM 
tbeir (iwn lUtGn, Hx nearer in mtun' tluun tbdr 
liTother'n wife, 

13. It [i atHweied, vliea Qod fint cremUtl man- 
kind, H WM hifl pleamrv «U men ihoultl tlcriTc 
tbt-ir original frrnn Eto, as iihp fWnn Adam. For 
luu) \\o nuuk> las une ntav my) twu lUotinct buim-s nf 
mankind, wliat fainiif,' out and 6^tiu|r. what liii-kifr- 
ing and battling would havi> \nvn betwixt them. If 
nwa DOwadajB dpM-i-mk'd frum tbo loins of one 
guMiral bthrr, and wunib of one motbf r. are fall of 
«o 6erco baln-d. bow many and ki-cn may tbtHr dif- 
ferPDW bo pHwimed, ttw) tbey sprung; from •even] 
fiMintatntt, and tben all tbcir batred would have beae 
eluufrtt], tiot on their eumptkn. bttt on their 
rn-ationf Cwl thftt'furv, a« tlie apostle aalth, Aeto 
XTii. 96, hath madr of ow Uood all MaHmu. Now fn 
tbr Ufrinninfi of mankind abmlutt.* mx-cMiity gaw 
bretlin'n liU'riy tu Dian7 their own siatm. Yea, 
Ood hlnwlf, iiilt'qiretaUvelj, aigned and aealad tttt 
nme with his own rnnaent, because hia wtsdoM W_ 
ap|H>intitl no uthrr mvoiis witbrnit miiarle far t 
ppipafpition of mankind. But wlieo rora 1 
U) multipiiitl on the earth, tliat n eou^ty 
remoTi>d, the tiglit of nature dictated onto t 
unlawfulmw of Mieh marriagea, and of i 
more remote, aa c«niitg witliin the 
inoait ; though the corrupt practieea of 
aometimea trespamed in ibat kind. God 1 
U-ii^r to ffive his law to the Jcwi^ rkaied i 
rlon'd that light of uaturt.' by his pusitin' law | 
)ii« piHtple. to whom hia goodnoaa gave a g 
foriiad a ttw. so tneoMJdeiaMe were tbnae iev| 
hibitcd to tl»c monjr penont perautted them la i 

CBNT, XVI. of Britain. 67 

riage. For whereas there came out of Egjrpt ahout a.d. 1530. 
8Uff hundred thousand men, besides children^ fifty per- ^\mJ 
sons at the most (counting those forbidden, as well 
by consequence as expressly) were interdicted unto 
them •; amongst whom one was the marriage with a 
brother's wife. For although God permitted this by 
a judicial law to his own people in case of raising up 
seed to a brother deceased childless S (the will of 
God being the law of laws,) yet otherwise it was 
utterly unlawful, as whereon God had stamped (as is 
aforesaid) a double note of natural uncleanness. 

14. The law then of forbidding marriage with aOod'siaws 
brother's wife being founded in natiu^, it was pride lahie with 
and presumption in the pope to pretend to dispense ^ ^^'^ 
therewith. Indeed we read that the dispensation of 
the gospel (to see it dealt and distributed to several 
persons) was committed to St. Paul% (whose joint 
successor, with St. Peter, the pope pretends to be,) 
but a dispensation from the law of God, to free men 
from the same, neither Paul nor Peter ever pre- 
tended unto. Let the pope make relaxations of 
such church canons which merely ecclesiastical aur 
thority hath made, there he may have the specious 
power to remit the rigour thereof at some times, 
places and persons, as he apprehendeth just occasion. 
But let him not meddle to grant liberty for the 
breach of God's law. The first dispensation in this 
kind is what Satan in the serpent gave our first 
parents in Paradise, You shall 7iot surely die^^; and 
whether the granter had less power therein, or the 
receivers less profit thereby, we their woful posterity 
have little comfort to decide. 

15. Nor doth it any thing alter the case, ( what ^^J[J)^^ 

8 Exod. xii. 37. ▼ I Cor. ix. 17. 

* Deut. XXV. 5. w Gen. iii. 4. 

Tlu Chunk /liaory mm» t. 

A.D.iu».WM M mncb controvetted in tbe onart of Rnme.) 

**vuL* wfaetber ur no prince Artliar had ranul knowledjp; 

B^BiMit- **' W* *i''% ■winft wo may obserTo that in the court 

liwll'*''* "*" '•w^*'" miuriaffi'* btir dato, not frocn thi-tr <<o|ia- 

»"«7- lation. but ttolonin rontract ; and (her thtntrfforwanl 

■re calvcmcd man and wife before (jod. For H is 

proTided, that i/a damtrl bt helroUud kt a kmdmiJ 

ttiU rtmaining a riryin, amJ aMtiO ht him wUk kf 

moAltfr man, both ftf linm thaU he tlomd te dmA, 

amd sAe /mmisM for sm adutlereu, he far kmmttm§ 

kit meiyhAom't frife\ Be then the ladjr KaHuuiaB 

known or unknown b; prince Arthur, due benevo* 

leT»M) ia the olTect, not the cause of marriaps, whidi 

wa« mrapli'ttti lK?riin- (!od, ami thi>y two made ooe 

flchh, when i)i)lt*rriiilT joined tofri*tbi*r tn tbe hee of 

the con^^jfation. 

16. Such a tnarria^ with a brothcr'a wife thai 
'tt a|>pi-arin^ af^tnst the lav uf God, it ii stnu^ that 
anv MhnuM mnintain that pmbtica km a dm, 
- hoiiL'str,*' waft the unir obatade of tUa l 
which (ilMtruetinu (xay they) by the pop^^ ifiaiw 
Mtioii WBD removed, because /nMira mtilihu, tbe 
** public profit" was grrater tliat rcdonndod by per* 
inittin;; this match. Now nippoMe this all ibe ok 
Htju-lc, the positioa ia daogeroot and uamkuhI ; Ibr. 
flnt. ChriMiani aiv not aeudbte of utility, aa fidvly 
io railed, which ictandti at distaiwe with pabUe 
boDeaty. Secondly, the publicneM of the pnifit was 
not adeqaato to the imbliciicaa of the anuidaL Hw 
pfoSt or lUte benefit tfaerebjr only extended t» tke 
csowna of England and Frmnoe, as eoneeraed thiw i a, 
wbilat tbo Kandal dilated itw>lf to the people vt ■■ 

L uii. 14. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 69 

Christian provinces, justly offended thereat. And a. d. 1530. 
although we confess that in this respect the world is ^\m7 

narrower to princes than to private persons, as not 

affording so fit matches unto them, yet kings have 
no conmiission to enlarge themselves herein, by the 
actual breach of God's commandment. 

17. Thus far the sum of the sense of protestants Armies of 
and others, no fewer than an hundred authors, and con in 
writing at this time against this marriage, all which ^^^^ 
were produced by the king in the next par- 
liament. Yet very many papists professed their 
judgmenu in prSt. on the 'con A Mde, both 
English and outlandish divines: and, to give them 
their due, brought very plausible arguments. Of 
all these, 

John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, led the fronts 
whom some catholics call St. John, because be- 
headed like the Baptist, though on contrary ac- 
counts: John Baptist for saying, it is not lawful *; 
John Fisher for sajring, "It is lavrful for thee to 
** have thy brother's wife." 

•John Holyman, bishop of Bristol ; John Gierke, 
bishop of Bath and Wells ; Cuthbert Tunstall, 
bishop of London ; Nicholas West, bishop of Ely. 

Thomas Abel, Edward Powell, Richard Feather- 
stone, Ridley, Englishmen and Canonists. 

Franciscus de Roxas, Alphonso de Virues, Al- 
phonso de Castro, Sepulveda ; Spaniards. 

Cardinal Cajetan, Lewis Nogarola; Italians. 

Alvarus Gomez ; Portuguese. 

John Cochlaeus ; High German. 

' Mark vi. 1 8. 57. To these should be added 

A We order them by the se- Cardinal Pole. See Strype's 

niority of their writing. [See Cran. ch. 3.] 

8ander*8 De Schism, p. 45 and 

00 Tkf ChurtA nutonf book ▼. 

~A.D. iitjo- Ef^iiniu^us Doro, PrBiiriMrait Dtuumiu, ('ontuniui ; 
VIII. ' Coltjt*. 

"~ Ludovieiu a Scborn; a Low Countrrnuui'. 

Enuniua, n irrvaUT M-ltoUr than <lirin<\ was very 
doubtful in hiN juif^fut licnnn. He m vamAv lijr 
Miuf nioiivni opocaJyptkal eammcoitahet lo bo the 
an^'l ftring tv ftwtpaitiMm^ that ia, at tbej wfll 
bavir it, "In tL mlddlu dbtanco beCwixt beawn and 
** i-ttrtli," which how it afrrreK to the text, I know 
not. It alhitlrth well tn hiii dalnnuK imatorv betwiit 
iliffi^rfut i>|titituiu iu rvliffion. aiid |iartiruhvlT ia this 
roiitnivcniv, xoint'linitii ItHnj; for king tlcniy, and 
•oiix'tiniOM n^'aiiut Iiim brtvio. 

]K. llftum vcv to C'raiiiiKT, ■•nijilnvit) now in hb 
fiiilKimv t'l lt4ini(' : lhi> MaU> wlicnHif lav tttt TbonuH 

^ Bolcj-n. cari «if \\'iltivbin>, but tho utr^ttf^ i»f it (a> 
to tlii' ilui])utiiig \>axt) on l>r. CimnmiT. Ih'. Sttikislc^, 
Dr. C«nH.% l>r. Bc-nni*t, ftc; m that a liltlc uttiver^ 
nity t>f It-anHil nicii wt-nt nliHig: thither. Tlu-^' w rc 
Well omttil with nrpintoiilA, Ix-ing tn rarrr a rbal- 
li>nj^> tn oil tlif L-niioiiiittK at II^iith-. Conunjc ihitbrr, 
they TouihI the |M»|ie in hi« )rran')«vn pnitknog kii 
t«M< to them, wbkh Doue oSered to klM^ MW thft 
anmaniH-riy f|iai)iel (Ui my no wnn«e of him) to ika 
i«ri of Wiltnbin', whom lhi< Jesuit mil* a pmteitaDt 
'U*H'. for Ititinf; tlie |M)pc'» toe; but let him tt41 tw 
what iviif^on thoM> <lngi were of wfaieh eat np 
Jen'lifl the harlot'. Tim cad praaanfeed the |iu|w a 
book of Craamuri iietmiog. proriny God'» law india* 

*Pn>fmlfpto^ at Vnan. Rmtr^ I. p. 14); U K^M 

Uviof brt«4n A* ri««n of t7Jlktl.Ckm.hl. II. igs.k] 

OmMH ami Stmmim. ■ f mIm- FUmi. hn U^m 

<[fiMBorMt'>ib£l.p.i73 a> UiaM. Aar (H ^ 9-] ^ 

TW ^MkfMlaM of tbr <hf. 151. [Bmwt'albr. l.p. t90.J 

Imm «al wi kfa > wv frimtH * 1 Kli«» ix. 3ft. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 61 

pensable with by the pope: a book as welcome to a. d. 1530. 
his holiness as a prison, beholding his own power viii. 
therein limited and confined. Promise was made of 
a public disputation, but never performed. Only 
the pope (who is excellent at the making of nothing 
something, by the solemn giving thereof) made 
Cranmer supreme penitentiary (an empty title) 
throughout all his dominions ; this was only to stay 
his stomach for that time, in hope of a more plen- 
tiful feast hereafter, if Cranmer had been pleased to 
take his repast on any popish preferment. 

19. Meantime king Henry employed his agents to Foreign 

xi ..... 1 _^ i? /^"i • i 1 i universities 

the imiversities m several parts of Christendom, to determine 
sound their judgments in the matter of his marriage. ^^^^^ 
Some report that Reginald Pole, then living at 
Paris, was practised upon, by promise of preferment, 
to act the university there in favour of the king : but 
he being a perfect Katharinist, declined the employ- 
ment ?. Sir Richard Morison, a learned knight, was 
used by the king in Germany; Edmund Bonner*", 
afterwards bishop of London, employed in Italy, and 
William Langee, a native Frenchman, made use of 
in his own country ; so that ten of the universities 
subscribed the case, that it was above the pope's 
power to dispense with the positive law of God. 

1. Cambridge, 2. Oxford; England. 

3. Parish 4. The Faculty of Paris^ 5. Orieans, 
6. Toulouse^ 7. Anjou™, 8. Bituriges" ; France. 

9. BononiaS 10. Padua p; Italy. 

Wonder not herein at the silence of many Dutch 

% [So Sander's, p. 51.] ^ May 7. 

^ Hollinshed's Chron. p. ' October i. 

933. [See the substance of ™ July i. 

their arguments in Burnet's " June 10. 

Hist. Ref. I. p. ao8.] o June 10. 

* May a. P July 2. 


Tht CimrrA Uhtory 

A.n.i|.)o-univmi(ict, WitUinbn;^. lleidolb()i;|;, INibinif^ 
"\ili7 Bwle, ikst tbey inUTpoivd not their opbdow herain; 
■ for tlivsL* haviiig runnerlr utterly espImM the fMipe^ 

power, wen ooaoeived pwtial. and tbnvfbm Incom- 
petent Jndgm in tlu> point : wberofon the kiag wil; 
•oliciled rach aniremtie* in thta b» com* wfairb »> 
Tt*t ri'iiiaitied in bM vul finn obitlieitru to thi> ire 
of Rotnei. 
n^M so. or all tlio univetntiM (IcclAring for the pope't 
Md^ xiti- inal>ility to i]t«|>tiiflc with (iod'c poMtive ooaunand, 
in^nii muxt bold ftiid dnrit^ (bccauw laiKnt. fttllenC rlear^ 
Mt) WM that of Bonoaio, Ibo rhirf city ui Rofnan- 
ioUt » prorhiec of PeCer'* patrimony, uul that city 
tbt' )M)|ic'> ntiring plaoo. Nor can I oout tha eo»- 
diixion of tlivir dcehmtimi. "We oonfldently do 
** hold and witneM, that Bitcb taani»ge b honjhli^ 
"aeniia w l. and to bv rriM out u|H»n. and uttcflf 
" abiminablc, not only for a Cbriiituui man, bat lor 
" an Infiilul, unfiiithfiil or hoatlitMi, and that it li 
** pn4iiliit4Hl undiT ;^(*tous \vuiw and |iDni*liineala 
" by tlK> law of (iod. of natun*. and of man: and 
" that the |Mip(s though Im may do murk. nMo 
" whom Cbrint gave the koyn of the kiof^doM of 
" beaven, lutli no power to givxy a dt^<«uBtt«Mi to 
** any man to rontnrt mrh marria^*'. In wiuwa 
** whereof wv cnnlinn IhtH nur judpnifut. iMith nnder 
" the Mtl of oar onircnity, aa oIm* with tbv wal uf 
** oor college of iloetoni of divinttT. and bare Rib- 
** Mribed it in the nthedral chnrdi of Uonooy. lUa 
" tenth of June, in the year of our Lord IA90.** 
•1. Handcrv' bath Hulo to nj agalnat ao inna^ 
mi. rlMp. iij. \. 6S. 
H«i. sj. 

(HIM. IW. I. >. 171-) 0»- 
WW fabUiUd U book OT Um 

ilvMwia 1551] 


of Briiain, 


and clear decisions of the universities; only he tells a. d. 1530. 

22 Henry 

US, that all the king's agents had not equal success viii. 
in their negotiations : and particularly that one other uni- 
Hutton, the king's instrument herein, could not^*™***" 
boMT those of Hamborough and Lubeck to express 
themselves against the marriage. But surely these 
two places were only gymnasia, for I find them not 
mentioned amongst the Dutch universities. Also 
he saith that Richard Croke, another of the king's 
emissaries, prevailed nothing on many German pro- 
fessors^, and particularly he praiseth the university 
of Cologne, for their recusancy therein. As for such 
who subscribed on the king's side, he pretends that 
bribes bought their judgments^; as if our king 
Henry had learnt from king Solomon, that money 
recompenseth all things^. The best is, the cleanly 

▼ [They were first to pro- 
ceed to the emperor to satisfy 
him with reference to the di- 
vorce, and if possible to obtain 
his acquiescence. Their in- 
structions have been transcrib- 
ed for the new edition of the 
Foedera^ by the Record Com- 
mission, and an abstract of 
them is in the Chion. Cat. of 
the materials transcribed for 
that work, p. 168.] 

^ [In Germany, Spain, and 
Flanders the emperor's au- 
thority was very great, and 
therefore men were prevented 
from declaring their opinions. 
Nor does it appear that the 
king made any attempt to ob- 
tain them. (See Hall s Chron. 
fol. p. 195, b.) This is clear 
from what happened to Corne- 
lius Agrippa, who having been 
satisfied by Cranmer of the 
goodness of the king's cause, 
and giving out that t£e matter 

was indisputable, was very 
harshly used by the emperor, 
and died in prison. (See Bur- 
net's Ref. I. p. 191.) That the 
judgments of these foreigners 
were bought by bribes is clearly 
refuted by Burnet, (Hist, of 
Ref.I. p. 175. 177. 180); parti- 
cularly by the extracts from 
Croke's Letters, who protests 
that "he never gave or pro- 
" mised any divine any thing 
" till he had first freely written 
" his mind, and that what he 
" then gave was rather an 
'' honourable present than a 
•' reward." What these re- 
wards were may be seen in his 
bill of accounts, published by 
the same writer, p. 181. The 
highest sum was twenty crowns 
given to John Marino, min- 
ister of the Franciscans, '' who 

wrote a book for the king's 


X Eccles. X. 19. 




Thr Ckurrh Hut'oy 

>. hands or tbc court of ItotiiL' had ncrrr, no doubt, siiT 
bribes taking to tlioir fair fin^'nu l^t tbonitti that 
Eiiglbili Migeb Qow ov<t to forfij^ uiiiTpnntie*, jrt 
there licth a rral difltinctinu bftwixt a bribe and a 
boon, fm>ly t>est«wc^, not to bow and bjaa tlwir 
opinionK: but to ^rnlify their |«iiui, and icnmneiato 
their indiiirtr)*. in studjinji of tho poinU 

SS. Ab fur nur ICnjrtiiJi amliatwaiton at Rame, 
finrtinfr thvinwlviti only foil with dflavs, no wntidpr 
if tliey wen> nharp »rt to return homr. AH ramr 
bark npain aavi- Dr. CrantniT, who look a journey to 
iht' tiniK'nirV oiurt in Vienna'. Here he grew 
scijujLinlcil with ConiolUu A|*rip{)o. who had writlm 
a book of iht- Vaiiily of Sdcoccs, bavii^ much of 
thi' wienren, but more of the vani^ in hJl— ilf. 
Here alwi he eonvenH-i) with many frmU dJTlae^ 
and mtMiod some of them out of nrripture and 
nmon, whieh fnrmerly were unn-wdwd in thu on* 
UwfutnvMH of the king's mnninpe. 
■■ S3. A [mrlinment wnn now mllott. w)H.>rfin ibr 
^clerjry were found jfiiihy of a prtmttiHire*, tieouno 
'' they hod Ion mui*h premotiHl the injMil iiitert<«t, and 
acted by virtue of bin jxiwer to the dnniago aMi 
detriment of the cn>wn of EnfHond ; wbemi|iaii. 
U'ing wiUinji to retleem their whtde estates lur- 
feite<l by law, they were glad to rnmmute it into a 
mm of money : the riergy of tlic jinmnre of Cte- 
terbury oloitc beatowofl on the king one hundml 
tbountid pouixlft ; to be |Aid by eijuat portiou* la Ifaa 
MUne year, my Home, in four yean ny otb«n^ aad 
that In my opinion with more pnitmbility*. 

({BarMt'tlW. 1. j>.igi.] Cnnmll- Sve Trtlfr'a Uta. 

■fOriW Ml«r« of a BTw. VIII- p. jo;. Cart* III 107.) 

■MJr«. ••• Bonn. M. I. 'IlbrMt. lUf. ' 

f. 119. Tbb Kt WM BMW1I ■• Thu pnt mim a 

f- 117- 

CENT. X¥i. of Britain. 65 

24. But the king would not be so satisfied withA.D. 1531. 
the payment of the money, except also they would 'ViiT^ 
acknowledge him to be Supreme head of the church. Acknow. 
This was hard meat, and would not easily down}^^ 
amongst them ; however, being thoroughly debated ptT* ^'^^ 
in a synodical way, both in the upper and lower <*»«*• 
houses of couYOcation, they did in fine agree on this 
expression, cujus [ecdesiee Anglicafue] singularem 
protedorem, unicum et supremum Dominum, et quan^ 

turn per Christi legem licet^ etiam supremum captd 
ipstusy majestatem recognoscimus. 

25. This thus consented imto, and subscribed by Confirmed 
the hands of the clergy, (as appears at large in the pLuament. 
records and acts of the convocation,) and so pre- 
sented to the king in the name of his clergy, was 
afterwards confirmed by parliament, and incorpo- 
rated into a solemn act for the ratification thereof. 

26. During these transactions, William Warham, a. 11.1531. 
archbishop of Canterbury, ended his life. A politic The death 
person, well learned in the laws, generally reputed a ^ jiop ' 
moderate man, though (specially towards his latter ^^*'**°*' 
end) a still and silent persecutor of poor Christians. 

He was first parson of Barly in Hertfordshire, (as 
appears by an inscription in that church,) then rising 
by degrees to great preferment^. In his will he 
requested his successor not to sue his executors for 
dilapidations^ as having expended some thousands 

" be paid in one year, nor in 18,840/., and were also par- 

" four years neither, but to be doned. Burnet, Ref. I. p. 

'^ paid by equal portions, that 228. Wilkins'Concil.iii. 745] 

" is to say, by 20,000/. per ^ Weever's Funeral Monu- 

" annum in the five years fol- ments, [p. 547.] 

• * lowing." Heylyn in the Ap- ^ [Parker's Antiq. Brit. p. 

peal^ &c. part 11. p. 59. The 488.] 
province of York offered 



OS Tht Umrch tlittmry book v. 

of poaixli in rpfNuriiiff hb ■eveMl pftlico*'. We 
Twify beUere bU requMt mn gianted. miag Oan- 
nier «■> Ave (rom dl encting in that fcind. SMf 
MMnte, John Stoknijr, buhop of London, «h pi** 
riiieat in the eflnntntion. 

S7. MMMngen mre nettt into Genawijr Ibr Hkmbm 
Cnouner, to find him oat, ind fetch him home «Mi 
kU poMibIc ipoed, the ordiUifaoprie of Guilorbaij 
wniCimr bin wvofitanrv thcmif*. The post iMiily 
dedl the fint. btit CrnnnuT |imlnn);r<l lii* journey by 
Mven weolu' at tbt> leut, boputjr that in tbe aieao- 
tlno the kinf mli^fat forgvC him, and confer the 
place on another, being nally nnwilling to emhtnee 
the fwfenncnt, havinj; a/iifmitt intm*. " wtoetliiDft 
** within him" which reliit-tnti'il afnURst tlnwe loper- 
■titions throu^h whirh bo must wndi- in the way 
thereunto, fliit there lietb no meto tf iM co p a ri i 
lung llmrj hi* mfo te tpi»eopmm one; it I 
mortal to rL'fuM- fiiToura from him. •■ to offer ii 
lo him. Cranm(>r tlHTefore nnw come home, s 

' [He WM hont at % n. 
MNtafak hmStf « OIuIt \m 
RsMiUrf. ud adacaM la 
WlnAwlw MkooL la 1475 
ha waa adahiad Mv of Nvw 

of tha arehM, and afkarmrdi 
■ iiiiialiiitatfcaactoalofdrii 
law at OxJM. la 149) W 
wm mtiitmamm «f tW rolk. 
and BMt taar want aa MabM> 
^ar «mC rir Mwatd Ton- 
k^ to tfca dafca af Bw^y. 
faMaftlac Jn^Ua waroadi. 
la I joi ha *ai alKtad Udkap 

la>d dMSfcUpf, a 

w laidi aiiAlilAiia af fl 
\mrj. UaMdt^MM 
tj.d(fct jaan. aad 1 
poor. AnftiM 11, ijji. 
waaa my ^igmm. laaniad, aad 
BMMlafala OMB ; a gr«M Maid la 
d>anCobt,BB iwirrfal mbhi 
ofBraHH^aad afcii ai wrf 
ad wIm ifci wi i aay iigaa af 
piM* or Iwalait. te WaaA 
AtlMW. I. p. «61. BomA 
Bcfana. L p. ijft. Oaisla. 
!!• ft wal p. 1)6. BmhI 
Bpfai. ^ 149*. Md mpmUIf 

• [Bomel. IW. I. p. a<L] 
f ros. Acta mU Mm- 
Nrala.p.i7oj. [iii.M*-] 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 61 

in his own defence be archbishop; who, to serve the a. d. 1531. 
king, and salve his own conscience, used the expe- ^\iii7 
dient of a protestation, whereof hereafter. 

28. The philosopher gives us this note of direction, a prepar 
whereby to find out a virtue, viz. that it is accused craiimCT's 
by both extremes. Thus liberality is charged by}^^^®" 
prodigals to be covetousness, by covetous men to be 
prodigality. By the same proportion Cranmer ap- 
pears a worthy prelate, taxed by papists to be an 
heretic, by others (no papists) as guilty of super- 
stition. We will endeavour his just defence, con- 
ceiving the protestants' cause much concerned 
therein, the legality of his consecration having an 
influence on all the bishops made by him, that of the 
bishops making an impression on the priests and 
deacons by them ordained, and their rightful ordi- 
nation, deriving validity to the sacraments by them 
administered to all the members of the church 

of England. 

29. A papist objects, 7ion fait consecratus ah vUo Cnuimer 
episcapOf sed a solo rege intrusus, " that he was con- ^^Ilaaaited. 
** secrated by no bishop, but thrust in by the king 

" alone fif." The falseness whereof doth appear on 
public record, still to be seen in the register, being 
solemnly consecrated by John Lincoln, John Exeter, a d. i 533, 
Henry St. Asaph »^. And none that pretendeth to ^"^^^o. 
skill in canon law can deny the number insufiicient 
for such a performance. 

30. Another urgeth him uncapable of a bishopric. His double 
as debarred by bigamy, even by the censure of the H^toJ^to 
apostle. Let a bishop be the husband of one tf7//J?^, *"""• 

9 Becan. contro. Angl. c. 4. [John Longland, John Voysey, 
q. 9. n. 6. Henry Standish.] 

^ Regist. Cranm. fol. 5. ' i Tim. iii. 2. 

F 2 

OS TV CAiirrA Bhton/ •ooi v. 

t-Craiuner bcfng mocMriTdy twjce nmiT4i*d. It k 
Aniwen*d, meh niconwiTo mftmafTP i* n^i hljnunir : 

~tbe aportle onlT fitrliidilirifr tbo harinfr »^ many 
wivra at onnr, (n fault riuliioiiatilc amonjgrrt the Jcwi, 
then and many ymn aflor, hj ihc toxtintony of 
Juitbi Martjrr^) and the aune ia ao oxponnded w3ma 
hf 8. Hierom. prtKtpU vryo taeirdole$ mt MSfdbf 
mw tempore lumvi AoAmnf '. 

31. Bat jrrmiit Cranmpr i^tlty bat of one wifc at 

, oDn>, t'ven that mado hint (ofi hU advenariea RJofai) 

' unrnpablo of tho ai¥libi»tio)triF, berauM prohibited 
by th<' ranotiH. T<> which wp annrpr. that Hptri- 
dioD", St HiUuT". iirvporr Nazisnxcn", and many 
other bisbops, emiii«>nt for leoniinfT and Mnrtity in 
tho primitive timcK, air rotifoMMMl married meo fagr 
tulht^tir authors, in the brat ttmm arcmmtod no 
bar to their L>|itM:^i|ial function. Vva, the RomaidMa 
an* cnncMiKnl to allow Crannu'r a lawful airli 
becniiw* nitdw-inif viich an wen* c«HiM<rmtt>d br bi^ 
a« Tliitman Tliyrlbr. hi«hr>p of Kk, Anthuny Kitchin. 
bUhnp nf Ijmdafl^ for lawful liud)o|w, to wt 
eottkl not derlTe any ftrdeti, if not logallj i 
tbenin hintielf. 

99, Put wc now to nich cxr^ptioM wl 
modem writer' (xmUouk affainrt i>o|)erT> takalh 

, agaltwt him, beit^ no fcwi*r than nine, la if W 
intended what th<7 want in weight to maice op in 
number. I. " Tttat he look the like oath to (be MM 

k In lUaL COB [TrypbMi. 
♦- •4- 1 


-w iifaa. fed. r. 

II. [Bal OMlonkUdl/ aunmA 
diMMWiMHaaid M « mttf 

pvW fai tiw Urt^ at tW 

tbmA. Sm Orf^ I. wwlm. 
V. A. ». RvMa. GhM O. 

r Will. Pmn* i* kk Aab. 
ftthj pf r»4»y ti 
p. 131. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 69 

^ Ba his predecessors had done, and therefore was a. d. 1535. 
** deeply charged of perjury by Martin (a papist).*' viii. 

38. I answer, he toolc not the like oath. His 
predecessors took it absolutely and simply. Not so 
Cranmer. Not that he was guilty of any clan- 
destine equivocation or mental reservation therein, 
but publicly entered a solemn protestation, remaining 
on record in his office in manner and form following: 

" In Dei nomine amen. Coram vobis &c. non est, The copy 
** nee erit meae voluntatis aut intentionis per hujus-teMationr 
** modi juramentum vel juramenta, qualitercumque 
" verba in ipsis posita sonare videbuntur, me obligare 
^* ad aliquod ratione eorundem, posthac dicendum, 
^^ faciendum, aut attentandum, quod erit, aut esse 
" videbitur contra legem Dei, vel contra illustrissi- 
mum regem nostrum Anglise, aut rempublicam 
hujus sui regni Anglia), legesve aut pra^rogativas 
" ejusdem. Et quod non intendo per hujusmodi jura- 
mentum vel juramenta quovis modo me obligare, 
quominus libere loqui, consulere et consentire 
valeam, in omnibus et singulis reformationem reli- 
gionis Christianae, gubemationem ecclesiae Angli- 
canae, ac praerogativam coronae ejusdem reipublicae- 
ve commoditatem, quoquomodo concementibus, et 
ea ubique exequi et reformare, quae mihi in ecclesia 
Anglicana reformanda videbuntur. Et secundum 
" banc interpretationem et intellectum himc, et non 
alitor, neque alio modo dictum juramentum me 
praestiturum protestor et profiteer. &c." ^ 

This protestation he did not privately smother in 

<l Ex Regist. Cranmer. fol. 4. and in -Strype's Cranmer, Ap. 
[This protestation is printed No. 5.] 
in full, in Godwin, p. 139. n., 


ID Tht Ckmrtk History ■ooi v. 

A-iKifu-ft oortwr, bat pobtieljr int oq ioied H Uuce •mnl 

'ViiT' timet; Tb. ooce in the duytor-JioiMe, btjan ■alhanrtp 

wittivMiw ; Again, on hb battdiKl knee* tt tht U|^ 

■JUr, tntoy people mnd bishops bfholdin^ him wh«i 

hu wu to be oonaoented ; vwl the third time, wbas 

he rseelTsd hb paU in the sune pUct* . 

HttCMrfl S4. Beooadly, be aoenaDth hhn for hnriiiff a hand 

^■fi. in the condimnaUon and oxccutimi ot Uunhert, 

Frith, ui') otbrr k*>cIIv murtTni. TbU in«k<*-d canaoC 

be dcnlttl. For thouf;!i I ani Umth that Cnnmcr's 

bi«d f^ould (Ht tbp wci}(ht and violence of hb < 

lew dE^mptnn) he plurkci] andor water, i 

was innoM'nt, I will lf«ve him to nnk or i 

himxplf where he wa« guilty ; only adding, Jn i 

A' l'm 3d. Hb thini aoeaHOion, " he wu the i 

ikivtMi. "hi aeromptiihing the divnire bt^tween I 

" Kghth and quron Katharine, which 

" murli tpiuhle, dimriisitin, war*." But 1 

tutvc n>nK-titbt-n'<l. vrbii-b oliio |»roduced the | 

priiKN-w qiioen F.liitab<<th, who fieHerted 

formation, and br her long )iPorcabIe and virterinvs 

rei^ brought much honour, wenllb. and renown to 

our nation. Beridm, that divorrv b genenllj d^ 

feoded by protectant writers, wheae jndgninrts Ifab 

aecoier will rely on when it makes for hb porpoM. 

AnMs 96. Fourth ammtinn. the Uncoliuhirr lebeb, hi 

^ their six artleWn of lhi*ir grifTanor* }»mienl««l to 

king Henry the Eighth, complain, that thb areb- 

hUHifi, and other pt^ale* of hu ji^ace'ii late pn>< 

motioB, bad "sabTcrted the- faith of Cbriat, Ace*.' 

"j^^ S7. I answer, they ytvn- the Lincolnshinr rebcb 

^^ o^ that MUfI it. and Ihb their pn-ttiHkU rabviftinf of 

• PrjaM. Ik. f. ijs. < Mr Vtjum». (L 

CEKT. XVI. of Britain. 71 

the faith was the reforming and confirming thereof, a.d. 1533. 
Cranmer serving the God of his fathers in that way *V^ii7 
which they termed heresy. Well therefore might 
this cavil have been waved, good only to swell the 

88. Fifth cavil, though Matthew Parker reports, Tha grand 
as this delator confesses, ^Hhat Cranmer opposed 
^^ this act [of the six articles] at first, then caused it 
^^ to be moderated, and at last to be repealed in king 
" Edward's days, but others seem to imply that he 
" gave consent thereto at first ^." 

39- To this I answer three things : first, to imply Answered, 
is far less than to express, and such implications are 
often the bare surmises of a biassed apprehension. 
Secondly, to seem to imply is less than to imply, 
muUa videntur qtUB non sunt. Thirdly, the others by 
him mentioned ought to have been nommated, this 
author generally giving no scant measure in such 
wares; so that his margin (commonly overthronged) 
is here quite empty of quotations. Inopem nunc 
copia fecit. We may assure ourselves he would 
have alleged such other authors, but for several sub- 
stantial reasons, whereof this was one, because he 
had none to allege. And shall an uncertain, un- 
named nobody, be believed against Cranmer, before 
Air. Fox and Dr. Parker's clear testimonies in his 

40. Seventh cavil. " lie suffered martyrdom, not Violent no 
" while he was a bishop, but when degraded andpriving. 
" deprived^." What of this ? does this tend any 
thing to the disgrace of him or his order, seeing such 
an injurious and violent degradation deprived him 

▼ Mr. Prynue, ib. p. 133. ^ [Pryune, ib. p. 134.] 

F 4 

I _ 

7S Tlta CtamA HUloiy book *. 

AJ fcini .aot of hit c pto eo p i l IndoUbfe elumeter. to that still 

^^nSn^ bi ri^ Ih) penalneil a bbhop! 

^1^,^ M. Eiglith cavil. "IIo fiiUcd mnrv in lib nnr> 

]jj[|*'' " tjnlotti. I>y fcaM>ii of liw cowiuxlly nwaotatiaii, 
** tlimuj^ ho|>efi <if life, attd rt>stitutioii to hii fomer 
** dignity, than any nf hia fvllow>inart}rn'." Atmrer. 
it ia eoajsMed : Imt hu final cooaUuie; maj wuU 
eoTH hia IntermedMlt? failitipt. Bettor it ia Motif 
mod (rariyif to boar in our bodj- tho maricii of our 
Lord Jeatu, than ttoutlr and ktulibarnly to endim 
the bfmndi of our own iiuliacreik»i. 

4S. Laiit caril. Ha ma eotideauied for 1^ 
treaaoo, for an act dmw bjr Un aa aa arcfabfaAofi^ 
and eottneillor of ttate. for vbirh be prvfeMeth both 
Ui aomiw and iv]M-'iitatiri' f. \y\t\ \w m XnAxvA, hj 
the mnfeirioD of this his nlvenory? Tbr mora un- 
wortbj nun hia amiMT, aftt'r this his >ormw and 
repmtanoe to upbraid him thcn-w-ith. Mr. Vrffk 
mi;iht aho n>tni*nibcr that tbc two Innl ehicf joa- 
tit-fii wt-re ill tbc Minii> ttvawii, (whiMu vdnoatioa 
madf tlitta man* known in lliv law* i>f tbe land.) and 
ow Cnuinwr waa laat and ]aM. in the fiiult. it boiiif 
loBf befere ba could be pcfmailofl u> nbMzibe I* 
tbr diiinhpfiting ot qocvn Marr. 

43. \V<' ap|>ral to ibi' un[iaitiaJ irailrr, upon tbe 
pi>nwU of ibv iinmiiiM. wlii-thfr an trrdinaij rharitj 
might not. jt% r*ught not to haw [MMed hy thwo aiv 
cuMtiona, and whether the memory of arehbadMf 
Cranmer may not juMly my of Kf r. Prynnr, a* □ 
king of Isnel* of tlir kinfc nt Syria, vhrrrfm 
tUer / /w^ ,!">*. ntui hv krnt Ar tftkrlA a ^ 
agahut m0^ Indcrd no jfmit i» hb antipathy ■ 
eptaeafMrT. that if a wraphim himM'lf tfa<Mild be a 
» [fryww. ik. p. 134-] ' P'y*'*. '^ '34 ' ' Km»i. 


of Britain. 


bishop, he would either find or make Bome sick fea-A.D.1533. 
thers in his wings. ^\m7 

4i4i. Cranmer was now settled in his archbishopric, cranmer 
and the first eminent act of his oflSce was exercised ^"*^ 
in the king's divorce*. A court is called in the"®"'^- 
priory of Dunstable in Bedfordshire, as a favourable 
place, indifferently distanced, but five miles from 
Ampthill^ where queen Katharine resided. With 
Cranmer were the bishops of London, Winchester, 
Bath, and Lincoln*^, with many other great prelates. 
These summoned queen Katharine to appear before 
them, fiill fifteen days together, on whose refusal 
they not only adjudged her contumacious, but also 

• QApril II, 1533, the arch- 
bishop wrote to the king re- 
qnestiiig '• liberty to proceed to 
*' the examination and final de- 
" termination and judgment in 
*' the said great cause." (Works, 
I. p. 22.) The king's answer 
to this letter (State Papers, 
i. 392. Collier, II. Ap. N. 24.) 
appears to have been sent 
shortly after, but no date is 
affixed to it, in which he as- 
sents to his request. On the 
8th of May the archbishop pro. 
ceeded to Dunstable (Works, 
I. 38), " and so there at our 
" coming" (to use his own 
words) " kept a court for the 
** appearance of the said lady 
" Kateren, where we examined 
" certain witnesses which tes- 
'* tified that she was lawfully 
** cited and called to appear, 
" whom for fault of appear- 
" ance was declared contumax;'' 
(that is on Saturday May 
10,) and finally on the 12th, 
(Works, I. 23) ** proceeding in 
*^ the said cause against her 

" in poenam contumacia, as the 
*' process of the law thereunto 
" belongeth, which continued 
" fifteen days after our coming 
" thither. And the morrow 
*' after ascension day [May 
" 23rd] I gave final sentence." 
The cause terminated May 1 7 
(Saturday), but sentence could 
not be given until the Friday 
following (May 23), all the in- 
tervening days being ferial. 
(Works, I. 24.)] 

^ '^ [Within four miles unto 
*' Amptill," says Cranmer in 
his letter to Hawkyns, Works, 
1. 28. But of the bishops 
who presided with him in the 
trial he only specifies Long- 
land bishop of Lincoln, and 
Gardyner bishop of Winton. 
See also in the same letter an 
account of the coronation of 
queen Anne. Fuller follows 
Hall's Chron. Hen. VIII. 
p. 2 T o. b., and lord Herbert, in 
his Hen. VIII. 375. 

^ Gardiner, Stokesley, Clerk, 
and Longland. 


74 TAf OkmrrA Hutarf 

A.l)i.iui.pRmouncc<l her malrh with the kinfc m null and 
Vlll. anbiwfiil hx aoriiitim*: uiil stxin aftvr it wiu pnv 
ohitDod, that lipttct'fnrwanl none aIhiuM oUl lit^ 
yMMK. but« th« dawagrr »f prinr-c Arthur. And thiu 
• few diys had di^Mtrhcd that divorrr. which had 
depended manr yvam in thi* court of Uome. 
45- And now I cannot ntll kinff (lunr^a 
Iwca nau onn> mArrii>il ; nor a marritHl man, 
having oo wife : nor pnitNTlv a widftwcr. Imysimo hia 
vUb waa not diwl. IU> lit> llii-rffon.' a linf^ or 
nUier a •eparatt'd puraon, rfniaininfr ao <jf at all) but 
a Trnr ilujrt time. » ioon after aoknnnl^ married to 
tbo lail^ Anna Bolt-rn, of whom tarjtvljr hcrvafter*. 
TWtail^ 46. Now Uyan ^Jiulbt•th Barton to pbr b«T 
wwJ iS.tridM, emnnuHilv ralkt] the holr maid of Kent, 
Bh^ tbooftti at thudaj, tif Ki-tit, atone i« It^ft unto her, aa 
wlKwe maidouhip ia Tehi^im'ntly nupct^'d, and bo- 
Uw!« utterly dcniod; iJit* wa« famous on a donbla 
omiunt'. MrMt, for kn<iwin;r fprnHs paat. and in- 
dcwl tthi* ciMiUl toll iinr thiup wliich waa told bcr; 
ronrcninj; with frian her fiuni)iar«. and otbur Calka 
coafeMom, who rfvivli-fl iiianv priranM untA ber. 
Srrtmdlr. ahf waa eminent for foret^ling thinn* la 
romr. bu<I mine of her |in-<lirti<>n<i hit in the marlE. 
prorurtKl to the reiit the n-|intntifin of [tntphrry with 
en-dulou* |MNj|i|u. She fnrvtold that kiu)> llrarf 

•ITWUiVwwaianMiiri- fr— iW kiiy tc hdy r tl 1 1 . 

ntaljr to Ahm BolffTB alUr 4M«d " Q n w m wi A . Afril ft, 

lii* mm from Pruw*. Nov. " {,(<>))' ^ iImwU m igs> 

■ 4. isjj.tllalI'vChrBn. r.10)). rr^akiaf W MlMdaaaaaailM 

h.hmJmm.tS'*SM--»«'^H comNMtHB of Uw ^OMai. m4U| 

b>(»»^.p.$6i. TlN41*<m»n i. to fe aalW fc«K W PmIv 

<HMlndMlM«r n. Mta Aim cut Mlowtiv Umy t4.tte I^ 

»w imnwd Jmm i. Hm iW Krri tioM-.] 

TkoMwipto fur Uw Podm. rfBanvft. R«r. 1. f. y»u 

f. 111. wImh k a wanaM IUrtCfcna.[. ii(l,bsi9ih.] 


of Britain. 


should not be king a fall twelvemonths^, except he a. d. 1533. 
reassumed queen Katharine to be his wife. Viii. 

47. I am heartily sorry that the gravity of John Fisher and 
Fidier, bishop of Rochester, should be so light, and f J|5ed ^ 
the sharp sight of sir Thomas More so blind ^ as to ^®' ^orge*7- 
give credit to so notorious an impostrix, which 
phinged them both into the king's deep displeasure. 

As for Elizabeth Barton, soon after, she was exe- 
cuted^ with many of her complices and complotters. 
The papists at this day, unable to defend her forgery, 
and unwilling to confess her cheating, seek to salve 
all by pleading her to be distracted. Thus, if suc- 
ceeding she had been praised (and perchance canon- 
ized) for her devotion ; now failing, she must be par- 
doned and pitied for her distraction. 

48. We may remember, how, not long since, the Bjahop 
clergy did own, and recognise king Henry the Eighth pnaoned for 
for supreme head of the church, which was clearly the"oath of 
carried by a plurality of voices in the convocation ^. ""prero^r- 
John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, was the only emi- 
nent clergyman who openly opposed it. One ob- 
noxious to the king's displeasure on a threefdld 
account ; first, for engaging so zealously (above the 
earnestness of an advocate) against the king's divorce^; 

% [A month longer, says 
Burnet, p. 3 06^ following Hall, 
Chron. f. 22, a.] 

^ [It does not appear that 
sir T. More was deceived by 
her claims to inspiration^ 
though he had a great opinion 
of her sanctity. The best ac- 
oount of this extraordinary 
woman and of sir Thomas 
More's conduct will be found 
in a letter written by him to 
Cromwell. See Roper's Life of 
More (ed. by Singer, 1822) 
App. 101.] 

» [April 21 (1534), confess- 
ing her impostures. Hall, ib. 
f. 124. •*vii. months after/' 
says Fisher to the king in his 
letter apologizing for his ac- 
quaintance with the nun. Cot- 
ton MSS. Cleop. E. VI. 162.] 
^ [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 291.] 
1 [Burnet (Ref. I. p. 166.) 
asserts also the same. In a 
letter of Wolsey to Henry 
VIII. (State Papers, vol. I. 
p. 200.) Wolsey details a con- 
versation which he had with 
the bishop of Rochester, to 

A.D. itii- 

r A« Ckmnk muory 

wrofidlr. fi>r UmfPfiinit with ttuU notable ii 
Utu holy maid of Koiit; thfitUy. Ibr refiMiBg the 
fwlti of mipnTtnarT, for vrbiHi be «H now faitpri- 
mied. Indeed thU bubop loet binwelf (buth with 
hk frienii and b» foM) hy his inromUiiry ut the 
fliit. wehif ho who ■bcmld hare beca m majvA m 
the tower, wu ai wavering at the WBalhweocfc, 
outhpr 0(impl}iog witb the Idng, nor tgntiag wfth 
himvrlf; Init would lutd would not nrknnwlodjrp the 
Idiijr's »u|in>inarT. Hut u lut h<> fixtil himM>lf na 
the iifgativc, and rMMliitvIv continued therein till the 
day of UU death ; of whom more hugely bereafter. 
*" 49- The clergT in tlip |>rnvtnce of Vorfc did alio 
for a loog time dL-ti; t\w kinji's Mi|imnorr. Indeed 
the convoratiori of York lialh oTcr lincc ttrurk 
lalliiM witb that of Canterbury, (though nut InpUdtlf > 
wiaiiiinniHljr poit-coocMtliy tberawith; hot 
they dinnited, not beeaoK mofe kwnnog la Atk 
Judfnnent*, or t^iidor in tlifir conirieiKeK. 
rallT mort' Mi|Hmtlitiotu, and addirtvd in 
•innuch that tliev wnt two letb?m In the king; 
reive them writtesi. one fton the up|M*r. the other 
from the lower booM of eoavocation.) wbrtriD they 
aeqnafaaed Iw highw wfth their jodgmenta, <hriaw 
hdng many eifwloiw of general fabauHioa.) aad 
their reaaoni In a hige diacoone. why they eonld not 
adtnowli>dfto him to be ■apreroc bi!ad of the chnrch. 
"Jy.-.f^ 50. GlTe me leave to nupeet F>lwmrd Lor, arch- 

t ^MW "W Um twD,— 1m MMd iht 

I Mat far mIvIm " ■■ttw m W wn a«i mm* 

MWrfediMdMd " doabtlU. h4 ite Ml 4W. 

lMr«fdwlilMiiUiicaeiiii ' mwam, ^rnK^ Itm mam 

•^m^imunamiman^mn^h» "odMtbaPMMpmlMidAM 

- wtHm) m 1 wkmm^ !&■ oT " th^ bti^ m liihilj 

•• jwu piilwuiiiii Mdr. aad " omdml. wd ^Ml whlih 

*■ iIm 4amik of tha Uag jmw " m» MMiy lUafi ml^ la 

wti^ in Atk J 


CSKT. XVI. of Britain. 77 

bishop of York, for a secret fomenter of this dif-A.D. 1533. 
ference. He was a virulent papist, much conceited Vin.*^ 
of his own learning, (which made him to write ofYorka 
against Erasmus,) and a persecutor of protestants ; ™2t' 
witness John Bale™, con vented before him for a 
suspicion of heresy, who in vain earnestly pleaded 
scripture in his own defence, till at last he casually 
made use of a distinction out of Scotus, which the 
archbishop more valued, than all which he had be- 
fore more pertinently alleged out of the Old and 
New Testament. 

51. King Henry wrote a fair and large letter to King 
the convocation of York, too long here to be in-ai^^to 
seited, (though otherwise I have a good copy" there- ^^^' 
of,) wherein the king began mildly to make the 
passage for his supremacy into their consciences, by 
a rational and argumentative way. He disclaimed 
aU design by fraud to surprise, or by force to capti- 
vate their judgments, but only to convince them of the 
truth and equity of what he desired. He declavered 
the sense of supreme head of the church®, (though 
oflfensive in the sound to ignorant ears,) claiming 
nothing more thereby, than what Christian princes in 
the primitive times assumed to themselves, in their 
own dominions, so that it seems he wrought so far on 
their affections, that at last they consented thereunto p. 

B^ De ScTiptoribus Brit, in It was protested against both 

£dwardo Sexto. by archbishop Warham, and by 

n Communicated unto me by Cuthbert Tunstall, one of the 

my good friend Dr. Littleton. wisest, most moderate^ and 

o It 18 printed in the 2nd part most pious men of his days. 

of the Cabala [i. 227. ed. 169 1 .] (See both protestations in Wil- 

p [If Fuller means that the kins' Cone. III. 745.) When 

opposition made by the clergy Wolsey pleaded guilty to the 

to this title of supreme head charge of pramunire for exer- 

purely factious, or caused cising his legatine authority. 

by the opposition of archbishop (although he had been em- 
Lee, he is greatly mistaken, powered by the great seal to 

TIf Vhurrh Hitery t^ BrUaim. boom t. 

LD. (Ill- AS- Here I wooder «t tlw cBvil of Uw pa|iiMi, 
~^ vltlrh being ao wiMBltiM^ ibonU ho m ehmonto, 
^ Mvusing a* to have ■ iMutiameat religion. ■ pwliaiBrat 
fiiith. A p«riliinicnt giMpoM ; wmI aiHrtlicr odilvth par- 
liameut bbhop*, anil a parltamcmt clorgr. WbeiVM 
I Dxaminatinn i( will ■(■(H-ar. llial Uienf 
I 4ooo in the rt*ronniiliuii »( n'lifrion. tKfC 
what «H Mtod by tbe rlt-rgy in tbi-ir cHHivtKvUana. 
I or gnmndcd on noido mrt of thHrn. iirm<tktit in it. 
with tliu adTicc, cunnael, and ronscnt c»f (be bislin|w 
8n<l nKwt eminent ehorrluDen : cmifinnm) upon tito 
postfact, and not oUiervlae, br ihc rtril mnetJon, 
arctmlitijr to tbc nnge of tbe boM and ba|ipiott timea 
of Cliriatianity. 
I SS. Bj tbe Muiie t>n>i)ortioD in tbo daji of qneen 
Maij tbo popiob n'ligion might faaTf> been atjrM a 
pariiamenl rvUgion, Imxwup afier tbi< Hunu had bceti 
dclwtod on and rnnrltidvd of in the rimvocation. it 
was confirmed Irr tbe qocen. loitk, and '"^m^fim, hy 
tbe met of parlianient. 

ds M, a pnten far iarnlv. tW dllr, dogpd wtdl tlfe 
I % tte Jargj in Ito * ' - ' 

* 'noaoa wm i 

Hwnr yiva !■. hnuabt wotJ oT dw iwall •• 
iCraawdloM- th>ldH."UaiWWO«i'*(W 
u^* IW nam. vnUMad ia kk I alM 

, — hf mtmaem ni ww) - » |««t tdayad n» a 

Iftaad iadaead th» tknj to " dtevwd uua. I llmaghi la 

I «Kr toe,ooel. aa cottdHto w of ** ln?» aiad* fealt «f Uhw 

Iswoirlag a Ml pwdoa ; bat ** pnlaUk aad nam vaa ha«a 

HaraatioatW " wndrnd tha baJaa»dM 

r oAr. aalaw " iWr ar« Blwljr lo naka a 

I dMj «n«U -finlnfaii ■iTiijfcaTiJMa 

aliaadv. OatadMai 


Wftet^c/Kaghad. Tlik 
rtaaaaadoa «aa vialndy «p> 
lanadj thiaa da;* w«r« ^aal 

wad " of miM 

rUk " •fpHn. I 
op. " itaia* 

oaaafvKj f« tmmhim§.~ Afa 
; itf'iMt lliay ^r«ra Tjll*r ■ Iln VUI. a. 3>i ] 
> caatpnaaiaa Uw 4 Hudii« i«aiaM Jot^I. 
■ad a oawa W to iJaih r flc«hiiyaB. 

SECT. in. 





MaHer Haward returned this answer to queen Mary {de- 
manding the causes of his coming to court)^ that it was 
partly to see her highness, and partly that her highness 
should see him : an answer, which though more witty 
than court'likcy yea, more blunt than witty , she took in 
good part. 

You will not be offended at this my dedication, partly that 

going to ficht for his crown and 
dignity. And being told that 
it was this Richard Shuck- 
borough, he was ordered to be 
called to him, and was by him 
very graciously received. Upon 
which he went immediately 
home^ armed all his tenants, 
and the next day attended the 
king in the field, where he was 
knighted, and was present at 
the battle of Edgehill. After 
the taking of Banbury castle 
he defended himself valiantly 
on the top of Shuckborough 
hill which he fortified, but was 
attacked by the rebels, most of 
his men slain, and himself left 
for dead. But being found 
still alive, he was carried pri- 
soner to Kenilworth castle. 
He died June 13, 1656. See 
Dugdale's Warw. p. 309.] 

* fArms: Sable, a chevron 
engrailed, between three mul- 
lets argent ; according to a 
visitation taken in 16 19 by 
Sampson Lennard, Bluemantle 
and Angustine Vincent, Rouge 
Rote» preserved in the British 
Maaemn. Sir Richard Shuck- 
baron^ was the second sou of 
Jolm Shuckborough, esq. and 
Mamret daughter of Richard 
Ifidmnore, of Edgebaston in 
tbe county of Warwick, esq. 
SBOoeeded his father in 1631. 
Aa king Charles I. marched to 
EdgooC near Banbury on Oct. 
22, 1642, he saw him hunting 
m the fields not far from Shuck- 
bofon^, with a very good pack 
of honnda, upon which it is re- 
ported that he fetched a deep 
m^, and asked who that gen- 
tknian waa that hunted so mer- 
lily that morning, when he was 

I wtaff kmm jmi, purtfy ll«l / Miy A* l aw wdtt jpm. 
JBnUu, beimff Hj/brMcrf lAal .yon Jow to Urr yowr kot- 
fktd Hd/t kam J mm e fy tMtmtM wiA andml jvrnton. 

a<!)W thoQj^ nothing ww done tn nut- 

n tcrv of rvli^on, hut what wat fairly 

MJtd luTvlj' (iisrtuwd flnt by the aoit 

I Ivarnctl of tho pUsw^ ; jct thin jmx the 

rletKj in the ccniToealioa to ■ohwi UeJ 

thctDiQlTiM to the king, that eodi ooo wffnJIy pn>* 

uiati in wrio «aeerd!ofUi Dcrer henoefbith to |w^ 

Htme to allege, claim, or pat in nre, any new eaooo^ 

vnlen tho king*! moet royal asent might be had 

■nio them, and this noon after the Mmo ww nUifted 

by act of paiUamcnt *. 

I S. And bcfe it will \to worth my pains and the 

*" reader"! penaal to obecrrcT the dJSiTrnres botwera 

EtagUih lyBodi or ooavocatioM, which may L'mimmily 

be tfrtiagwblwd into four laBln* neh m wvr>, 

I Called boJbn the eonqueet. 

ii. Calleil iiinn* the eonqnnt, but before the ■ 

a( prtrrnHHirf was mode. 

iii. CallM after the aloremid tttaluU*. but ' 
another made in the reign of king I Icury ihi* Eighth, 
wbm'in tho cloigy were bound up, fnr diting t 
without thf ntyal SOTPiit. 

iv. t'allod aa^r tbo twttity-afth year of tfac| 
of king llmry the KiglKh. 

Tbi<M> dill pUinlr diBt.T in tbi> •erera] O Mna era ef 
tliHr rofPling. ami d4-gn<v« of pawn of their MChtg 
la Kpiritual matttrn. 


M, Rvf- 1. |i- 199.] 

CRKT. XVI. of Britain. 81 

3. As for councils, called before the conquest, a. d. 1533. 
whilst the pope's power had not as yet lorded it *Vin!^ 
over the kings of England, the kings ever were (if Kings acted 
not in person) in power present thereat; as byj^^^^^, 
perusing sir Henry Spelman's Councils plainly doth^®**^ 
appear. Yea, matters both of church and common- 
wealth were often dictated and concluded in the 

same meeting, Communi consensu tarn cleri qtcam 
populij episcoporum, procerum, comitum^ nee non om^ 
nium sapientuniy seniortim populorumqtie totitis regni^. 

4. For the second sort, (called after the conquest, Of the 
but before the statute oi prcemunire,) the archbishops Jf^^o- 
of Canterbury or York used upon all extraordinary*****^* 
and immergent cases, toties quoties, as their own 
discretions adjudging necessary or convenient, to 
assemble the clergy of their respective provinces 

at what place they pleased, continuing convocations 
in them so long, or dissolving them as soon as they 
pleased. And this they did, either as metropolitans 
or primates, or as legati nati to the pope of Rome, 
without any leave from the king afore obtained, and 
such canons and constitutions then and there con- 
cluded on were in that age (without any ftuther 
ratification) obligatory to all subjected to their juris- 
diction. Such were all the synods from Lanfranc 
to Thomas Arundel, in whose time the statute of 
prcemunire was enacted. 

5. A third sort of convocation succeeds, (for after Of the 
the statute of praemunire was made, which did much of oonvo. 
restrain the papal power, and subject it to the laws*****^* 
of the land,) when archbishops called no more convo- 
cations by their sole and absolute command, but at 

<= Sir Henrjr Spelman's [Concil.] p. u8. anno 605. 



TAr CkmrA ttiUon, •ooi v. 

tbe plvMotv of the kiti|r. u ofl u bin nomidtie* uid 
nrcMtnn* «it)) (lie iliftrH««*a of thp rliurch did nv 
"(juirf it**. Yi-m, now tlit'lr nifctiii^ witv by virtof 
of ■ writ or priKN'pt fmni the ktnK, uid H will tint bo 
uuiM lierc to exemplify Uie fiimi tbirrruf. 

6. ** Itvi. tua. HeremidiMiBio in (.'hruto fttri. 
•* A. CutwIaMl krdUaplnopo totiiu Anfrliir (trimati, 
** ct apoftoKeB mmUi kfitonhiteni. QoiboMbm u^ 
** dtiU K nrgentibiH nngotlit. <failpMioit— et icearita- 
" t«iii eceleifae AagtieuiK, u paeen. tnnqnUUtatam. 
" et baanm pablimm. << definiiioiwm Rfnl noitri, et 
** n^MliUirani tKwtmrQtn cjiuKlptn eaneementfbai^ r^ 
** fata In Sde et dilueUout*, qaiboa nofaii I 

* ^iNBOopM vMtm pranneoit, se deemoi^ et | 

* iBtilMhnun catbednUim, sbbMei, pciona i 
' rieetivDi eMmptae et non ewoqilM ; m 

e^iitnh, et 

«f"TWtf— iW MBM rii lm y ^ TU wrlilitihii OkUgr'* 

<mM Uhm miiUmi mmw " ti««. MwycuiiMi «w« n^ 

ifaeMattkhfiH^iMliwa*. •• mad* InU ma ««b pp. 

riyiihi m M» hy » n.y«l - UnMrti «w« •ittte. ^A. 

■ril ; fat nva tb«n nni in ** ml any uiW writ mei Ih* 

rirtw of tbc writ, bal bj " king bn' * ~ - • > 

(bfwUdi -'niiUbJ 

- hi^* iMMOT «r KM) W " Aftw IIm> Stk <ir t 
"■toiy toiJiiiihMi Aid - ib d«i7 if thn ■ 
" id tUa «• hn« • nrr n- " ktsf't Icttet had It 

- MTbUv moT in tW IM - id ib ■ 
"wii^hMwiWnwMjIV, "dnir« 
" wydi Iha^ ■iMM M U* ** •■»«■ MMlIjr d 
" writ WW tH •■ Ultb UMMi^ " tfim dw narfiaM) 
••tol»lwlihivittwant.tUi -bMkM. mC a I 

i«}rctnr«B, In avrnd ■ F^*^ 

" AttetMVT «M 6i«. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 83 

provinciae, ad conveniendum coram vobis in ec-A.D. 1533. 

clesia Sancti Pauli London, vel alibi prout melius *Viii7 

expedire videritis, cum omni celeritate accommoda """~~~" 
" modo debito convocari faciatis ; ad tractandum, 
" consentiendum, et concludendum, super praemissis 
•* et aliis, quae sibi clarius proponentur, tunc et 
" ibidem ex parte nostra. Et hoc sicut nos et 

statum regni nostri, et honorem et utilitatem ec- 

clesise praedictae diligitis nullatenus omittatis. Teste 

me ipso," &c. 

7. In this writ we may observe, first, that from the Ob«cmu 
word convocari faciatisy the word convocation took its^."* 
denomination, being formerly called synods, as lately 
(since our scotizing) termed assemblies. Secondly, 
that clause, in ecclesia Sancti Pauli London, vel alibi 
prout melius espedire videritis^ pointeth at a power 
placed, or rather a liberty left to the archbishops, to 
call their synods elsewhere, in case they adjudged it 
more convenient. But because the archbishops and 
bishops might the better attend their business in 
parliaments, (henceforward commonly kept at the 
same time with convocations,) St. Paul's in London 
was generally preferred for the place of their conven- 
tion. Thirdly, this writ was used even after the 
reformation, mutatis mutandisy namely, the title of 
apostolical legate to the archbishop being left out, 
as also the names of priors and abbots are extin- 
guished. Lastly, of this third sort of convocations, 
was all those kept by Thomas Arundel and the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury his successors, unto Thomas 
Cranmer; or if you will, from the sixteenth of 
Richard the Second, unto the twenty-fifth of king 
Henry the Eighth. These convocations did also 
make canons (as in Lynwood his Constitutions do 

M 71W CA«rc* Hutory »ooi v. 

A.D. iuj.Bpp«iir) wbich wpfi< binding. «lthnup)i iHine otbiT 

''viiT' th»n uriKKlirml nuthority ili<I omfimi tlirm. 

•n«UM V. Tbe iMt •ort of raiiv<>niiloiu n-niRin«, rallml 

JJ^J^doee the statate, the twenty-fifth t.f Iting Mcnrr Ibo 

Ef|[fatli. " that nine o( the clcrg; iJiaulil pn'mnw to 

** Ktttmpt, lUi^ge, chfan, or pnt in nre, tny cooiti- 

" lutiotu or ordiwuieai proTindnl, or ifnodib. or tmj 

- other canoni, roMtltattov, or ordiiiftiKM {iroTiD- 
** rial, (b; whataoerer name or natnea the; m^ be 
*■ called,) In tbcir cooToeatioo in tlinv coming. (wU^ 

- alwa}ri ihall be Maemblad b;^ tbe king^i writ.) no. 
■* hm tbe Mine tiagj Bwjr bare the king;'! moat 
" royal awnt and ticenie to make, promiae and exv* 
*■ riitc ntrh canoni, rotMtltatioM and ofdloaBeea 
** pmvlm-Ml or iijrnodieal, upon pain of ercnr cue of 
** tho Mid elur^gy doing tbe oootrBry to this art. and 
** thanof eomieled. to mflfar iniprttniini(.*nt> and 
** making fine at tbo khig^i will." Since this rear, 
frooi archbidtop Cnnmer to nrchbuhof> Laud, all 
cnaToeatioitf (mi lonff a* they laatttl) arv bum (ongue- 
tind, till tbe king did mt th<* Mtring thvrvof with bia 
lotten patent, allowing thctn If^ro to dfrbat« on 
maWgB of rdigion. Otberwiau, what Ihi^ conclad* 
are arrowa witboot pDei^ daggw* without (tointa. 
too blunt to pkne iMa tbe pnotioe of otbt^n. but 
■harp Mtongh to wound lh<imielTM. and bring ibrm 
within the conpsH of a prvmrnmir^. Yea, evai waA 
eoBTooatioaa with tbo rojal aHent nibjrrt not aay 
(fbr reenmuej to obejr tbdr canout) to a civil penalty 
b penoa or property, sntil eoofimcd by art of par- 

9. Thi* 1 humblr c«iopeiTo to bv tlu* 1 
betwixt tbf thn^ kinds of coavoeatiotH, 1 
what I bare written to tbe eramrp and ii o t r ee t iM 

CKNT. XVI. of Britain. 86 

of the learned in the law, conscious of my own igno- a. 0.1535. 
ranee therein, as indeed such skill neither is to be viii. 

expected or required in one of my profession, who 
am ready with willingness, yea, with cheerfulness, 
yea, with thankfulness to God and man, publicly to 
recall and retract what any such convince me to 
have mistaken herein ; hoping that my stumbling in 
so dark a subject may prevent the failing of others. 

10. There goeth a tradition, (taken up by many a vulgar 
without examination,) "that anciently the clergy sat*™^' 

" as one body with the parliament, and were not 
" divided till in the reign of king Henry the Eighth,** 
as a modem author hath written in a tract®. But 
when I asked of him, where he had read the same, 
he cited a French letter of cardinal Sadolets. Strange 
that a foreigner should be more seeing herein, than 
any of our native authors and records that I ever 
could behold. But it may be the error had its ori- 
ginal hence, because anciently bishops sitting in the 
parliament did not always appear personally, or by 
the proxy of men of their own order, but sometimes 
sent one or more of the inferior clergy to represent 
them, if it be true what I have read in a small 
English book, bearing the name of Mr. Selden (but 
I question whether avowed by him) of the proceed- 
ings in parliament. 

11. John Fryth sealed the truth with his blood. The mar- 
one who justly may be said aged sixty at six and S^n*° 
twenty, (so young was he martyred,) such his learn- ^'^* 
i^g ^ gravity, and constancy «f. It was chiefly charged 

< Calebut Downing. He suffered July 4, 1533. 

' [As proof of the estima- Fox, ii. 303.] 
tion in which he was held, he ? [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 338. 

was invited to become a fellow For the opinions of John Frith 

of Cardinal's college in Oxford, and other reformers touching 


Tke CkurrA Uutury 

A.[k ij]).oa him, that he doikNl tbv beUvvinft of ihv rvai pro- 
''vtiT' Moce in the ■MfanwDt (undentaiKl liini (/r worfo 
""^" thereof) to be ui »rti<4e of the faith, though con- 
fiMing Christ niUIr pnsc-nt in %ho hnnu), eo he mi^t 
not be cuniiM'llfl to the wunhippiog thervo£ Bvt 
thn« tliingi MIC wt ilowB lugely in Mr. FoxV Only 
I vrill add, that penoni oat of gniwidleH [nufrieion] 
roggvet two flcnndale on thb good man and hk vM^* 
namorjr. One, that he waa fptiltj of a 
afainat the aiati^ nwielj becauM he waa c 
to tbr Towor. The other, that hia wife being k 
thL> M-aii with Mr. Tyudat, e^pwiing UmM 
witli the will uf Ciod, that Cor her «ke i 
not liavt' tbv g\oTy of nod hindoiMl, dt-aiml to b* 
rid of her husbaiHl'a lir^. that Mr. Tvndiil tniicbt the 
BtMv frvely uqjoj her cumpanjr. Thua this . 
being hinaelf a fautard. Rwaaareth othan I 
nhaatity of Ida own paimta. Indeed the i 
T^nda] nneh exhorted frylh to pntlsat t 
bat not aa thoae cowardly f ptahi^ wUefa « 
otbon tu fight, and tbemaalvaa ftumlcB I 

riw oneUriM. m* Ci— iKi trimi Dr. BwaM «M la t 

Work*. 1. |k Uxiii. aaA ia ttaiat ■ LailMrMt uJ TliA 

I nnairr'* aw* aMoHBt of U Urn oMitrawwnj wHli Mm 

Fndi'i rMiiualliw. b. p. «a. vm iJm MiliKct t M^i mm Ui 

rW ■rvklwJMip (UtM UmI wiU h h h ^ *• ■"»« t^a J 

Krtlh " llnrngkl il Mf urt rum rm 

-u> W- t«br*«l HMWtkb 

"ntumt futk, tUttkwvktW 

" rwn amv»l anmnct mt 

- rVtM- wkfcb iW i«l Mi " pM bto tWir bnm - 

« ■iiMMl rf tka allM-. mi life i I ml k hyklf «w 

"MdMk of Ikk patot mH bm^J b; Pm. (>i ^oAi ^ 

** sAm tka HpiBJiM Mf <£«»> w«Q awtk* of unitatMM ** ia 

•• ^r^M - TW ^a k " IW MtMoM riirhuoM Md 

•ka Bty w iail w iW MlirtaMv " bctioM «r iWw «W ■kj*.'] 
irf hk N>(iiaa>to (in* tijr k [Acttk Jbc. IL |l $03, hm 

1. j». Frkfc. (TMI <| |iil wJ. ilL p. wi.J 


CENT. XVI. ofBritam, 87 

because afterwards he valiantly brought up the rear, a. d. 1534. 
and suffered for the same cause two years after. * viii7 

12. John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, was now Bishop 
prisoner in the Tower, where he was but coarsely je^^^f^ 
used, as appears by a letter to Mr. Secretary Crom-°®J^*^^ 

well. feasor. 

** After my most humyl commendations. Where 
** as ye be content that I shold write unto the king's 
" highness, in good feith I dread me that I can not 
be so circumspect in my writing but that sum word 
shall escape me where with his grace shall be 
moved to sum fiirther displeasure against me, 
" whereof I would be very sorry. For as I will 
" answer before God, I would not in any manner of 
" poynte offend his grace, my duty saved unto God, 
" whom I must in every thing prefer. And for this 
^ consideration I am ftdl loth and full at fear to 
write unto his highness in this matter. Never- 
theless, sythen I conceive that it is your mind that 
I shall so do, I will endeavor me to the best that 
** I can. 

" But first hear I must beseech you good Mr. 
Secretary to call to your remembrance that at mj 
last being before you and the other commissioners 
for taking of the oath concerning the king's most 
noble succession, I was content to be sworn unto 
that parcell concerning the succession. And there 
** I did rehearse this reason which I said moved me. 
•* I doubted not but that the prince of any realm 
" with the assent of his nobles and commons might 
** appoint for his succession royal such an order as 
** was seen unto his wisdom most according. And 
" for this reason I said that I was content to be 

o 4 



SB Tkw VAureA HUtory wwk V. 

A.Kto«.** nwrti unto that put of ibv <«th m concendnf 

rm!^ ' the ncmMkm. Tfats is ■ Tory truth, u Cod b»lp 

~~^~' " my aool at my mart iKwi All bu it I rcfnaed to 

" nrtmr to iocdo otbor p«m*b bvcsuM* that my Don* 

" iricnoe wonid nrrt wire me m to do. 

" Kurlhennun' I tM-necbt* yi>w to be godi 
*• uDt<> mv ill my ncomitio. Tor 1 have neitl 
** nor BUttv nor yvt oihi.*r riothca, that ar i 
" lor OKI t« wr«n>. hut tliBl he mggod and rent tA 
** ihamuftUly. Notwithstatidin^ 1 mi)rht eamly caftY 
** tliat, if they would koep my b<K]y warm. But my 
"did alsu, <><kI knows bow «h*ndi'r it hi at many 
" timi-fu And now in mint' iigi% my rtiimakc may 
** not away but with a fvw kind of meal*, which if 
" I want, I ili-onr forthwith, and lall into rraw* atid 
" diMVK^ of my body, and rannot kwp my wife in 
** ht«]th. An<t an our Lftnl knowvtii. I liavc no 
** thinjt Ifft unto me for to pnivi<]t* any bt^ttM*. bat aa 
" my brother' of bla own punM.- laieth out for me, to 
" bin gnut hiDderanrr. 

" \\'but«laac glide maalcr Secretary, cftnoea I 
■* betcchc yow to have aum pittje upon mc, ami bi 
" me have mcfa thingi at are necenary for ne la 
** mimi %gt, and apodally for my health ; and aba 
* that it may pleaae yow by yowr biffli wy«dou«. to 
■* move tho kfaiKi higfaoeaao to take mc unto hit 
" fpacioua fiivoor a^cainc, and to rraton' mt* onto my 
** liberty, out of this cold and iiainful 
** whereby ye thall biml me to be yowr pure I 
** man for emr unto Almijcfaty <iod. who erer haw 
** yow in his protertioD and ructody. 

" Other twain thing* I muit alia dwyt-r upim 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 89 

** yow; the toon is, that itt may please yow, that I a. d. 1534. 
may take some preest within the Tower, by th'as- ^ViiT^ 
signment of master livetenant, to hear my con- " 

" fession against this hooly tym. 

" That other is, that I may borrow some bookes 
to stir my devotion mor effectually theis hooly 
dayes, for the comfortte of my sowl. This I be- 
** seche yow to grant me of yoMrr charitie. And thus 
** our Lord send yow a mery Christenmas, and a 
" comfortable to yowr heart's desyer. Att the Tower 
" the xxij. day of December. 

" Your poor beadsman, 

" Jo. RoFPsi.'* 

His first petition for clothes was granted him, 
(having exchange thereof at his execution,) and it is 
probable the other two petitions, being so reasonable, 
were not denied him. 

19. During his durance in the Tower, he was hib often 
often and strictly examined'', before sir Edmund ^'^ 
Walsingham lieutenant thereof, by Thomas Bedyll 
and Richard Layton clerks of the council, and was 
sworn in verba sacerdotii^ to answer to many interro- 
gatories, but chiefly concerning four subjects. 

First, about the king's divorce, wherein he was Of fair 
always constant to what he had printed of the un- ^lil^uian. 
lawfulness thereof. 

Secondly, about his supremacy, which (at last) he 
peremptorily denied. 

J [Original Holograph, Cot- ^ [See the original report of 

ton M8S. Cleop. E. VI. 172. this examination, every page 

Fuller printed only part of this subscribed by the bishop's own 

letter. I have retained the hand among the Cotton MSS. 

whole, our author having again Cleop. E. VI. 169.] 
referred to it below.] 

IV Tht CJmrrh //itlun/ MK>K *. 

' lUrdly, aboot hit eatiM«liiig the bDpavtmv of 
BUnbeth Buton. the nuid of Kent; vlMcvta be 
OMtfvflMMl bb wrmkiKw. waA oTer-evjr belief; bat 
ulb^ri)' d(>nie«l uir ill intcnticnw to the kinc** penoiL 

Kuaithlf , about tb« vtatute of nicecHion. whemn, 
m appew* by hu lottw to waerturj Cninwdl', be 
WW eootant to nibwribe and ■wr to the body, bat 
BoC to the pnamble tbarooT". 

90. Wlilch wimli thenio. M otkmAn to FlriMn 
(exr<i*t tbuiv bu anv other onpriotcd fnbtm to tUi 
atatute,) werr lb«H< : "flie biibop of Rone I 
** apoatolic. oontrarr in tlio fiyvat and 
** paotB of joriMliotiun hr thul imni(>diatel]r | 
** penirs, kin|r*> uid prinrf«, io i 
** bfint, hath pmnimed in time* paat to hiT) 
" iboilld ptfliM tbem to tDhrrit in other mcn'a 1 
** dona and dominkna : whirh thitif^ we vour moat 
** hnmble mlffecta, both »piritual and tciupunl, do 
" most altbor and dotoat"." 

SI. Here I know not whether morv to eommtnd 
the poUcy or ebaritj of archbiabop Cnuuner, deMiiog 
in a letter to flecrrCarj Cromvell*, that thti |«rtia] 
■ubaeription wfakb biibop FUwr pmRtrf^ to tbe 
alatato of raewaion migbt be accepted; adding, 
that good nae niffat be made thereof to tbe kta^ 
■draataKe. ni^ gmeiBl repntatkni tbe world had of 
thb Uahnp'k lt«min^, and i>f uir Thomaa l^lore'a: 
both whirh it ■vemi'd witit th*y «uni< path and jmeo, 
and m thia point iitarl4«d. ran. and stopped togetber. 
Indeed. H w«a not good to ■train mdi flne ■tringi tao 

ted prafiMito tUi 
} of RomentaH 
«t and invilj^^^H 
mni(>diatel]r N^^^H 

WILl'LMlon **|j^^^^| 

paat to '"^"■■^^^1 
other men** wf^ 

I tPriatod ■km. p. 87.] fi$*. 
• (Iknwt. Rrf. I. p. J17 1 • C-ttM «SS [* 

■ Hm tb» printed MMMm. VI. f. 181. CfUBMif^ 

; at ll«. VIII. MP 11. rat.1. p.iai.] 

F^ Warki, 


CENT. XVI. of Britain. 91 

high, which possibly moistened with mild usage a. d. 1535. 
might in process of time have been stretched to a ^^vm7 
further compliance. But, it seems, nothing at pre- "~~'"~" 
sent would satisfy, except both of them came up to 
the full meksure of the kmg's demands. 

22. As for bishop Fisher his concealing the pre- Fisher's 
tended prophecies of Elizabeth Barton, it was so fer^iSSra?* 
waived, tht he «a never Meted for the »me..^ 
And indeed he made an ingenious plea for himself; 
namely, that the said Elizabeth had told him she 

had acquainted the king therewith ; yea, he had 
assurance thereof from the archbishop 4. And 
therefore, knowing the king knew of it before, he 
was loth to hazard his displeasure in that, which 
was not revealing what was unknown, but repeating 
what would be unwelcome to his grace. 

23. But not long after, he was arraigned of high Yet how 
treason, and it will not be amiss to insert the sting '^hy^. 
of the indictment out of the original. demned. 

^ Diversis Domini regis veris subditis fedse mali- May 7. 
♦* tiose et proditorie loquebatur et propalabat vide- 
** licet : The king owre soveraigne lord is not 
" supreme hed yn erthe of the cherche of England. 
" In dicti domini regis immund. despect. et vilipen- 
** dium manifest.*^" 

Of this he was found guilty, had judgment, and was 
remanded to the Tower, where, for a time, we leave 
him, and proceed. 

P [Burnet, Ref. i. 312.] •" His words were spoken 

q In his Letter to the King, May 7, in the Tower of Lon. 

in Bib. Cotton. [Cleop. £. VI. don, but he arraigned after- 

162.] wards. 


I lb. 

TV CAmrA HiMoty komt t. 

A.l>. \%iy 94. Tht» WM tho power of the pope toUUjr 

viu"' almliiibc*! out of EngUod, vbereof the Ronuuiifts at 
filyfaMM. tlui Ukjt do bitti'riy complain, but cwi ivvt'Ofte tli«in- 
{C^M >bI«h ho otlxir «BT, MVP hy affppniing tu m gnlltjr of 
■ohlon and *ppw»tion, for rvodinfc ourselves from 
the m«lli«r-rhurrfa. Bbune ui not, tf loth tliat tlu> 
chiiifh of Enjrlontl (i'< whnw dttrtrine kikI <li-M-i|ilino 
wc were bum, and brwl, ond dmrn* to iliv) itbcnild lie 
under «o fool and &ba au imputatian, wbtrh bj tW 
following tauntiTe may fuUjr be confuted. 

tS. Three thui](» are Maontkl to juatiiy tba j 
lt»l) n>r'>miatic»i &on tlw •oaodal of acfaimi, to^ 
that tlK7 liail 
I Jnat eaoae for wtiteb tlwy deo*ded froni Roine. 
iL Xtuo autlioritj br vriileh they dccvded fnou 

BL Doe BiodefBtion in what tbejr deeedad ft«« 

>iM 96. The 6nt will plainl;^ appear, if we 

pOTf. the alHtDitnablu erron whiob contnuT to 

and jtriniitiTo prartire were then crept 

cburrh of Kmne. As the denyinft the eup to the 

fautT ; wonhipping of ima^piw ; locking up tlu* Krii^ 

tttna In Latin, and peffbtming prajroi in an nn- 

ItDown tMgnflk with thn m uii a tf o iity of tiaaaibataa- 

tiatioa, Bnexnmhle pnelicea. Beiidea. the beha- 

HMitli of the |H>iie'a iiiAUlihilltT, and the loTiathan of 

Ua aaivenal juriadirtinn, »o exclaimf-d againvt bf 

OnigDfj tbotiraat as a ootr of Antirhrim. 

■ i^w. 97* •Inat cmoie of rvfnnnAlion tN-itijr tbos piovetl, 

^J^i^fwoeeed w« to the authohtr by which it u to bo 

*'- nnde. H«te we eonAai the most reffular wajr was 

bj order fifnm a free and goDond nruncil. bot bera 

alas no hope thereof. Geoeiml it cuuld not be, the 

CENT. xvi. of Britain. 9S 

Greeks not being in a capacity of repairing thither ; a. d. 1535. 
nor free, such the papal usurpation ; for before men vm. 
could try the truth, hand to hand, by dint of scrip- 
ture, (the sword and buckler thereof by God's ap- 
pointment,) the pope took off all his adversaries at 
distance with (those guns of hellish invention) his 
infallibility and universal jurisdiction, so that no 
approaching his presence to oppose him, but vrith 
certainty of being pre-condemned. 

28. Now seeing the complaints of the conscientious The power 

OK A Oft" 

in all ages against the errors in the Romish church tionai 
met with no other entertainment than frowns and improTed. 
frets, and afterwards fire and fagot, it came season- 
ably into the minds of those who steered the English 
nation, to make use of that power which God had 
bestowed upon them. And seeing they were a 
national church under the civil command of one 
king, he by the advice and consent of his clergy in 
convocation, and great council in parliament, resolved 
to reform the church under his inspection from gross 
abuses crept into it, leaving it fi-ee to other churches 
either to follow his example, or continue in their 
former condition : and on these terms was the Eng- 
lish reformation first advanced. 

29. But the Romanists object, that England being Objection 

to the 000* 

first converted to Christianity by the zeal and caretnuy. 
of the church of Rome, (when pope Gregory the 
Great sent Augustine over to preach here,) cannot, 
not only without great ingratitude, but flat unduti- 
fiilness, depart from the church which first taught it 
true religion. 

It is answered, first, this argument reacheth not Amww i. 
west of Severn into Wales, where the ancient 

9* TV CimreA Hittory mox v. 

A.O. luj. Britfuu by iienonU coafvwlou wro converted boftm 
ViiL tb« linif of AuffnAliiM*- 

Ammm u Ktwoiidly. tliM Am fsvimr PMwiTOil frnro Room 
paU nut (m Kof^iil ■» strict uid wrvilc- an obli- 
fCKtkta u( pcriivtuftl ctmtiniuncc, llint Mbc nuj and 
mmit not aenv ttod niifaoat askiog her leave. It 
tfaa EngUnd oiiljr to a fiur and gmUfftU mpect. 
wkieh die alvajn teadervd, till the intDlcaiejr of tlw 
churrh of Itonw made Hi unwiUiDff to pay. and her 
anworthr u* ruccive it. 

A*"*"^ Thinlly. tomv vtrra^fa may be alluwnl tu ibia 
ohJLTtion. if Romt> ouuld b)> pmvi'd lh« nmo in do^ 
triiH' aiMJ diaci)>ltiic, when un<]<T liu> reijni of kiaf 
Henry Iho KiKbtii MoKland ilivided itadf from H, 
with Itume. when in ihv timo of Gregory the Ofeaft 
it wan roiiTert<>d l^ God's bleaung on hte •odearoun. 
But fdocf tlut time the dnirdi o# Rone kath beea 
much mmi|>t««) In ofiinloiii and praetiee, eaqr to 
provn, but that it \% not the net worlt of our biatoty. 
90. But tifmn tltu [«ptitB object, that tbe nuMt 
' jodirwoi prutvBtauia du iogenioiMly coafoH, that tbe 
church of Homo mahitalnptli all tbe flukfauntnitala of 
rvliffion. Gnfrluid tbanfttre cannoc be escoaod from 
■chion Inr diridbg from that dmich, vUek^ 
tMr owB confMMoo, atUI retaiiteCh tbe trae 
tioaaC Christianity. 

tl. It i* anawived. if same protoiUnu be 
ia their waaurM oa papiati, it appeal* tbeieby, 
though diey baTe left Rome, they haw not loM 
their eoartcay nor their charity. But giast (whieh 
la indiiputable) tbe enan of tbe rbarch of Rome 
not fiadamaataL they mn eiPo»>Amdanifntal, irrating 
«■ ibe Tory foniwhltow. Beiidta, wi> aiv Imund to 

od frvn I 
■ociia ^ 

CEVT. XVI. of Britain, 96 

avoid, not only what is deadly, but what is hurtful ; a. d. 1535. 
not only what may destroy the life, but what may * viiT^ 
prejudice the health of our souls'*. ' 

But our adversaries persist to object that our30i>- 
reformation took its rise from king Henry's pride, to^ 
pluck down a power which crossed his designs, from 
his covetousness to compass the revenues of abbeys, 
and from his wantonness to exchange his old em- 
bracings for new ones. Well therefore may the 
English blush at the babe when they behold its 
parents, and be ashamed of their reformation, con- 
sidering the vicious extraction thereof. 

Answ. Malice may load the memory of king The an- 
Henry about his demerits; yet grant the charge'^®'' 
true, that bad inclinations first moved him to the 
reformation, yet he acted therein nothing but con- 
formable to the law divine and human. It is usual 
with God's wisdom and goodness to suffer vice to 
0ound the first alarum to that fight wherein virtue is 
to have the victory. Besides, king Henry's reforma- 
tion hath since been reformed by successive princes 
of England, who cannot justly be taxed with any 
vicious reflection therein. 

S2. It remaineth that we take notice of the mo- The mode- 
deration of the reformers, who being acted not with ^fi^Jien. 
an opposition to all which the papists practised, but 
with an affection to truth, disclaimed only the ulcers 
and sores, not what was sound of the Romish church, 
retaining still what was consonant to antiquity in 
the four first general councils. 

88. Matters thus ordered, had the Romanists The amdiu 

sioD of the 

been pleased to join with us, there had been nocontert. 

' [The answer, that the Ro- putably true, so is it a much 
manists separated from us, not more tenable position.^ 
we ftom them, as it is indis- 

9$ TItt CkmtA tfittary aoos *. 

*• %?-**> • OTtn|4ntr'"f -^ i*um ritber in Uieir itraets or oun. 

*^rti^^ Bart fDeh their pride uid pevrUmeH, to peniit 

obrtitMrtc, to tbb day ineeiue many peuplo, («^ 

lifter tnnm to the loaibicai, tbui ^rigU the jiutiMM 

of compUinta,) aceoainf iu of wUfnl MrpMstioa ; bat 

the pramim well eoniideied, Engbnd maj «j to 

Borne, Pk^rttt iMe inaek it upom Uur*. wlit>, with 

Athaliah, cfjring TVmmm. tnatom*, hting hvntAf tbe 

prime traitor, tsxetb tu with aehina. when abo th« 

00I7 arhumatic 

nmi^fm -, 94. We «it«r now 00 a ■ul9ect wbleh w<* moat 

M^ Eaff- not ntnil, nich in the tMNWonuHSt thereof in tMir 

***'' hirtnnr ; jvt whirh we caaDoC oovpleto. no intricate 

the nature thenwr. and ao ahort and doabtfal oar 

IntdBgenoe theivin : naineU. to pvi' a general i»li> 

mate (partieakn bebig iinpoMihlc) of the papal 

rvTcanea of Eogbuid. 

fl„ T - S9. I life be it premiaed that I hombljr caneeim 

S^^'^]| the pope% ioeome rma the bi^HtM^ >» Rnjrland tindar 

king Henrj the Tfainl and kinj; Kilwnnl the Flnt* 

befofv the Btatat*^ of mortnuun (ao<l after it that uf 

prtemmmirr) wan tnade. for tbi-ae niurlt abated hia 

intr«Jo. Ami although 1 deuT iK>t but under kiog 

Henry the Eighth be might leodve man vaaamf, aa 

then mom plentiful in Koglaiid, jvt U> prail tm- 

■eriy wai greater, if the Mandard of gold aad d hw 

be but stated proportkniably. 

fw. ^mm. 96. llowoTer, the rait nuns Rome mnivad 

2^^^ at the tiow of reformatioo, will appear bj I 

miiitg coromoditiea. For, firat, ofum t)tf»t I 

brav set \tj ajniMdache to signify all popUi t 

■tnlab, consvcimted beada, &C-. which 1 

know what thay be, a* pApitta why Um-jt use them : 

* 0«a. luviii. »9, < 1 Kiaga ti 14- 

c KNT . XVI. of Britain . 97 

of these were yearly brought over from Rome into a. d. 1535. 
England as many as would fill the shop of a haber- ^Viii!^ 
dasher of holy wares. Now, though their prices 
were not immediately paid into the pope's purse, but 
to such his subordinate officers who traded therein, 
yet they may be accounted part of the papal 
revenues ; (the king hath what the courtiers have by 
his consent ;) and if such trading was not permitted 
unto them, the pope must either abate of his train, 
or find his officers other ways of subsistence. 

37. Secondly, for annates^ so called because they By his 
were the entire revenues of one year (in the nature"^***** 
of first-fruits) which the bishops and inferior clergy 
paid to the pope ; we have no light concerning the 
latter, but can present the reader with an exact 
account what every bishop in England (new elected 
or translated to a see) paid at his entrance to his 

Bishopric, Paid, 

Canterbury 10,000 F. 

besides for his pall 5000 F. 

London 3000 F. 

Winchester 12,000 D. 

Ely 7000 D. 

Lincoln [5000 D.] 

Coventry and Lichfield 1 738 D. 

Salisbury 4500 Crowns. 

Bath and Wells 430 F. 

Exeter 6000 D. 

Norwich 5000 D. 

Worcester 2000 F. 

Hereford 1800 F. 

Chichester 333 F. 

Rochester [1300 F.] 

St. David's 1500 F. 


The Ckmrrh Htttory book v 


700 F. 


St. Amfb IM P. 

Vcfk 10,000 a 

beMdn br hw pd) fiOOO D. 

Durluuu 9000 F. 

Cariikl« 1000 F.» 

III tliu ■mmtit F utontU fur florin>. bring wortli 
four Hhillitijpi Rtid MxiM-ncc in our Eiigltiili mouej. 
D for niuglr tluoilc, Bullicicully known Tor four AU- 
Ung*. Unruln't not boiiig Vklufd 1 bvbuld m « 
mere nunuU omWoo la Uib cmulogue ; but em 
I why RnchiwttT not ntcAt who, lining 
I M ofaaplun to ttit' urhbutiop of GutCf^ 
tnd Mwlnitty in hi* (loiMtion. inay be wfipoawl 
In tlir high vnluation n{ hU patron. Tbat 
BlUl will WflU, Ihrn •€• hijili in wcftlth. »hoa)«i he 
wa low in Snt-fruiti*. (u|ivn«t uit uitbor* wooden,) 
plkhiljr ibewi that fttvour wm fiuhloaable, m la all 
other eotuu, m In tho mart of Ronte. The rat ti 
the tlnitlidi bbilioprin wvrv not in Iwing befora the 
k S9. Thinilf, hj spiM-aU; thf in>|h> httring kMuned 
thto poUrj from tb«' cuunrit of Jotlm> to Moaa^ 
^rery yrtat thing tkrj/ tktiU hrimy mn/o tkre, hml mrjf 
rlAiy (%ii. du' m-'wnty Mt-n) »Mt Jtidger, 
to hlnwrif the ilotinitjvc amtcnrc in all 
Ugh coutTovmhw. which bniught no lonall prottt 

* TU* MtildgM WM «. ■"QMdnlnr.'tMwlM.k 

tnmA wH of WJwy QodwJa. U* C«lal«|w «r BidMr«, p. 

[4»)|f«>. ARBUB,».leo. TW 447 t 

iBli r I bT» npflM ia ' KiU. K*t L i>. 


uf Britain. 

40. Fourthl)', by king Athehvolph'e pension given a. 0,1535. 
by him to the pope, anno 852, whereof largely *Viii7 
before ; a distinct payment from Peter-pence, {with By king 
which some confound it,) as stinted to three hundred ^yj'^^;^ 
marks '; whereas the other were casual, and increased p«»ion- 
according to the number of houses. 

41. Fifthly, for dispensations. Oh the charity of ybiidi*- 
the pope, to l«y heavy burdens on men's consciences, 
(without command from God's word,) too heavy for 

them to bear! but then so merciful he was, for 
money to take thera ort" again; thus licenses to 
marry within degrees forbidden, for priests' (base) 
sons to succeed their fathers in a benefice, and a 
hundred other i)ai'ticulars, brought yearly a nemo scit 
into the papal treasury. 

42. Sixthly, indulgences are next, though I know By induig- 
not how essentially distinguished from dispensations, 

nor dare warrant the distinction, that the former was 
against, the other above canon law. As when abbeys 
and other places were freed from episcopal juris- 
diction, and many other privileges and exemptions 
both personal and conventual. 

43. Seventhly, by legatine levies; these, though By it^tine 
Dot annual, yet came (almost) as often as the pope's 

needs or covetouaness would require them. 

44. Eighthly, mortuaries due at the death of great ny roor- 
prclates, though I find not in what manner arid pro- ''°"'*' 
portion they were paid. 

45. Ninthly, pardons; he saveth his credit the Ry pardon.. 
best who makes no conjecture at the certainty of 

tiiis revenue. And though the pope (as then too 
politic openly to confess his profit by granting, so 

* .See air Henry S|)eliiiaii' 
II 2 

ell- ]>■ 3S3- 

1} ll-rr 

1 1-*/: 


100 Thr ihurtKllitloni woi *. 

rinro) bo t(w> (irouil pobliolr to bcmuui bu Iom \rj 
•Aoy\nn^ of llit-M.' |Nin1<iii<>, vet U bo Mvrptljr and 
Rulljr Kiiwibli-* of a gfvat eiii|ititicM in hb tnwNira 

46. Teatbiy. Potci^penoe niceoed, gnutted bj tna, 
Iclag of the Wort Saxuifl, to pofw Gn-gnfr tlw 
SeeoDil, anno 6S6. It mv a |M>nnr paid for vwrf 
ehkaamj that mokKl in England, which in that 
hospitaj ago Iwd fifw MnokeleM onca ; the dence of 
cipcr-tuunrlK, or ia(ick-cbiinn«7» meieljr for tui- 
formitjr of builtling. bfitifc unknown in tbotr dajri. 
lodcod, hf-fun* the roiiquf>»L, surli onlv |mid Peteiw 
\iKucv who wf rp worth ibirty p<*ope in reariy rvnanb, 
or half a mark in j^oodt ; Imt afterward* it waa col- 
Imrted p>n<^l; of all iwlrablu houiiek(<4*pen, ami that 
on most hMTT punaltiea*. 

47. Now thaa|^ WMW can tell what tbaw 
anionnt4<d to, ]n4 eof^erttm ma? ho madf. br d^ 
•cendioii to such proportions, which no rational man 
will deny. Allow!rt)( nin** tboumnt] pariiibtii (abating 
the odd buiidtvds) in l-jiffland and \Valr«, a bnndrwl 
hooaea In vtrrj pari«b, two rbimnvn in ewrr boaae. 
one with another, it amctb unt4> a yearly luai of 
Mnvn thooaand fire butulrrd pound*. Here I «ay 
nothfaif nf the inlriraiiail ^-aluc of (heir iwniiy, worth 
two pence in our agt>. 

EtavMilUy, fii^tinngOT follow, many pecaoaa of 
qualtty going yearly to Rome. aooieUaMR pewhiire 
wHh faaie Im«, bat new with mpty haah. But 
the pope^ prinripal harveat waa in the jahilw^ 
(wfcidi of late we un eJ ereiy five and twenty yea«^) 
wfaiB Ds fewer than two hnndied tbooMad itw ng e w 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 101 

have been counted at Rome at once. Of these more A.b. 1535. 
than the tenth part may be justly allowed English, * Viir'^ 
it being always observed, that distance increaseth 
devotion; and the furthest off, the forwardest in 
will-worship of this nature. 

49. Twelfbhly, we conclude with tenths, and on By tenths, 
what title they were paid to the pope largely here- 

50. Here we speak not of the accidentals, as au cannot 

bo tnilv 

legacies bequeathed by the deaths of princes andoountel 
great persons, and other casualties and obventions ; 
Sixtus the Fourth being wont to say, that " a pope 
" could never want money while he could hold a pen 
" in his hand ;" (understand him, to grant general 
indulgences ;) though Luther's holding a pen in his 
hand hath since much marred his mart herein. Now 
certainly Demetrius could tell better what was 
gotten by making silver shrines for Diana '^ than 
St. Paul himself: and while some protestants com- 
pute the papal profit to be a hundred and fifty thou- 
sand pounds per annum, some more, some less, (but 
all making it above the king's revenues,) they do but 
state his income at random. 

51. Only Polydore Virgil, if alive and willing, Poiydon 
were able to give a certain account of the Peter- i«^of the 
pence, (a good guess at the rest of papal revenues,) ^^^j^^ 
.knowing them as well as the beggar knows his dish, 
as holding the bason into which they were put, being 
collector general of Peter-pence all over England. 
But this Italian was too proud to accept them as 
gratuities, (in which nature they were first given,) 

^ Acta xix. 27. 
H 3 


m TV CAmrtM Uittory hm» *. 

bnt tatMted tbflm in the notion of a reiit uul tribute 
due to the pope hkt mutor. 

AS. Hut is that Poljilore Viif^l wliu wm dignituy 
of the cmtbetlnil of Wvlls. uid. u I lake it, aich- 
dmcoo of Tsuiiton, on the f\mra whrrvof be be- 
stowed bangiiigv floari«be<d with the laarpUnv, u)<l, 
w I ranember, wroto upon tbem. 

flunt Pulytkiri aiunn* Vtrgiln. 
But would he bad flp«n<d his bmefiction to the 
churcb of WelK on condition be bad been no mil^ 
ftirtor to tho eburcb nf Knfdand ; jea, to reHgloa and 
tnuiiinj^ in f{vnpm), if it lie Irue what eoounoiily la 
report c>d. 

SS. For he wrote a Latin biatovy of Britain, (Vam 
the ori^nal of the ttalion until ainto Dom. ISS, tbc 
yeta of kinj; Henrr the Riffhtb, out of many rare 
mantncrit't" which hv had coUwtcd toprthLY. Now, 
partly to miik^- the n-]iutnl)on of hb own writlngi, 
thAt hi* niifcht Mvm no lazr tnuurrifat-r, partly to 
render himwif out nf the reach of confutation, beiof 
UMpeeled not over-laitbful in hi* rvbtion. he ii Mid 
to bave bnml all tfaoae rare aatbon which he could 
ooinpaH bito bis poawMinn. Ttnu, trrant-like, be 
mt down thoae )4«ini whereby be aaeetided tbe 
tbrane of his own knowlcdj^'. If tbia he tnie, tbe 
world nay thank Polydoro Virgil for bis work Ar 
ImremHtme Renm, bat b«T« eanae to cbide (not to 
■ly cmw) hi* nwoKiry for bb act <^ ^wrdiHwm 

54. 1 have met with a poper of Taw^ wUdI, IBt* 
a twncdfrnl sword, cut on both fidea, plably it 
Pfitydnn* \*inril, iHit ulMcurely at a later plaguy, 
and in inr »piiiir>ti init unworthy to he inaerted. 

CBNT. XVI. of Britain. 108 

A.D. 1535. 
*7 Henry 

Leyland's supposed ghost. viii. 

Am I deceivM ? or doth not Leyland's ghost 
Complain of wrong sustained after death ; 

As VirpPs Polydore accus'd his host, 
The Thradan king, for cruel breach of faith, 
And treasures gain'd by stopping of his breath ? 

Ah greedy guardian ! to enjoy his goods. 

Didst plunge his princely ward into the floods ! 

Am I deceivM ? or doth not Leyland's spirit 
Complain with th^ ghosts of English notaries 

Whom Polydorus Virgil robbed of merit. 
Bereft of name, and sacked of histories. 
While (wretch !) he ravish 'd English libraries ? 

Ah wicked book-thief ! whosoever did it. 

Should one bum all, to get one single credit ? 

Am I deceivM ? or doth not Leyland^s spirit. 
Make hue and cry for some book-treasure stealth, 

Rifling his works, and razing name and merit, 
Whereby are smotherM a prince-given wealth, 
A learned writer^s travail, wits, and health ? 

AH these he spent to do his country pleasure, 

save his name, the world may know his treasure ! 

1 am deceivM ; for Ley land's ghost doth rest 
From plaints and cries with souls of blessed men. 

But heaven and human laws cannot digest 
That such rare fruits of a laborious pen 
CAM to be drown'd in such a thankless DEN. 

Thus heaven and all humanity doth sue. 

That Ley land dead may have his titles due. 

Who this second plagiary was, complained of for 
plundering Leyland, if the reader cannot conjec- 
ture, I will not tell, such the honour I bear to bis 

H 4 


104 'naClumA Hhlwy booi t. 

A.D. ijjf-ultnirmble perfomunces, though herein nut to be 

H<»|«t^ 55' CniHil pnwcrr thus cxtingaivhn) in Enflmd, it 

^^^ in wfirtb tmr inquiry whi.-rv the miiic fur the futara 

"'™'- WM fixwl. whirb we find nr>t t>nlin-ly •i-ltM in »ny 

ODC, but BCCorditifT to jiistiro uid <i(iiity divided 

unotigtt nuDj iihiin'n tbervin. 

Ottttn 56. And fint, </ tVr UNtn (Jnd ikr ikin^t vhirA »rt 

dMik Goft. UHiAt the Phariaeea mid «iu true in tW 

doctrine, thouj^ fabv in the um- thercor, u applied 

to our Saviniir, whom tbejr nuitook for a mcK mtni 

Whn ean fifrgire timt h&t God alimef * lliis pan- 

ni'iufit |H)wi>r, no ]em bh^emfHulT than arruftaBtlj 

naur^Mit by tbo |N>jie. rhumlnjr nn nliwdale and an- 

UioritAtivc iKirdoiiinjr of mra, wiut humbly nnd Justly 

mtorvd lo tbi' biffh CJod of biii«eu. 

2^"* 37- UertitutioH wa» nuuJe to the weond Penon in 

tbv Trinity of thai univermi juriadirtiou over the 

wholf church *n U'longiiig to Christ aloDc. who ia 

tie akejthtrd and AUAofi of our mmIm ; and a badge of 

Antichrist fur the pope proudly to awame the 


5H. To thu Hdy (iboM waa rvtored that iahi- 
libility which to him dutb pnipt-rly pertain, aa Mag 
the Spirit of truth, wblrb lu'ilhcr will dcwciw oor 
emu (m.* ilcceiTod, uid which bath pronilaed to lead 
bb church in j^-niT&l iuto all irulk, but never fixed 
any inerrability <ni any (larticuhir permn or fur- 
ecaaioa df mt^v peraooa wfaataoever. 
iwktat 49. And now, Ciw mis Otaor the tkingt Aat «rv 
ZT" Omt'*'. The king eooMs to elahn bis own right, 

nfcMnbtoCbM- •MarkvtL 

•^Bttb 'i IVt. b. 15. 

wmn ofia M thi Mca* • Jvha ar. 16. and ivi ■}. 




CEHT. XVI. of Britain, 105 

what the kings of Judah (his predecessors in sove-^D. i535« 
reignty) had by the word of God, and Christian viii. 
emperors by the practice of the primitive times did 
possess. In order wheremito, the parliament did 
notify and declare that ecclesiastical power to be in 
the king which the pope had formerly unjustly in- 
vaded. Yet so, that they reserved to themselves 
(besides other privileges which we leave to the 
learned in the law) the confirming power of all 
canons ecclesiastical ; so that the person or property 
of refusers should not be subjected to temporal 
penalty without consent of parliament. 

60. Of this power thus declared in the king, part 
thereof he kept in himself; as, to call and dissolve 
convocations at his pleasure ; to grant or deny them 
commission to debate of religion; to command arch- 
bishops and bishops to be chosen in vacant sees ; to 
take order for the due administration of the word 
and sacraments. 

61. The other part of power ecclesiastical the 
king passed over to the archbishop of Canterbury, as 
his substitute ; first, to grant faculties in cases not 
repugnant to the law of God, necessary for honour 
and security of the king, formerly wont to be reme- 
died in the see of Rome; secondly, to determine 
causes ecclesiastical in his court, whence lay an 
appeal to the court of delegates, &c. 

62. The representative clergy had power by the 
king's leave to make canons and constitutions, whilst 
each bishop in his respective diocese, priest in his 
parish, were freer than formerly in execution of their 
office acquitted from papal dependence. 

63. Lastly, every English layman was restored to 
his Christian birthright, namely, to his judgment of 

I(W Thi Ckmrtk ttitlor^ t^ Britain. mm v. 

A-i^iiu-practicaldi>civtioii'.(iii penniiigthc wriptani la hb 
*viiL owi) longua^'.) formoriy nnUlowfNl op in Um oeaan 
or tbe pope's InfiUUbilttjr. Tbut on the d iy lu iBin y 
of the popo oTciy bird had his own ri>«thi>r : in tha 
pwtage whereof^ what be had Kottun by wcritofe 
WM nstoKd to God ; what by usurpation, 
baeli to the Idnj^, cbureb, and stale ; what fajr 
prasiion, wu romitted to paiticnlar Christiana. 

r t" BnfT Chrfatfaa iMMiog 

•• UnHtf »itUa tU bMudt i7 

in* dbaHmu e t aaA ■n Wifa " nnrm Uim dtk. « juirmtml 

tian to hia iMrfol MpariNn " mf^ Ji ne t imt, M rapooM aad 

InUi B jnteMot of Jucr«. " btvprat Uia Wt m ifUiT M 

lim, frm^mtt lUmgM,hM « ta utLn. Tb* cUrf pMtan, 

ftl UmI mUek ia gtU. H« ■* >» rt<— c«i> d» wgl— t 


**isi|itnf nrhi 

•* iitwiutj— , flonfart. 

** «|<uii for Ui 0WB print* " ia ■ 

hdtj - of tha dnudi k l [■■illiil 
IraM - in ■ DMTt mcU «■■■«. 






Though lately you have removed your habitation into 
Shropshire, my pen is resolved to follow after and find 
you otit : seeing the hand of your bounty hath had so 
long a reach J let the legs of my gratitude take as large 
a stride : when you shall be disposed to be solitary^ and 
desirous to have society at the same time, peruse this 
hook^ whereby you shall attain your desired condition. 

A [Arms^ argent, on a bend 
azure, three escallops of the 
field. By sir William Dag- 
dale's Visitation of the county 
of Salop, 1663-4, it appears 
that this Henry Barnard was 
the son of a citizen of London 
of the same name, by his wife 
Margaret, daughter of Bartho- 
lomew Wright, of Brodoke, in 
the county of Essex, and was de- 
scended of a respectable ^Eunily 

long seated at Wighton^ near 
Beverley in Yorkshire. He 
married Emma, daughter of 
Robert Charleton, of Whitton, 
county Salop, in which county 
he afterwaHis settled, and in 
] 663 was in the commission of 
the peace, «t. 48. By his wife 
above named he had two 
daughters then living, Emma 
and Elizabeth.] 

n^ Chmrrh Hutory ■uok «. 

lOR twelve months liwl trisbo)) Fuhfr 
I (fonnrriT rondpmiicd) ik>w lived in 
ilaruii-e, anil *a wiu likdr tu coniinue, 
until (ill all jtntlMibility) litu mhiI Kt ihv 
' name tirnr ithrwid 1m< fn<e<l fmin two 
mraii that of bii bodr aiid tlial of the 
Kor. Iii« lifp cnuld do the king no bait. 
whiiae thnth niif^ht prutnirc him hatml. ■» at ooo 
giiK'rall)^ pities) for hilt 0^0, honoured] fur his l«anihi|;. 
ailmlnil for tiix holy coiivfnation. B<«id(«, it wma 
not worlli the whilr to take awar bis life, who was 
iKtl only morta/u, a« alt men, and wiortijieatma^ aa all 
IftvHl iiifii. but atw moritHnUy as all olil men, beil^ 
{«jit M>Ti>nty<«Jx Team of age. But now an utur aaoa. 
able act of the I^ipe afccleratcd hia nteeotiaii. In 
niakinj^ him ranlinal of S. Vltalui; a ttttt? wfairb 
l-VliiT my liltk' nfTectei], tluit hi* ]trufe<«ed, " if the 
" bai lay at bin feel, he would n<it utoop to take 
" it up '." 

I ftW * 

" batf wovM nm araMt wt 

RodMtcr m&d ; •■ Sir, I 
hww mnM la W M iw 

k rBorart'i R«r. I. p. 707.] 

* Lllal) Mji tka raqr ■«• 
rarMT, umI i* BHif« vomMeat. 
Anrnllac tn kin, <m Um im 
irfMay. itis,»|>« PmU HI. 
MNnbHlcd r»feOT csnUnd of " ■■wortk^ of uiy mh^ ^. 
8. Viulk. of wUefc w Moa m " aitr. thM I lUak oT wak^ 
iJm king hid bidUme*. I» ' ' ' ' " 

MM twcaiitWy ta &kii " to 
** Mop IW fimor of tW pofM 
" fi«a coauBf Mjr larllwr 
" iaio ha fciiBJiMW :~ aod. 
Wm cariein to ka«w how - holy otUie 
tfca mAm woaU ad ta tb* " ChriM 

»«U to' adrartfat Um 'of whM 

ma aoM. tu t»mia% to iW taf a rrport of thto 1 

prabta'achmlor.nUtoUai; irfWntwdt to tiM kiag. tfca 

" Ur Ud <if RaA«Ur. wImC hiag mU wHh (ml iiilgai 

" woay jroa toy if t)w pof* tka ; " Vaa. m Im yvl •» \mKff 

Mtf t 

Aivoar to tW b«( adi 
llM lowU ia 


of Britain. 


2. His holiness could not have studied a more a. d. 15.^1;. 
destructive way against Fisher's life, than to fasten ^ vin.*^^ 
this injurious favour upon him. This heightened the The king 
king's anger into fury against him. He expounded ^^^ 
the pope's act, or rather the act expounded itself, (as 
capable of no other comment,) as done in his de- 
fiance, and therefore a warrant is sent to the 
lieutenant for his execution. Let not the reader 
grudge his pains if we describe this bishop from his 
cradle to (I cannot say his coffin or windingsheet, 
being made to believe he had neither, but) his 

grave : the rather, because I collected the same out 
of his manuscript life, compiled by Richard Hall of 
Christ-college in Cambridge ^ and communicated 
unto me by a worthy friend®. Only be it premised, 
that the same Hall was a stiff Roman catholic, and 
therefore accordingly must abatement be made in 
his relations. 

3. This John Fisher, bom at Beverley in York- Bishop 
shire, of Robert his father, (a wealthy man, and abinhand 
kind of merchant,) anno 1459, was by his parents **'*®^**^* 
sent ^ to Cambridge to have his education at Michael- 
house, under Mr. William Melton, his tutor. 
Admitted, 1484 ; commenced bachelor of arts, 1488; 
master of arts, 1491 ; made proctor, 1495 ; doctor, 
1502 ; master of the house, thereabouts ; bishop of 

*' Well, let the pope send him 
" a hat when he will ; mother 
•• of God ! he shall wear it on 
" his shoulders then^ for I will 
*' leave him never a head to 
" set it on." HalFs Life of 
Fisher, p. 185.] 

^ Pitseus de Script. Anglise, 
p. 802. 

^ Mr. Huisj esquire beadle of 

Cambridge. [This MS. was 
afterwards printed in the year 
1655. in 8vo., under the name 
of Dr. Thomas Bailey. The 
edition here used is the second^ 
1739. 12**. Several MSS. of 
this book are in the British 
Museum and the Bodleian.] 

^ [By his mother, his father 
dying m early life.] 

110 Tit CkmtA HiMtorr mkw v. 

A. Pi imi. RochBrter. lAM; dmoMi rhaoceltoi' of Cambrid)^, 
'ViiT' 1A05; confiiBMil rluuiccUor nf C-«mbri<))^>, 1514. 
"^—^ He WM rbapUin ami iMutemor to the UHy Mor- 
gmret, ootuit«m uf Riclitiioml. nl wboHr inuaDW mkI 
bj wbfMP adTJce nhc foiinde<I uwi emlowf^ Cbrut'i 
uul St, John's college in Cambridge. Emptoyvd fai 
baUiliiig of tho latter, (ber pcttkanie eolle|{e of St 
John'*,) and oSbctuullj adranrlog that work, hm 
wanted the arrnmmmlation of a ronvenlmt lodgtng. 
when Dr. Tbonuu WitkioAon. proadcot of QoMn'a 
rolli'jn'. opportuDt'lr dcjiartod thui life: and that 
■ocii-tjr rwiucwtc^l bUbu|i Kutlior to mteeced in Ua 
placi% which he gmtofiilly acreptml, laithfullv dia- 
charged, and thcn-'b_T had tho adranlage to finiah 
hii new college in the leM time, to hia greater ron- 

4. Hero I meet with two dcKcripUom of Fuher.aa 
eontraiy tmA to other a* the religitww of the two 
deacriben, wbenof tl>e one waa a rigid pa{ital. the 
other a awlow {wotealant : 

Ha0 in hw afonfid maaiurript. ' 

FUier b made hj Urn a tcit wealthy maa, 
haring murh pUl^t an<l (urnitnn*. of a grmt rahM ; 
and an for his libmrr, no btslii)|) in Euroitc had the j 

like anto him, intomueh w he iiiumdnl (an appean^ 
■oawwbere in hia letUf to Kranntu) to found a { 

eeOege of ht« own; but oAcnranU, rercnhig hia 
laaehrthm. in hia lifetime be bestowed all bis rich 
platis fttmlture, and boc4t an St. John's in Cam- 
bridge, and borrowed tbo mne of it again by 
indmrtore imder his hand and snl for bis ose doling 
life. Dat H happened, that at hi* attaintniv the 
king's officers sriaed on all be bad. 

of Britain. 


Ascham. Commendatitianim, Ep. 1, 
" Joannes Fischerus, qjiscopua Roffensis, dum fal- 
" mm doctrinam nimis perverse defcndit, optimas 
" literas in hoc collegio, suis omamentis et suis 
" divitiis denudavit. Ilic vir nutii suo resit hoc 
" collegium ; et propterea in manu ejus posita sunt 
" clarissima omamenta, quie Diva Margareta huic 

" collegio elargita est. Ejus perversa doctrina, et 

" ilium vita, et nos Bummis divitiia nostris privavit'." 

For mine own part. I conceive no covetousness 
(much less such eacrilege)can be charged on Fisher's 
account, it heing notoriously knowii that liing Henry 
the Eighth (who fonnerly favoured him) proBFcred to 
remove him from RocJiester to Lincoln or Ely, 
(treble the other in revenue,) which Fisher refused, 
both in word and print ; " Habeant licet alii," saith 
heB, " proventus pinguiores, &:c," being used to say, 
" lie would not change his little old wife, to whom 
" he had been so long wedded, for a wealthier." 

5. It is no wonder if a papist and a protestant Vnriu 
cannot agree about Fisher's character, when we find pisi, ' 
two stiff' papists at a vast distance about his estate. ^^ 
Hall, a.1 is aforesaid, makes him very wealthy, which 
is not improbable, considering he had a paternal 
bottom whereon, competency of revenue wherewith, 
long continuance of time wherein, and commendable 
frugality whereby to build an estate. Not to speak 


' In favour of Fisher I have 
left the words untranslated. 
(See Ascham's Enist. p. 293. 
Oiford, 1703. Fuller undoubt- 
edly niitttukes the meaning of 
'' '. which is only tbis ; 

the cause of depriving the col- 
let of its wealth and endow- 

« In his Dedicatory Epistle 
to the bishop of Winchester, in 
*-'- place against CEcolampa- 

tbat Fisher's rigid adherence dius, [Colon. 1527. See Hall, 
to his religions principles was 17.] 

A.lxi|u.thjit ho KPrretl n good nuitraM, the Udr Mki|;»rM, 

'ViiT'^ kimwti III hate rirb eoflhn, and bcr roiifi'SKir could 

rfittiDUuid the keji thereof. Bat on tho cuutnuy, 

Sondt'nl* iiiaki« him u |>oor aa Job ; liwomurb thjit 

mldieni romiiij; to mnte on his nipposnl ircallh. 

found (wfutt wu iiuif^kW told) nothings it «ll be- 

hmgin^ to him mvc a great hanvd chtvt. Tbeae, 

from thi' facinj? uf inm. concludt'd thv Mamg ihi^reof 

talrcT at least; and liaviriff broktm it open, fouad 

nothinfT thcri'iti but MU-kc-l»th and a whip ; whiefa 

pat them all lo (M-nattrt', and soundly laihrd thdr 

roTetiiua exp«.>ctation. But. loiving hb life, come w« 

now to the manner of bin ik«th. 

II* id. 6. After the lieuti>nniit nf the Tower had reecind 

•m rf hk the writ for hts execution, Iimwuw it was then my 

'"'^ late, and the priwonn- a»k<ep, he was loth to diaeaaa 

him fmm bin n.«l. But in tho morning, before five 

of the clwk. be rame to bim in hii» rhaniber in tbe 

beU-towvr, Nndiug him yet a«Ieep in hia bed, and 

waking him. told him. " He wan rome to him on a 

" metmge from tho king, to iignify unio him that 

** bio piciuurv wan he sbimld fufTer ileatb thai ftiffe> 

*• UMMi." •* WeH." quoth the biahop, " if tfab bo 

** jroar rrtand, you brin^ me do gnat new*, for I 

** have liKikL-d a long Ume far Ihk mMMge. and I 

** mu»t bombly thank fab m^ferty that it pleanrth 

** him (u rid tiie from all this worldly butiiMaa. Yet, 

" let me by yiHir patience «h<ep an hour or twui tut 

" I bare ftlopi very ill this lught, not fur any fbar of 

** death, I thank God, but by naaon of my grant 

" Inflrmily and weaknew'." 

VMhh-n 7- ** The king*! pleaaura ia further,* mid tbs 

t^'lZr** lieutenant, ** tknt yon ihaU oae aa little apeeeh M 

* 09 Htb^B. Ai«- ^ 91. ' [H.11. f. iiiO 

CENT. XVI. of Britain, 118 

may be, especially of anything touching his majesty, a. a 1535' 
whereby the people should have any cause to viii. 
" think of him or his proceedings otherwise than 
'' well." " For that," said he, " you shall see me 
" order myself, as, by God's grace, neither the king 
nor any man else shall have occasion to mislike of 
my words." With which answer the lieutenant 
departed from him, and so the prisoner, falling again 
to rest, slept soundly two hours and more : and, after 
be was awaked, called to his man to help him up. 
But first commanded him to take away his shirt of 
hair, (which customably he wore,) and to convey it 
privily out of the house ; and, instead thereof, to lay 
him forth a clean white shirt, and all the best apparel 
he had^ as cleanly brushed as might be. And as he . 
was arraying himself, his man, seeing him in more 
curiosity and care for the fine and cleanly wearing of 
bis apparel that day than was wont, demanded of him, 
** What this sudden change meant?" sajdng, **That his 
** lordship knew well enough that he must put off all 
" again within two hours, and lose it." What of 
^* that?" said he; "dost thou not mark that this is 
" our marriage day, and that it behoveth us there- 
" fore to use more cleanliness for solemnity thereof f* 

8. About nine of the clock the lieutenant came Pr^wreth 
again, and, finding him almost ready, said, "HehisdeathT 
" was now come for him." Then said he to his man, 
" Reach me my furred tippet to put about my neck." 

my lord," said the lieutenant, " what need ye 
be so careful for your health for this little time, 
being, as yourself knows, not much above an hour !" 

1 think no otherwise," said he, "but yet in the 
meantime I will keep myself as well as I can. 

" For, I tell you truth, though I have, I thank pur 



TAr CAwtA Mftory 

A.V. lu*.** Ijord. A very gofx) demn* and villing mind to die 
*'viii7 " at thu praaent, and m tntnt of liix [nfinito mcrrj 
" and goodnoM he will ismtinue it, yet will 1 not 
" williiijrly hitidor my lu-attb iu llii' ttK-aotitnu 
** minuto of an hour, but ntill prolnni^ the 
** kmg at I can, br tnirb nmintnablt' wayi and 
** w Alraiglity GtHl bnib iin>Tiili><l fi>r me." Awl 
with that, taking a tittlt.' book in liia hand, 
WM a New Teatamont Iring by him. bi< made &< 
OD hit Ibnhead, and wimt out u( bis pritm.' 
with the tieuteoaut, bvliig no weak as that to' 
•cant able to go down tlie stain ; whvrefnve at th« 
atain-fbot be ww token up iu a chair butweeo two 
of tbe Ueatenaot't men, and canied to the Towers- 
gate, with a groat number of wwpoM aboat him, to 
be ddiveml to the HbpriiT of London for 0X( 
a>a4n«fc g. And aJi they were mme t«> the ut 
|fa> if hb dnct of thu llbertive of the Tower, thoy 
with him a ti|wrc, till ntA time 
beforp to know in what yeadtlWi tbe 
to revwire him. During whieh ipaee to 
faia diair, and otandlng on hH feet, leaned Ui 
Aotthler to the wall, ud UfUag Us eyes lovardB 
beaven. be opened a Ihtie book In fab hand, aad 
Mid. "O Lofd! this la tto hut time (bat crer I 
** diaU open tUa book, let some mmforuhle pkee 
** now ehanee milo me, wbuieby I thy poor serant 
" majr glorify thee in thb my last hour." And witb 
that, looking into tto book, the first thinff that rame 
to bis sight weie these wovds, Hnr f*l aut^m rita 
diiema, mt tr eogmatemml toimm vrmm l/mm, H ywm 
mhiMli Jimim CkriMtmm. Ega ta ghrijiean nftr 

• Joha nS. i. ttt. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 1 15 

with that he shut the book together, and said, a. d. 1535. 
" Here is even learning enough for me to my life's viii. 
" end.'' And so the sheriff being ready for him, he 
was taken up again among certain of the sheriflfs 
men, with a new and much greater company of 
weapons than was before, and carried to the scaffold 
on the Tower-hill, otherwise called East-Smithfield, 
himself praying all the way, and recording upon the 
words which he before had read. 

10. When he was come to the foot of the scaffold. The man- 
they that carried him offered to help him up the mounting 
stairs, but, said he, " Nay masters, seeing I am come 

" so far, let me alone, and ye shall see me shift for 
" myself well enough :" and so went up the stairs 
without any help, so lively, that it was a marvel to 
them that before knew his debility and weakness. 
But as he was mounting the stairs, the south-east 
sun shined very bright in his face, whereupon he 
said to himself these words, lifting up his hands, 
Accedite ad eum^ et iUuminamini^ et fades vestrce nan 
confundentur. By that time he was upon the scaf- 
fold it was about ten o'clock, where the executioner, 
being ready to do his office, kneeled down to him, as 
the fashion is, and asked him forgiveness. " I for- 
" give thee," said he, " with all my heart, and I trust 
** thou shalt see me overcome this storm lustily." 
Then was his gown and tippet taken from him, and 
he stood in his doublet and hose in sight of all the 
people, whereof there was no small number as- 
sembled to see the execution. 

11. Being upon the scaffold, he spake to the His speech 
people in effect as foUoweth : people. 

" Christian people : — I am come hither to die for 

I 2 


Tht Chtnh HiMlary 


** the fiiith or Christ's boir nilholir churrb. asd I 
" thank Gw) hitlu'rhi my stnmafh hnth ftcnrrd me 
•• V117 well tlien-tnito. «> (ImU yi-t I linvc not frand 
" death ; wfaon>rorc I iloiirc you all to help aad 
■^ aaiat with jmir prayrn, tliat at the very point aad 
** instant of disatb'i stroke^ I may in that my 
" moment atiuid §tndfit8t without faintinfc in any one 
** point of thf* ratholic fiuth, five fniui any faar. 
** And I bt«M>ch Almighty God of bis infitUtr good* 
** wm to «Te tho king aiul this mdm. and that it 
" may ploaai* lUm to liold hi» holy band ov^y it, and 
" aetid the king a good council.'' 

llMaewoidf be apako with neh a efacorfiil eaii»< 
tuBMWWS Midi a itoot and eonataiil eomage. and MMk 
a mvaceDd grarity, that bo appeared to all nwn not 
only void of fear, bat abo gbwl of death. 

\%. After thew few words by him uttered. h» 
kneeled down 00 btitb Ma knea^ and wiA eartafai 
pmyen. Anong wfaieb. aa aooe ivported. one waa 
the bynm of Tt Deum knJamtu, to the endj, 
the Pmhn. lu U Dtmine rptvari. Then < 
Bxeeutiooer and Umitd an handkcrchW 1 
eyei; and lo tbo lii»hop lifting up hia I 
hfart to heaven, mu<1 a few prayrn, whioh t 
looj^ bat ferrvnt and lU'vimt. Whioh I 
he laid hia huad down over the mi<l*t of ■ little 
hk>dt, where the cxecatiomtr. boii^ nwty witli a 
abarp and heavy axe. cut aninder bis »lvndvr oeok 
at one blow, whkb bled ao abowttntly, that many, 
«ith my aittber, w w a fa rod to tee lo HMwh blood 
(■Me oat of ao lean and alender a body; tboi^ ia I 
my jndgmeot. that might rather bave 
the wndet fraai Ua Ji— new to hia agi^ H htkig I 

CENT. XVI. of Britain, 117 

otherwise a received tradition, that lean folk have a. d. 1535. 
the most blood in them. \\nP 

1 S. Thus died John Fisher, in the seventy-seventh hu age and 
year of his age, on the two and twentieth of June, *^^^*^ 
being St. Alban's day, the proto-martyr of England, 
and therefore with my author most remarkable. 
But surely no day in the Romish calendar is such a 
skeleton, or so bare of sanctity, but (had his death 
happened thereon) a priest would pick a mystery 
out of it. He had a lank long body, full six foot 
high, toward the end of his life very infirm, insomuch 
that he used to sit in a chair when he taught the 
people in his diocese. 

14. His corpse (if our author speaketh truth) was His mean, 
barbarously abused, no windingsheet being allowed "if true) 
it, which will hardly enter into my belief. For,^52j^*^ 
suppose his friends durst, his foes would not afford 
him a shroud, yet some neuters betwixt both (no 
doubt) would have done it out of common civility. 
Besides, seeing the king vouchsafed him the Tower, 
a noble prison ; and beheading, an honourable death ; 
it is improbable he would deny him a necessary 
equipage for a plain and private burial. Wherefore 
when Hall tells us, that '^ the soldiers attending his 
^' execution could not get spades to make his grave 
" therewith, but were fain with halberds (in the 
" north side of the churchyard of All-Hallows, 
" Barking) to dig a hole, wherein they cast his naked 
" corpse;" I listen to the relation as inflamed by 
the reporter's passion. Be it here remembered, that 
Fisher in his lifetime made himself a tomb on the 
north side of the chapel in St. John's college, in- 
tending there to be buried, but therein disappointed. 
This Fisher was he who had a cardinal's hat sent 




THr CAurek Hittwy 

A.P.isii. him, whifh (rtnpiM.'d st Cnlsis) never ramo on fail 
viti. haul : niKl a monnnu-nt miulu for him, wtierpiD hb 
body WBH nt'Tcr (li*|>riii(tMl. 
Ufaqw- 15. Our author rc|H>rU>th nl^^ bow iiiicrn Anna 
^k ito. Doli'yu fn>T** onlfr bui hi'ttd iboultl be brtmj^ht unto 
her, before it wu act np on LotHlon-briilfr>'> thai •hv 
niglit ploBSo beradf with tbu right thereof, ainl, likt; 
another Herodiis, Inmlt om the haul of tlib John, 
her prefened enemv. Nor wu the eontent alooe to 
rerilo hii gboat with tAuntJng term*, hot out of wfitSg 
or ipoit, or both, «tnirk btT h«nd agtinNt tbo ■ 
of thb dend hmul brout^ht uato bcr; tnd It I 
that one of Rtlier'ti t»-th, nifire pmminent t 
rmU stnirk into her banil, ani) not 011)5 painM I 
for thu present, hot made wi deep an nnpi 
therein, that abe earrieil the marlc then-of to her 
gnve. It MenM tUi wm contnij to the prnvrrh, 
Morftii mm mordaU. Bat enoogh. jva, too much at 
nirh tlaniimble fidMbooda. IWa wv fnini Fuher Id 
fttore. Iitn fifllow^riaoaer, whom Pfahcr'a exeeotiaa 
hail not mollified into ronrnrmitf to tbe Uof Ui 
ph«nirr, at wa* eT}iccled. 
■^^]^^ 16. Son be waa to Kir John More, one of Oe 
matmtm ijndgeu of tbo King** Renrh. who liTcil to aee 
hia ton pie fe rw^ aboTo hinuelf. Ilred a e(imm«M) 
hiwjer, but withal a gtnerml sc-holar. a» well in 
polite na aoUd learning: a tone poet, neat oialor. 
|mrp Uuhtiat. able Grerian : he waa elmaen ipeakar 
tn the bittiM* of enmmona, mail<* ehanrellor fint of 
Lonraater dwhr. then of all KngiaiuL (NnfonidBg 
thi' place with gmal int«>gTitT anci iliKTetion. Some 
giounH We ba%v in Knglaiw), ueitlH-r mi light and 
liMwi- aa Mii'l. nor vo rtifT anH hiwUng aa rlay, Iwt a 
mlilun' of liHb. eonreinil thi' «m-*l wtil for peoAt 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 1 19 

and pleasure to grow together on: such the soil ofA.D.1535. 
this sir Thomas More, in which facetiousness and *Viil^ 
judiciousness were excellently tempered together^ 

17. Yet some have taxed him, that he "wore a Charged for 
" feather in his cap, and wagged it too often :** moch 
meaning, he was over-free in his fancies and con-^****^' 
ceits. Insomuch that on the scaffold (a place not to 

break jests, but to break off all jesting) he could not 
hold, but bestowed his scoffs on the executioner and 
standers by. Now, though innocency may smile at 
death, surely it is unfit to flout thereat. 

18. But the greatest fault we find justly charged a gwat 
on his memory is his cruelty in persecuting poortestaot. 
protestants, to whom he bare an implacable hatred. 
Insomuch that in his lifetime he caused to be in- 
scribed, as parcel of his epitaph on his monument at 
Chelsea, that he ever was furibus^ homicidisy JueretU 
cisque molestits : a passing good praise, save aft;er the 
way which he there calleth heresy, pious people 
worship the God of their fathers. He suffered the 
next month after Fisher^s execution, in the same 
place, for the same cause, July 6, and was buriad at 
Chelsea, under his tomb aforesaid ; which being 
become ruinous, and the epitaph scarce legible, hath 

few years since been decently repaired at the cost 
(as I am informed) of one of his near kinsmen™. 

19. At this time Katharine dowager, whom weThedeiuh 
will be bold still in courtesy to call a queen, (not-ncterof 
withstanding king Hemys proclamation to the con-JJJIJrine 
trary,) ended her woful life at Kimbolton". A pious ^^"S"'- 
woman toward God, (according to her devotion,) 

I [For an account of his be- More, p. 371. ed. 1726.] 
haviour at his execution, see ^ [Burnet's Ref« 1. p. 709.] 
More's Life of air Thomas " [Ibid. p. 385.] 


rMbttfwd J 

The Cintreh Hutory wms w. 

A.D.riji. frequent in prayi*r. wliicli nhe alnvn perfonnwl on 
viiL titT )huv ktiem. nothing <>1m> bt^wrvn her wid the 
i-arth intJ?rp<MM] ; litUc ruriotw in her rIothPK, biiag 
wont in My, " Sfaf arnmntvcl nn timi* lust bat what 
" WM Uiil out iu tlremiajt of btT";" though irt 
aigbt ix^ mort* oxrurable in her, to whom iwtavB 
had not bvi'n iivvr-Untntiful ': ihv wu mtbur staid 
than ftat4.'lT ; iv«prTr<t than pruud ; gmvc from 
cndio, intimiiuA that the wai a natnm 
WW a Bother. Thi« bcr natonl gravitj in 
with her aiiiRcbeiMlod iiunrie*, ■.•ttled in facr i 
ago into an habit of mflancholr. and thnt lenninatod 
into a OQBauaiptioii of tUv N|iirit5. Hbv was 
in cbe ablwy church of Pvt^rrtMMunj^ omlvj 
hoane of black my *; probabtjr by bor own i 
■not, tliat ihu nu^ht be ploiD wfaua UmwI, 
ao^Mlod bmrfry of dotltM wbvn livin|{. A noUe 
pOB' tvlb IU. that in iutuitWtn U> hvr corpae bum 
interml, kinf; IIt>nry. at the (lMtrurti<m of abboyi^ 
not only i|iarc<d tbv oiiurcb in Pctcrbonnij;!!, but alio 
advaneod it into a caitittlm). If m, it was rinlly 
■loiH* of btni not ti) ilistuHi bor iu hur pmra wIkm 
bv ha<I m diMjuiftud in btT ImmI. The now* of bar 

■ Haflilm Da SdiiHmto Am. 
flleuu., (p. 5.] 

r ISm alwn Ih. llnlfB. ia 
hmllmtomjalihtlMatmmthn. •' wiili • Uadi rdvrt nil. 
Mft n. Ik S*. Bm SomJ. ■ *• trtmmi with wUl* doMi «f 
LmMbwr, «1m HvmI mmeh " «ilnr. »kUi wm >A«««* 

*flteiMdU*3»- •• bu ■& «H •Mf* dm OT^ 

" fa IW liaM 0/ Um gnmi f*. 

- balltw, a. 1643.- (BatkM. 

L c p. 15. fnrn OutMi'* Bfo- 

tW iftf-awDad jTMT of W tanoi Um ColManl (1iwdi 

y; ii P Wi W ii a to Bonw 1. p. o( PMM«Mwai|k P l?.)] 

ih. h Um i&di. 8m ■Im ' U>d IktWi k Ut Bwt 

B>UM4' Uw Kli^Kk. (p. 4)).) 

mtmIm of BW ftvai •!•■■• 



of Britain, 


departure was not unwelcome to queen Anne Bo- a. d. 1535. 

27 Henry 

leyn% who, though too good a Christian to desire viii. 
her death, was too wise a woman to be over-sorrow- "—"■"■"" 
ful for the same : seeing formerly she was the king's 
wife but by sequestration, the true possessor of Ms 
bed being yet alive; whereas now BehobothS she 
conceived God had made room for her. 

20. This Anna Boleyn was great-grandchild to a The cha- 
citizen, sir Jeflfrey Boleyn % lord mayor of London ; queen Anna 
grandchild to sir William Boleyn, knight, who lived ^"^^^ 
respectedly in his country; daughter to Thomas 
Boleyn, earl of Wiltshire, and a great courtier : and 
she had her birth in England ; blood, by her grand- 
mother'*', from Ireland; and breeding in France, 
under Mary the French queen : so that so many 
relations meeting in her, accomplished her with an 
acceptable behaviour to all qualities and conditions 
of people^. Of an handsome person, and beautiful 
face ; and therefore that pen^ that reports her lean- 
visaged, long-sided, gobber-toothed, yellow-com- 
plexioned, with a wen in her neck, both manifests 
his malice, and disparageth the judgment of king 
Henry, whom all knew well read in books, and 
better in beauties ; who would never have been 
drawn to so passionate a love without stronger load- 

> [Burnet says (Ref. ib. p. 
388.) that queen Anne " ex- 
" pressed too much joy at it, 
** both in her carriage and 
" dress/*] 

t Gen. xxvi. 22. 

▼ [Created earl of Wiltshire 
after his daughter's promotion, 
being before, as Cavendish 
says, '' only a bachelor knight." 
Life of Wolsey, p. 119. By 
her mother's side she was 



" nigh of the Norfolk blood : 

" and of her father's side line- 
ally descended of the earl of 
Ormond, he being one of the 

" earl's heirs general.'* Ibid. 

P- 123.] 

w Daughter to Thomas earl 

of Ormond. 

X [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 81.] 
7 Sanders de Schismate An- 

glicano, [p. 15.] 


TAt CkwrcA HiMtary 

A. a nil. 



it. Thw 

, rptnembrnng bow 

:« qiitwn, r 
her |iiiiilfiiiiMfir Imt ihi- kiiiffo Ioto with hut orvr- 
untoritjr, tamed hentelf to a more open nnd (lt*bo- 
nair behaTiour. cTpn trvanallj to all with wham 
she couTcned. Wliivb being obHTT«d bT ber ad- 
TWii— » WM tmpnived bjr tbMn to her oT^rthraw ; 
•o that ibe bot Ifar • my ibort time had the nle 
•ad peaceable pow o woo of her hatband. In a 
word, Khc wu a great patroDun of the protcitaali^ 
pnitfK^or of the pcnecntcd, prelbrrer of hmd of 
merit, (smoDfr whom Ifngb Latimer.) a 
Tvlifver of tbe jtoiir, anil tho bappj* motber of t\ 

81. On tlic eighth of June began a short bot 
•harp imriiainont, (iliiMilvod the righUvnth of July 
(ollowitig,) oBwrtiDg mucb in little timt', nimtten it 
■eeaw being wed jir^iaml nrurvbatHl. and the booae 
anemUed ooC to debate, but do tbu lung** deriiea. 
Tlio [mmllel convoeation begin the dqr after, being 
one iH-w-ni>Klfll(<d,BiMl of a flidiiaa diftrent tnm aD 
fonncr mnvtKmtiacN. Therein tho lord CranweO, 
prime Mvn-Ur;. Mt in rtate above all the bbbopa. 
M» the king'* vicar or vieegereot-genrral in all 
flpiritual nuittfn'. Deformi tati* ^ectaemlo, mUk 

ifW. I. p. 3&S.) tfcM* wn mt* 
*■ TIm in* Ml al 

■q.wtWWilinpi. — rIeJW 

iCnmwtU view- 

tU kW* -I" 

1. Ml yr d rfailar " an n Amea min llw nnl 

tW ww^«w<» Md " Iniljr. M it aotlMd Urn 

— ly.iwi/iwm»bd»riUi " of llw ltW« »)Mb mw 

bwiM<li|nihT<^vic»- •• ta ii iliili»liil«fcl»«.* B^ 

b mliiiiiliMl MMt- ColUw pram Umi W k nb> 

-of aU tW 
" atfaar pfMligil 

- IM« 1 Ui Otuf mwn lw» ukM (m« Bed. IIhi. 11- 
• diiiraM plMM. Mil l»U br 104 >■ Ml hM imUUnJ d 


of Britain. 


my author, indocto laico ccetui pnssidente sacratorum a,d. ts$$. 
antistitumy omnium^ qtios ante Jubc tempora Anglia *Viil^ 
unquam habuissety docttssimorum\ In one respect, 
that place had better become the person of king 
Henry, than this lord his proxy, all allowing the 
king a very able scholar. But Cromwell had in 
power and policy what he lacked in learning, if he 
may be said to lack it, who, at pleasure, might com- 
mand the borrowing thereof from the best brains 
and pens of those of his own party in the convo- 

22. This convocation consisted of two houses : the The sUenoe 
lower, of the clerks and proctors of their respective bots of the 
cathedrals and dioceses, with the deans and arch-^^^ 
deacons therein : the upper, of the bishops, with the 
lord abbots and priors, (I mean so many of them as 
voted as barons in parliament,) as may appear by 
their several subscriptions**. However, I find not 
the abbots active in any degree in canvassing matters 
of religion. Whether this proceeded from any 
desire of ease, their laziness being above their 
learning, or out of humility, counting it more proper 
to permit such disputes to the sole disposal of the 
bishops, as most concerned therein, or out of fear, 
loth to stickle on religion, knowing on what ticklish 
terms they stood. For, in this very parliament, all 

commission in which Cromwell 
is appointed vicegerent, vicar- 
general, commissary, special 
and principal, with all the 
power which belongs to the 
supremacy of the king ; see 
his Collection of Records, N°. 


^ Godwin's Annals, A. D. 

1536. [p. 202. ed. 1653. He 

signed the articles of reli. 
gion printed below, before all 
the bishops and others.] 

^ Concordatum erat per ho- 
norandum virum [Cromwell] 
et reverendos episcopos abba- 
tes et priores domus superioris 
acta convocationis celebrat, an. 
1536. fol. antepenult. 

[See Burnet, I. p. 388.] 

IM Th» C/^rrA tf ufwy mob v. 

A.aiuf.ftbben wliloh <miM not <ii«p«iic) 800/. a jtn 
* vnT' frrro dtMoIvud, and hfctnwt-d on the kin^f; md 
tboM rich abbnu (whirli luul mora than m many 
tfatMnaudt yeorij^) knew tiial maxim m loffle to bo 
trac, Mugit et Miuta moa varituU rp&dem, ** mnro and 
" Um dn not alter the Idnd ;** and might mjr wiA 
him on the ertMi, they werr i» lie i 
liany tboi^ aa jet the lentenco was not [ 
tudhinmi 93. We will ob«!m the duly rootioiu in thb 
II ■!! I coaTocalion, a» with mine own liand I hAvi* fiUth- 
AiUy tiBDKiibed them ovt of tbe ReooitLi: Ilogfa 
Itftimjer, biahop of Worcuitcr, taaA* the l<atia 
asnooa, takit^t for hia text. 71i ckiUrm of lAia 
morU ata ra Iketr ymeratiom wiaer Uum tie ekMnm 
t^tiyit'. On tbe Friday folhiwinf Richard < 
arrhdncon or l»niloii, wa> [irrafUtwl. and e 
protocutnr in this conTocatiot]. f>n tbe i 
mBBlt'r William Pftcr. doctor «f the bwi, came IBM 
the hoiue. a« defulL'd tvitn hit maHtur tbe lord 
Cromwell, wbo could not be [vmenl, becanae of Ua 
gnater anpliqrBMM ia pariiararat. Thia Dr. Vwtm 
eWmed the high ea t pbee in tbe boue^ a> dse to Ua 
luMlcr the kwd CtnnweU. ideo pHiil , 

and he (dudl I aay reqoeited. or) reqnitBd t 
prraMlcncy. a> dtw to him. lit*infr hi* |»n>c^<ir, and 
tibtaim'd it acei>rdin)flT, withoat any itirput*-. Thoogfa 
atttdL*. jMfrhaiHH-. might (|iu>tton whcllKT a dc]>uty'a 
dei'iily (n* om* di*frn^' furtht-r n'inoTr><l) mijfht |in>- 
[NfriT rtaini bi» )>tart^- «bi> ww |irimitirL'ly rvjmv 

I. ^ ao}.) 


of Brit am. 


gented. Next Wednesday came in the lord Crom- a. 0.1535. 
well in person, and having judiciously seated himself viii. 
above all, tendered unto them an instrument to be 
publicly signed by all the convocation, concerning 
the nullity of the king's marriage with the lady 
Anna Boleyn®. 

24. Some ten days before ^ archbishop Cranmer a. 0.1536. 
at Lambeth held an open court, in the presence of solemnly 
Thomas Audley, lord chancellor, Charles Brandon, ^nna Bo- 
duke of Suffolk, and most of the privy council. ^,?^ 
Wherein the king and queen were cited to appear, 
as they did by their proxies, doctor Richard Samp- 
8on«f being the king's, and doctor Nicholas Wotton^ 
the queen's. Then proceeded the archbishop to 
discuss the validity of their marriage, and at the 
last, by his definitive sentence, pronounced the same 
" invalid, frustrate, and of none effect'." No parti- 

« [Which they signed on 
the 28th of the same month. 
See Wilkins as above.] 

f [The word ten must not 
be interpreted literally. The 
queen received sentence on the 
1 7th, (Burnet^ Ref. I. p. 409.) 
and was beheaded on tne 19th 
of May 1536. On which day 
a dispensation was granted by 
the archbishop of Canterbury, 
authorizing a contract of mar. 
riage between the king and 
lady Jane Sejrmour. (See Cat. 
of Manuscripts for the Foe. 
dera, p. 188.) The convo- 
cation began to sit the 9th of 
June, and Cromwell made his 
motion for confirming the sen- 
tence of the invalidity of the 
king's marriage on the aist. 

S [Dean of the chapel, and 
afterwards bishop of Chi- 


^ [£t Joh. Barbour. See 
Wilkins, ib. p. 804.] 

i [The king wrought upon 
her fears to confess a pre-con- 
tract, and so it was judged that 
her marriage was null and void. 
The record of the sentence is 
burnt, but these particulars are 
repeated in the act that passed 
in the next parliament touch, 
ing the succession to the 
crown. Burnet, Ref. I. p. 409. 
It is plain that Cranmer was 
both a mournful and unwilling 
agent in this affair ; for on the 
confession of the queen, the 
result could not be otherwise. 
See also his earnest letter in 
behalf of the queen in Burnet, 
Ref. I. p. 402, and Cranmer's 
Works, I. p. 163. Further in- 
terference on his part was pre- 

190 TAc CMurtA Hutory woi t. 

A.11^ iu6. cnkr cmtuo i» ipceiGcd in tbat iKiiti>nr«\ (Ntill uKtuit 
niu^ in ttx) Beooni,) nud tlioufHi (Ik- jiutf^* uiA mart 
aecmed abatMlmntl}' mtwfifnl in tlie n'sttoiw of tkk 
nullity, Tf't nmoi-ftlitig the mmo untn UiiiittclTe^ 
tfaoy thouffht iwt fit to mmmunioUt' Uiii ttvaaura to 
poMcrity; oxcfpt tbi'T «liut thiir c^iHtTi on paryam, 
beoMHW tbtft' wiu nothinjr in (hi-m. Sun* 1 am, 
thcro b nn thuhiiif; <m ihv crLitit of t)ii> lattv, i 
any the Inwt inRiniuilionvof incliutity in that i 
int'ht : Prttclarti dt'tminn, rt ureuwimtt RyilMi,h 
tbc vntnl title* that aiv pwi hor tfaomn. 
I*!*** 85. Mvn may justly ihaitpI what kinjr llrnry 

A^htai^ meant hy thii aokinn and WTtmonlcHu dimrrr, 
*h4h««. which the edge of the axo or nroid waa mmn 
efleotuidly to pLifnrm the day after, ber death hdag 
' thflo deaifpivd. Was it brcsoaii bo atood oo Ibia 
panetnio or eritidni of credit, tbat be tnigtit iMit 
hereafter bo cfaar;^ with cniulty fiir cxe-cutinx hi* 
wife, tbat flnt he wimU be divurrmi fntm bpr, aod 
ID eaanot be nid to pat bia queen, hut Anna Boleyn 
to dnalhl Or. did be tint but Imn-ly intend her 
divutVR, and aAmrnr<l« wuijioetinjit this wituld n«it 
make ■uffideut aToidaooe in bin bed to clear all 
eUima, took np new molutiom to take away her 
Ufc! Or, waa it beeaoae be eiinreived tlu< ciecotkMi 
wottU only veadi tbe root, the qneen becvflC and 
not hhat tbe bnuich. the lady Elixabotb, whon hj 
lUa diTDTDC be deatred to render illogitimBto r Wha^ 
ever bi> aims were, he got ber dimreo euDunied 
both by eoDTocation and i«riiamentJ. IntereiCing all 


WakiM- C»hU. hi. m. «e5.1 


CENT. XVI. of Britain. 127 

equally therein, that hereafter none should accuse a. d. 1536. 
him of this act, but first they must condemn them- viii. 
selves. However, after-ages take the boldness to ' 

conceive, that the greatest guilt of Anna Boleyn 
was king Henrjr^s better fancying of another, which 
made him, the next day after her death, to mourn so 
passionately for her in the embraces of a new and 
beautiful bride, the lady Jane Seymour^. 

26. But to return to the convocation. That The convo- 
mstrument of divorce was no sooner tendered om to 
therein, but all subscribed it. The papists willingly, king in all 
the protestants faintly, but all publicly. Yea, in*'"^' 
this convocation nothing was propounded in the 
king's name, but it passed presently. O the ope- 
ration of the purge of a priemunirey so lately taken 

by the clergy (and an hundred thousand pounds paid 
thereupon) ! How did the remembrance thereof still 
work on their spirits, and made them meek and 
mortified ! They knew the temper of the king, and 
had read the text. The lion hath roared, who will 
not fear^ ? Gardiner the fox durst not so much as 
bark to oppose the king, nor the proudest in the 
place. As for Edmund Bonner, archdeacon of Lei- 
cester, present and active in this convocation, I may 
say, Bonner was no Bonner yet, but a perfect Crom- 
wellist, and as forward as any to promote his 

27. On the Friday following Mr. Gwent the pro- a catalogue 
locutor brought to the upper house of convocation a opinions 
book containing the m(da dogmata^, those erroneous ^nii^B 
doctrines then (as he complained) publicly preached, 


^ [Ibid. p. 416.] " ciouatores infra provinciam 

* Amos iii. 8. " Cantusr. publioe prsdi- 

"» [" Mala dogmata per con- " cata."] 

vm r^a 

jt»3 c «f 

diem it!f«» :rui»rTTiiif«i mc <if :atf !«!«vii«L Mfttr fi^ 

^^riW^fr^iA '^^' rif' ^wJb» ^b^ -Muh^ r^Mib Am^ 

** In ▼^rr hombie xdA nfvirfviit omiiirr. with prrv. 
** U'^catkvo, Hfeti v^ ibe ^kuTTj of the li>«er boajni* 
^ vtthm the p<mr:nre *4 Carvf^mrr. Mtht^ in won!, 
*• #WrL r,r rithf-rwi^e, dLrertlr or imlirvrthr. intriKl 
** Mnj tb;n/, Ub ^^^'^^ att^^npc «ir d*v which in mnt 
** manner '#f wim* mar U* db^^'AAnt anto the kin^V 
•• h)trtif>e«i, r«f m^Mt dn-ad soveivign loni an^l «i- 
• fm^m*' \wt'%A of thi- rhiirrh of KnsHand ; bat in all 
•• ttiiug^ irrriffliny U^ the cnmniand of CtmL to !m» 
•• m/iiit otif^ii-nt to hi'i jrraee, to whom armrdinyly 
•• wf •fjlimit #inirvidirf% minding in no wi^* hx anv 
•• f^ffUmmUU' fashion to nHNkjjni***'* pririlj or ajuTtlr, 
*• iJm* Iii4i#»fi of llome, or hi* usurpiNl autboritr. or 
in any wiwi- to hrinjr in, dt-f^nd, or maintain the 
mt994% iuUf tbifi noble n-alm. or dominioa<i «>f tbt* 
'* aAfni* : Imt ttiat the Mone binhop of Kome, with ht^ 

• I lii»» ruM titt'ti *l.l.- to fiiul an\ (KIk'T Ci»p5 tif till* 

( EMT. XVI. nf Biitam. 189 

"usurped authority, utterly for ever with his in-A-D- 's^fi- 

" ventions, rites, abuses, ordinances and fashions, to viii. 

" be renounced, forsaken, extinguished and abo- 

** U*hed ; and that we sincerely addict ourselves to 

" Almighty God, his laws, and unto our said 

" sovereign lord the king, our supreme head in earth, 

*' and his laws, statutes, provisions and ordinances 

" made here within his grace's realm. We think in 

" our consciences and opinions these errors and 

" abuses following to have been, and now to he, 

" within this realm, causes of dissension worthy 

" special reformation. It is to wit, 

i. " That it is commonly preached, taught, and 
" spoken, to the slander of this noble realm, dis- 
" quietness of the people, damage of Christian souls, 
" not without fear of many other inconveniences and 
" perils, That the sacrament of the altar is not to be 
" esteemed ; for divers light and lewd persons be not 
" ashamed or afeared to say. Why should I see the 
*' sacring of the high mass ? Is it any thing else but 
" a piece of bread, or a little predie round robin? 

ii. Item, " That they deny extreme unction to he 
" any sacrament. 

iii. Item, " That priests have no more authority to 
" minister sacraments than the laymen have. 

iv. Item, " That children ought not in any wise to 
" be conlirmed of the bishops afore they come to the 
" age of discretion. 

V. Ifcm, " That all ceremonies accustomed in the 
" church, which are not clearly expressed in scrip- 
" tare, must be taken away, because they are men's 
" inventions. 

vi. Item, " That all those are antichrists that do 



\ /titlory BOM V. 

' deny tbo Iivbimi I)h> mmtncnt n( the alUff mI 
*• Hirtuptr nftrrif. 

vii. //nn. " Tliat kII tliat bp ptvM>nt at m»m. and 
" do not rtvrivp tlif mrmmcnt with the prkM* an 
" not [mrtnkcn of the tni<l nmm. 

TJti. ttem, -That it is prrarhtnl niid tanj^hl. That 
" l)io rlmit-h. that i« rotniiionlT lak^ri frirtlip chutrh. 
" if> itif oM djtuipopiip ; and, that th<' rhuivh is tbc 
** roniy^vgat ion of pootl mem onljr, 

)x. firm, " It m pnwhod agakut the litany, and 
■* aim mid. Tliat it wiui tK'Ttf tnnrj in EaglHid 
** aithi-nro lhi.> IJtarrT wan ordatm^. and mwM 
" Maria, tanrta Cnl/tttriHa, iif. mingvn and nid. 

X. Ittm, •• That a man liath no free-v^U. 

%i. /trm, '• That fiod Twvfr jfavr fnev nor k»ow- 
** IHfTt* of holy trripturp to any ^rrvat MitaW or rieii 
** man. and that they in nowiw follow the muM. 

zii. firm. ** TItat alt tvli^onN and fimfpMdam. what- 
•• BocTrr thi'T be. an- rlran contrary to Qiriil^ 
" rrllfpon. 

xiii. firm, >* That it hu pn<ach<Hl aiid Mttj^t, TluU 
" all thtnfTB ftujrbt tn bo rommfln. and that priiata 
** should have wivi<«. 

xir. Item^ **lliat prearfacn will in oowiae t wi HiM 
" thratsdvcs otf teeMcm ratkoHMm, nm atak or 
** TvMve eamtmitm el jtroMnt tmtkore*, but 'will 
" haT(> thi'ir own fiutdes and imvntioiu preaebed 
" and H^t forward. 

>▼. /tern, " That Imajini of lahtts air not in any 
" wise to be TWrn-nrrd ; atid, tltat it b plain idofaurr 
" and abomtnatioa to srt op any liffai* hpfi>n> any 
** inagea, or in any |dac-t> of the rhtuvh the ttaie 
** of-Avlne fBrrire. as Uin^ as tbr mn pfftfa HglM. 



CEVT. xvi. of Britain. 181 

xid. /iS0f», ''That it is idolatiy to make aoy ob-A.D.is3i. 
« lations. ^^^ 

xvii. Item^ " That it is as lawfiil to christen a 
'' child in a tub of water at home, or in a ditch by 
^ the way, as in a font-stone in the church. 

xviii. Item^ ** That the water in the font^stone is 
^ akmely a thing co]]{|uied. 

xix. Item, *' That the hallowed oil is no better than 
^ the bishop of Rome his giease or butter. 

XX. Itemj ''That priests' crowns be the whore's 

marks of Babylon. 

xxL Item, " That the stole about the priest's neck 

is nothing else but the bishop of Rome's rope. 

audi. Item, ^ That images, as well of the crucifix 
'^ as of other saints, are to be put out of the church, 
" and the relics of saints in no wise to be reyerenced. 
" And, that it is against God's conmumdment, that 
" Christian men should make courtesy or reverence 
** to the image of our Saviour. 

xxiii. Item, ^ That it is no sin or oflfence to eat 
" white meats, eggs, butter, cheese, or flesh in the 
"lent, or other fasting-days commanded by the 
"<;hurch, and received by consent of Christian 
" people. 

xxiv. Item, "Tlbiat it is lawful to eat flesh on 
" Good Friday, as upon Easter day, or oth^ times 
" in the year. 

XXV. Item, " That the sinner offending in the lent, 
^ or other high feasts of the year, is wortJiy no more 
'' punishment than he that transgresseth ip any 
'' other time. 

xxvi. Item, " That confession auricular, absolution, 
" and penance, are nother necessaiy nor profitable 
" in the church of God. 

>U^«f heA fcwn.M4toHi I 

sill. Am. -TkK U U m 

' M % fniat* am, wti ^ m w^ m W hi^si 

'fthMulw or looa»aay maa ft«^ the i 
xzxJT. /ha, "Tlal it b ■o< i 

- to bne 1*7 dincli or rhf tl to pnj ii^ or •• 4b 
" M17 4iviBe MntM In. 

■ss*. Ahm. - Hmc tbe rfcnnh «m ■ 

- odMr pvpoM, h« otber to kccfi the | 
-«M Md nfa. o(h««ln t^ tlw 1 

- the wof^iif God dfclwed nmo then. 

iiivi. Am, "Tim boiTv^ ia chwihw I 
* chwvbTwdi be nnpniCtaUe aad vbIb. 

mrti /(na. " That tbe rich Mil eeitfy a 
** hi the pborrh arc fBther hi| 
" piMMim or hockoor toGed. 

nnttt. /laM. -TbM it te pity that ttvr tbe n 
" — rtw ^ BTHMuuy, or UT Other diTioe lerwe 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 188 

" made, or suffered to be read, said, or sung within 
" any church, because it is only to the deluding of 
" the people, 

XX3CUE. //cm, " That saints are not to be invocated 
" or honoured ; and that they understand not, nor 
" know nothing of our petitions, nor can be me- 
" diators or intercessors betwixt us and God. 

xl. Item, " That our lady was no better than 
" another woman ; and like a bag of jiepper or 
" safiroii when the spice is out : and that she can do 
" no more with Christ than another sinful woman. 

x!i. Item, " That it is us much available to iiray 
* unto saints, as to hurl a stone against the wind : 
" and that the saints have no more power to help 
" a man, than a man's wife hath to help her 
" husband. 

xlii. Item, " That dirige, commendations, mass, suf- 
" frages, prayers, almsdeeds, or oblations, done for 
" the souls of them that be departed out of this 
'• world, be but vain and of no profit. 

xliii. Item, " That the souls departed go straight 
" to heaven, other to hell. 

xliv. Item, " That there is no mean place between 
" heaven and hell wherein souls departed may be 
" afihcted. 

xlv. Item, " That if there be a place where they 
" be punished, God is not yet bom, nor ho that 
" shall redeem the world. 

xlvi. Item, " lliat jirayers, suffrages, fasting, or 
" almsdecds, do not help to take away any sin. 

xlvii. Item, " That there is no distinction of sins 
" after this sort, sin to be venial, and sin to be 
" mortal. 

xlviii. Item, "That all sins, after that the siraier 
K 3 

A.D. iji6, 



gVCJMrrl Mtnrjt 

A- Vju* -' be ooee eaawtcd, an awde br tbe Biertii of 
*Vta' * ClniK'f pM^oa tomU nw. tktt fat to i^, du 
" dean finTifi»'<tL 

xlix, //m. *• Tbst Almif(fatT God doth not Isok 
" feft nor jd rc«inin.> of « rinoer aftcff Ui uuuviuiiia 
"Iha fin mj teeing; alnudced, or mf alhcr 
^'twnutoe; bM oal]r tkat tka rinnor ba Mnjr ftr Ui 
** riM, WMiKliBg Ui life, md rinniqf do man. 

I /Ion, **Tbak bmllowod wmter, bnllowod brand, 
" hallowed eaodlei, hallowHl arfia, hallowed pafan, 
** and mrii Ufce eonBoaiaa of the ehnreh, ara at 
- Moa eabot and to ba taka miMm aad vanlli« 
** to aednM the people. 

U. /b^, -That holidaT* ordaiaM aad I 
** by the church are not to be olwerr o d i 
** tcverenre, iiunnuoh vi all tltrtt and t 
*■ and that tonile work*, u pkmghiaf aad i 
** majr be done in tlie tame. withoBt any c 
" all. ■■ in other ferial dan. 

lii. Itrm, "That the linjrinft or mjinfi of mam, 
" matJnn, or evaamnf , ia but a muiof. howfing, 
" whittliiiff. mummiiiy. ronjitring and jufirtinf : and 
" the* pinTinfT at the or|taBf a foolbh nnif j. 

IHL Item, - That piljrrimafrfs fiutinfr. almedeadi, 
"and focb tike, are not tn Iv ux-d; and that a 
** man ia not bnmnd to the oburrh, bot only to the 
" pnaehiag. 

liv. Iiem, - That U b nfieieat and aaa^gh fe» 
** believQ. tboDffa a Ban 4o no good wocfca at 

1*. Jimi, - That nwn be Mt eoatent to praacb of 
** oaftaia abnaea fimnd ia |dlgiiaiag«h la b«tiag, tn 
" pmrar. in laTocation ot aalnta, in reTn-flDciaf of 
" 1 ^ 1 1, ia almadewk bat tb^ will ban naeda 

CKNT. XVI. uf Brilaiii. 135 

" the thine itself taken away, and not enouch theA.D. 1536. 

« u * 1. f 1 18 Henry 

" abuses to be reiormed. vin. 

Ivi. Item, "That by preaching the people have 
" been brought in opinion and belief, that nothing is 
" to be believed except it can be proved expressly 
" by scripture, 

Ivii. Item, " Tliat it is preached and tauglit, that 
** forasmuch as Christ hath shed his blood for us and 
" redeemed us, we need not to do any thing at all 
" but to believe and repent, if we have oflended. 

Iviii. Item, " That there is of late a new cmifiteor 
" made after this form, Confitmr Deo cceli et terrep, 
" pcccapt nmis cogitatioiie, locutions, et opere, mea 
" culpa. Ideo deprecor majestaiem tttam, ut tu Dews 
" deifos iiiiquitatem mmm, et vos nrare pro me. 

lix. Itait, " That it is preached, that because auri- 
" cular confession hath brought forth innumerable 
" vices, it is clearly to be taken away. 

Ix. Item, " That the canon of the mass is the coni- 
" ment of some foolisli unlearned ])riest : and that 
" the names of the saints there expresse*! are not to 
*' be rehearsed. 

Ixi. Item, " That water running in the channel or 
*' common river is of as great virtue as the holy 
" water. 

IxU. Item, " That holy water is but juggled water, 

Ixiii. Item, " That tlie holy water is more savoury 
** to make sauc« with than the other, because it is 
" mixed with salt ; which is also a very goo<l niedi- 
'* cine for an borwe with a galled back : yea, if there 
" be put au onion thereunto, it is a good sauce for a 
" gibbet of mutton. 

Ixiv. Item, " That no human constitutions or laws 
" do bind any Christian man, but such as be in the 

A. 2 

mtc zioc & ma 

sue ^rriniMiiiif iNtiii:* 

^1 1*1 HTffviaiC 211 




CEST, XVI. of Britain, 1S7 

professed by the protestants; but Wended with these A.D. 1536, 
are some, rather expressions than opinions, (and those vm."^ 
probably worse spoken than meant, worse taken 
than spoken,) which we will not go about in any 
degree to defend, only may the unpartial reader take 
this into consideration. It happeneth in all heights 
and heats of oppositions, as in horse-races ; wherein 
the rider, if he doth not go beyond the post, cannot 
come to the post, so as to win the prize ; for being 
upon the speed, he must go beyond it that he come 
to it, though afterwards he may rein and turn his 
horse back again to the very place of the mark. 
Thus men being in the heat of contest upon the very 
career of their souls, because of their passions, can- 
not stop short at the very mark they aim at, but 
some extravagances must be indulged to human 
infirmity, which in their reduced thoughts they will 
correct and amend. As some protestants, no doubt, 
now lashing out so far in their language, retrenched 
them afterwards to a just proportion of truth 1. 

30. Two contrar)' interests visibly discovered Two con- 
themselves in the upper house of this convocation i[« it, tbe 
betvrixt the bi8ho]>9 therein; and certainly in the^^ 
lower house, their clerks and chaplains adhered to the 
j>arties of their lords and masters'", jVn honourable 
]>en' hath stated the principal parties, whom we im- 
plicitly follow herein; only, where he mentions their 
bare sees, we will add their names and surnames for 
the better clearing thereof: 

1 [After various prnroga- cler^ gave their assent. See 

tioiis, nothing was concluded, Wilkina, III. p. 803.] 
until the nth nf July, when f [Bumet, Ref. I. p. 430.] 
Fox. bishop of Hereford, pro. * I<ord Herbert in the Life 

dut-vd the Book of Artides of Henry VIII. 
printed below, to wliich the 

la TU a—* NUlmy •« T. 

<-K>l^ W II I Jtr ae M^ rntHl • 
'rSr' ITtm^tC . Ill I .fCV 

«. Hi^ Uliaar, biiliii|> of W<«niur. 
C Eilvira I'Mti hiinfi|> (■ HenniMti. 
0. Jofcs II3ii7, biilMp </ Rocfanln-. 

1. Kdwud UcMcbfaMiopflf Ysfc. 
t. Mid SbAaity, fa^bup «f UhIm. 
& CoihlHn TinHuU, biihap vt DwtiM. 

4. Sl«|>hn Gw«fiD*r, bbop of WmdHtcr. 

5. Roberi Rhntnnir, bnlMip at Chidmiar. 
A Rjchard Nix, bi*hi>p uf Nfmrich*. 
7. John Krtc, tWohofi oT Cwtnle. 

Ob ! what tajoruv *» l****^ betwixt ihtae Ofipoiito 
wiAmt {(in 1 iluD doC take Iwhop LatuDcr't phraao. 
w be to^ it out of bk text, Bttwifi iU tkiUrm V* 
tku ynmratim,md Ik* rUUrm i^liskt'^imXSlitlLm^ 
■U I'MnnetoeM Iber tbowgfat to adniice tb«ir aomal 
Bat, w wbett two Mout and ■lunly ti»> 
MMt tofediar. Htd botb dean tbe way, yet 
nrithrr ue wUUnf to flf(bt fnr it, in tbeir prwige 
tbov Mi ibove awl ibout'ii-r um> oiiiilhur, UhU d^ 
vidinx tb« way betwixt tbtio Iwili, and yrt ncttbor 

* [Nil, biitwp of Nvwidi, aiary 14, 15)6. i*« Wifci 

»M oa fAnarj 9, 1 S>4. nw- bfurv Um ihtiag af tint ram- 

rin»< fai ■ fw wwwOT ia iW nxatiiM. Hw Oarfwfa. O* 

Kia^i Baaik, km * cwm. Pitwil Am. p. 440. 

■dam wUi Rmm. 7W Raf. I. p. 43i] 

W.blllltllllll I *(H«pMUdl]M 

t Mr utd hifwL ■■ thM tat ; fitt) inu « 

«4 yak. fU itirp«'» MOTb L 14$.] 

of bi VMtMr M. 
4M U » n w — 

of Britain. 

get the same: 8o these two opposite parties in the ^.u, rjj* 
convocation were fain at last in a drawn battle to viii. 
part the prize between tliem, neither of them being 
conqaering or conquered : but a medley religion, as 
an expedient, being made up betwixt them both, to 
Ralve (if not the consciences) the credits of both 

81. Some zealots of our age will condemn the tw pro. 
Liiodicean temjKjr of the jtrotestant bishops, because jiojH''[|,e,v 
if stickling to purpose, and improving their power to^|^™^ 
the utmost, they might have set forth a more pure 
and perfect religion. Such men see the fiiults of 
reformers, but not the difHcotties of reformation. 
These protestant bishops were at this time to en- 
counter with the popish clergy, equal in number, not 
interior in learning ; but far greater in power and 
deiK'ndencies, Besides, the generality of the people 
of the land being nnsled in ignorance and super- 
stition, could not on a sudden endure the extremity 
of an absolute reformation. Should our eyes be 
instantly posted out of mi<lnight into noon-day, cer- 
tainly we should be blinded with the suddenness 
and excellency of the lustre thereof. Nature there- 
fore hath widely provided the twilight, as a bridge 
l^ degrees to pass us from darkness to light. Yea, 
our Saviour himself did at the first connive at the 
carnality of his apostles, and would not put new tcine 
info old bottles for fear ofbr€akmg\ Yea, he had 
some commandments, which as yet t/ici/ were not 
afile to bear' : and therefore till they could bear 
them, his wisdom did hear with them. Tlius the 
best of artists do not always work to the height of 

140 TAe TAmcA HiMtory »«» t 

A-iJvjM^ their nwn ftkill, but ■ccontiiijE; to thi* aptneas of tbc 

VIIL imtrumeiit)! wlit>n*w)th, aiid the mparitr of the mb* 

jectn wbiTPon. thcT ttii|ilo)r iht-ntSL'hoH. 

J** 34. And hvtv we present the mwlcr with tbu 

■httvO^afbreMid idihIU't rvligiou piMvd in tbfoi coovootkifu 

MJiii'ilIii uid eoDflnned with my^l uMmt: n>>)ue*ting him, 

^■iiir^ thoogfa it ho woiewhat long, not to frniitfi^ bU tine 

uid paina, aorioiulv to penue it. I'uilj fur Uw 

autbcntlcalneM thereof, being hj mo tremwribed out 

of tbc ArtB of tbcV'onvoeatioo : partly for its oaeftil- 

tiMi, shewing by wliat (b-gree« the go<pcl inriomtad 

itself into tht< tK>uIn f>r men. What Mid ZmnA, 

Hanuui's wife to her htiJiband ? If tkou ktul Jofm Iv 

fall if/ore Morderai, lAou thalt not frteoil i 

Aim, biU $hali iMrrftffiUi U/nrt kim^. Seeinf p 

began even now to n^-l aiul ctogger. > 

yean we nhall haTe^it tnmhle down and lav proatrBte 

with the face tbcrvof at the footstool of truth. 

CKST. XVI. of Britain. 141 

35. *Henry *the Eighth, by the grace of God, kitH/A.Jt.ii^G. 
of Etigland and of France, ^defensour of the ' viu!^ 
faith, lord of Ireland, and in earth supreme head 
of the church of England ; to aU and singular 
our most loving, faithful, and obedient subjects, 

Amongst other cures ''appertaining unto this our 
princely office, whereunto it bath pleased ''Almighty 
God of his infinite mercy and goodness to call us, 
we have always esteemed and thought, *like as we 
also yet esteem and think, ""that it most chiefly 
belongeth unto our said charge, diligently to foresee 
and cause, ethat not only the most holy word and 
commandments of God should most sincerely be 
believed, and most reverently be observed and kept 
of our subjects, ''but also that unity and concord in 
opinions, namely, in such things as do concern our 
religion, may increase and go forthward, and all 

> the Eighth] the Eight. MS. <> defensour] defensor, MS. 
« appertain ing} committed, MS. ^ AJmighly] omitted in 

MS. ' like] omitted in MS. ' that it— and cause] this 

to be most chief, most ponderous, and of most weight, MS. 
8 tJinl not only^-oiir subjects] that bis holy word and com- 
mtkndments sincerely may be without let or hindrance of our 
subjects truly believed, and reverently kept and observed, M9. 
^ but also] and, MS. 

• [TheseArticles 1 have col- 
lated with the original copy in 
the British Museum. (Cotton 
MSS. Cleop. E. V.) This 
MS. contains the original sig- 
natures of the two houses of 
convocation, printed in note *, 
p. 159- It in scarcely needful 
to mention, that two copies of 
these Articles, one from bishop 

Burnet's History of the Re- 
formation, and one from the 
edition of Berihelet, in 1536, 
were reprinted by bishop Lloyd 
in the Formularies of Failb, 
Oxford. 8°. 1815. Fuller baa 
followed the latter. Tlie va- 
riations of the Cotton MS. are 
printed nt the foot of the 

Itf Tht CkurtA Uutory to 

A.D. iM&oecuinn of dJiwnt •nil diseord toaehinf tlw i 
'"^VT' W reprand md uUerlj exUagnlihed. 

For thn which eauie, wo boing of kte to oar 
gnmi regKt credibly adveitwod of such diivnitjr m 
opi ni oMi, M hiTe grown uu! 8|)n)ugtm in this oar 
■■■hit M "aU ooaaendng eertain utidei noeww ly 
to our Mlndon, u also tooebing eortais 'otber 
•od commendable oeremooies, nim, and 
^nov ■ toog time ued and iocoalonBd in 
'oar ebnivbn, for " wm ie i i atiuu of an honeit poB^ 
mid decent *aad seemly ordn- *to be had tberrin: 
ntndlng to bare ibat uriilT and agTvcmcnt eita- 
bfiriied thnmgb our aaid rhuich ronrenung the 
pTrniiM<R. And, bpiiij; vpry dennnta to eacfaew, not 
only ttio dangvra of soaU, bat abo the ou tw a rd i»- 
qniotDCOT, wtiirfa, by oramon of tbe mid direnltj la 
ofdniom (if rnncdy 'were oot prorided) night per^ 

I haro eomipd; hare tmC only In oar own 
St many timv« takm great pain, fltodjr, 
and traraili, Init also bare csuaod nor 

I, and other the m<Mit dixcroet and Imit learned 
SMQ of oar eleigy of this our whahj realm, to be 
■MonUed In oar conTocatluo, for the full debate 
MBOt and qnlet defterminatlon of the aune. Whera^ 
lAor Uag aad natnn «delibenlion hwl of nd 
upon tbe prembea, finally they haw eoocluded aad 
i^reed npon 'the moat ■peirial poiuta and article^ ■• 

' oiWI MBklfld Is Uft. k Mw ■ loM tina mm4 aoJ m^ 

inn mill] oniucd b MS. ■ onr] imt mmI, US. - «». 

nnMM ^ a^tW in MA. > uJ "«kIj] Milud la MB. 
■ In hi haJ tknia] h w Hwft— Mf lo^ Uaw mmJ tmi MiM. 

1 iMd nol hr**. US. 

dd pptaM mi «tU»3 ika mM ■ 

t,f nritnin. 


well 'such as be commanded of God, and are necos-A.D. 1536. 
sary to our salvation, 'as also divers other matters vin. 
touching the honest ceremonies, and good and politic 
orderg, as is aforesaid. Which their detemiination, 
debatement, and agreement, for "so much as we 
think to have j)roceeded of a good, right, and true 
Judgment, and to be agreeable to the laws and ordi- 
nances of God, and much profitable for the stablish- 
ment of that charitable concord and unity in our 
church of England, which we most desire, we have 
caused the same to be published, willing, requiring, 
and commanding you to accept, repute, and take 
them "accordingly. And further, we most heartily 
desire and pray Almighty God, that it may ]ilea8e 
him 80 to illuminate your hearts, that you, and every 
of you, may have no less desire, zeal, and love to tlie 
said unity and concord, in reading, divulging, and 
following the same, than we have had and liaye ^in 
causing them to be thus devised, set forth, and 

And for because we would the said articles, and 
every of them, 'should be taken and understanden of 
you, after such sort, order and degree, as apper- 
tainetb accordingly, we have caused by the like 
assent and agreement of our said bishoj)s, and other 
learned men. the said articles to be divided into two 
sorts ; "whereof the one part containeth such as ''be 
commanded expressly by God. and ""be necessary to 
our salvation ; "^and the other containeth such things 

• said as] those which, MS. ' an niso divers other mat- 

ters] as the other. MS. " so] as, MS, ' accordingly— 

and pray] accordingly ; most heartily desiring and praying, MS. 
T in] omitted in MS. * should be] to be, MS. ■ whereof 
the one part containeth] that is to say, MS. *• be — be] 

are — are, MS. "^ and the other — have been] and such other 

aa, although thej be not expressly commanded of God, nor ne- 
cessary to our salvation, yet being, MS. 


7)W CAuirh ffittory 

^fcff » docmt 

A.l xmt .M haro bf'oii of a luiifr c«intiiiuuio', 
VIII. order am) boni'rt '{xtljty, |int(lontlT institiitcal 'and 
used in the chtirch of our nmliii. ami be for tbst 
mmc {mriHwc utd end to be obwrred *uid kept 
■nNinlinjfl^r, althou^ tbcj be not cxpnmdf eom- 
mandcd of (>i>d. nor necciMiy to our MlvBtkM. 
W')ien*ron-\ wl> will and reqoiro ytm to aeeef* tlw 
Nune, after iiurh aoK m we have here praacribid 
them unto jnu, and to conform jronrsclTca obedioKtljr 
onto tlie same : whereby tou shall not onlj attalB 
that Bwat diaritable nnitr and loring eonconl. 
wbweof riiaO awoe jrour inrompanbic ronimoditjr. 
ptoii and Inecci, as well s{iiritiial m other; ^bat alao 
70a dull not a littlu viirouragv us to take fnrthw 
tninJbi, pait». and Inboun for your rommodltiea la 
all such otbiT matteni um in thne to come n^ 
to occur, and as it shall be most to the 
r *of God, the profit, tranquilHlT. and quletOMB 
of all JDO our most loving subjects. 

* far • dMCBt unlw) oBitMd b MS. • p«Utv1 ^0%. 

Ma ' hmI iMd b Un dwrdi at ma tmim, Md W] w«. 

Ma c >^ iM|ii amdiwir— whmbr tm] (■ ifk* n. 

Wkkb n faUowMg bIW mtA Hft m «• hmn wi M- it W d «■■■ 
yM. HH. k bNi iW yoM dMdII hut wim> J*, wfii riaa 

, Hid Miac ihN* WW wl utidH ■ ' •> --^^ 

at God] mT G<id ud BCfcm. Ua 


CENT. XVI. of Britain, 145 

^ The principal Articles concerning our Faith, a.D. 1536. 

28 Henry 

Firsts As touching the chief and principal Articles of our VIII. 
Faith, it is thus agreed, as hereafter followeth, by the 
whole clergy of this our realm. We will, that all bishops 
and preachers shall instruct and teach our people by us 
committed to their spiritual charge, that they ought and 
must most constantly believe and defend all those things to 
be true which be comprehended in the whole body and canon 
of the Bible; and also in the three creeds or symbols, 
whereof one was made by the apostles, and is the common 
Creed which every man useth : the second was made ^by 
the council of Nice, and is said daily in the mass : and the 
third was made by Athanasius, and is comprehended in the 
Psalm, Quicunque vult. And that they ought and must 
take and interpret all the same things, according to the self- 
same sentence and interpretation, which the words of the 
selfsame creeds or symbols do purport, and the holy 
approved doctrines of the church do intreat and defend the 

Iteniy That they ought and must repute, hold, and take 
all the same things for the most holy, most sure, and most 
certain and infallible words of God, and such as neither 
ought ne can be altered, or convelled by any contrary 
opinion or authority. 

liem^ That they ought and must believe, repute, and 
take all the articles of our faith contained in the said creeds 
to be so necessary to be believed for man's salvation. That, 
whosoever being taught will not believe them, as is afore- 
said, or will obstinately affirm the contrary of them ; he, or 
they, cannot be the very members of Christ, and his spouse 
tlie church, but be very infidels or heretics, and members 
of the devil, with whom they shall perpetually be damned. 

Iteniy That they ought and must most reverently and 
religiously observe and keep the selfsame words, according 
to the very same form and manner of speaking, as the 

^ The principal Articles concerning our Faith] The Articles of our Faith, 
Ms. 1 by the council] in the holy council, MS. 


\4B Tht CAwrek Hutnry torn v. 

A.a luLartkfai 6t our fiutb be alrcadjr conceivnl aad expnaod im 
'^^^ Uw «wl mcda, wiibuut slleiing in Mijr wiw, or nrytag 
' ■■ ■ ■InNii the HMDCi 

Am, That they ought aod tnuil aitcrly rvftnt am) eo»- 
J^^ ^ff ill iboae opiauaa oontrary l» the wd anidc*, whidi 
wtt* of kMg time poMcd, condrmneii in (he four holy c«nMi> 
dk, that i> la My, in ihff council of Nior, romiaMiaoptt, 
EphcMH, umI Ctwlmloo, and «Il other anoe thai ikM ia 
■njr point oooauanut tu the «in«. 

Steom^^ At louching th« holjr m enmm a at Ympamt, 
«c win, ihu aQ bnho|M nd pwa d wtB AaO i 
Uach (Mjr paopla enmnwiud (7 ua a 
that they owghl, and nuK at Mecoity li 
thoa* ttinnp which hava been alwaja by Uw « 
of the chuich ap faowd, RceiTcd, and taad in 1 
amtof bapitm; that is to aiy, that tha ■ 
tkm wa« tnrtitutcd and onlainad in tba Now 1 
our Saviour Jcuii Chriat, aa • ihiBg I 
Ulainiog of wcrlaatiBg Ua, acntdbf to tho 1 

M-B-t-Chtirtt-AbaNM CM mtor Mo HktUmgJtm^k 
twetft it Ar AopM ^aim </ wafer a«d <*r ffafy GBIaat. 

Am, That it ia ofrml uoio all mra, aa watt iaAHlam 
■neb ■• hate the um of nwaou, that by baptMti thay riMM 
ha*« wi haiow of ma, and tha graoe oimI (araur at God, 

ai>k art. acsomlav lo tho wjnog td "Chrirt, ■ tVAomtntr Itrflnrf 

'*- mdif*v«ai4a*all*CJ«m/. 

Am, That the praonr at grata and everhidag Rb 
(wbidi pfamw ia a^fanad unio thia Mcraamtl of l 
p arl aiaw h Ml oaly udid auch aa hmn iha om of n 
bvt ain to infinla, iwneaota, and duldnm : md. that tbqr 
iM^I ihaRfan, and moat nacda be baptitd ; 
Iba nenaaai of baptian they do aim obtain 
ihair Ma, tba gna aod fii«-our of God, and I 
~ f tba voy mm md cfaildm of God. loi 

la M* 

• CMmJ Ms M. 

CEKT. XVI. of Britain. 147 

infants and children dying in their infancy shall undoubtedly a.D. 1536. 
be saved thereby, and else not. ^^vu\^ 

Item, That infants must needs be christened, because 

they be bom in original sin, which sin must needs be 
remitted, which cannot be done but by the sacrament of 
baptism, whereby they receive the Holy Ghost, which 
exerciseth his grace and efficacy in them, and cleanseth and 
purifieth them from sin by his most secret virtue and 

Item, That children or men, once baptized, can, nc 
ought ever to be baptized again. 

Item^ That they ought to repute and take all the Ana- 
baptists and the Pelagians P their opinions, contrary to the 
premises, and every other man'^s opinion agreeable unto the 
said Anabaptists' ^ or Pelagians^ opinions in this behalf, for 
detestable heresies, and utterly to be condemned. 

Item^ That men or children having the use of reason, 
and willing and desiring to be baptized, shall by the virtue 
of that holy sacrament obtain the grace and remission of all 
their sins, if they shall come thereunto perfectly and truly 
repentant, and contrite of all their sins before committed : 
and also perfectly and constantly confessing and believing 
all the articles of our faith, according as it was mentioned 
in 'the first article. 

And finally. If they shall also have firm credence and 
trust in the promise of God adjoined to the said sacrament, 
that is to say, that in and by this said sacrament which they 
shall receive, God the Father giveth unto them, for his 
Son Jesus Christ's sake, remission of all their sins, and the 
grace of the Holy Ghost, whereby they be newly rege- 
nerated, and made the very children of God, according to 
the saying of ^St. John, and Uhe apostle St. Peter, "Z>oAct8ii. 38. 
penance for your sins, and be each of you baptized in the 
name of Jesu Christ, and you shaU obtain remission of 

P their] omitted in MS. q or Pelagians] or the Pelagians, MS. 

r the first article] the article before or ells not, MS. » St. John] . Christ, 

MS. t the apostle] his apostle, MS. " Do penance — IMy Gho9i] 

L<atin in MS. 

L 2 

140 Tht Chunk HUtor^ looi *-. 

A.D. i|jft.jvow mw. md «U0 rttfivt titt g^fl tf tkt Hdg GUtl. 

**Ym^ And aceorUinjt alio to the HTUig of St. Paul, 'GM/Atft 

— ' ■ wo* tmvtd M4 Jbr iJu works ^Jtntia tMcA HV A«M Amt, 

^'^l- 6mt ^kU mnryi^ btptitm, mmd rtmovaiiiM ^ Ukr Half 

GAoff. ntoM if iaM paurtH out m/Km w MMfi ^knl*. 

JUfyJbr IAm km tfJtau C/triH omr Savitmr, to Ik* imUnl 

Ahrt m MmffJtuH/Ua bg kit gracr, tkmU be mmit tkt ia- 

keriion ^tvrriutitig Ijfi, aomnfiny to omr kept. 

The Sacnmtnt qfPmaiue. 

TkinOjf, Coorrrning the tMmoMii of pauatct, w« 
will, tluu dl btWicifM aod pnaehrra thall irutruct uid tewb 
our pMpk coMnittcd bjr lu unio tbnr ■pintual ch«rp-, 
tlMt tli^ oogbt and moM rcoiMUntN brhrvr. thkl ihat 
i wnHntm mam iattiluta or Cbiisl to the N>w Tcvtjuimit «• 
a thing m oeeeMuy fur man'* tal* atiiiD, ihai no tamo, which 
after bit baptim t* fillim again, and halh nanaiitlMl 
dsadly lb, cao without ihr tmme be iarcd, or attain < 
laitiBg lifr. 

/mi> That hie ai tuch mm, wh>rh aftrr 1 
again into mi*, if thrjr do nut {wtuuKv in iMa I 
mdoubudljr be Jaai iw d j even lo, wbemoever the ■ 
■hall eonvm the w achfta AtMn 'their nai^tj li~ 
Boch penanve fnr the Mote aa Christ rajuinrth of ll 
•ball aitbout doubt attain mn aaw p of ihch- Aa*, and tk^ 
be Mrcd. 

Item, I'hat •the Hmmrnt t/ pcrfcrt penance, whidr 
ChfMt rrquirrth of Nicfa manner prrvan, GDOMMcth «f ikfw 
|Mnie«i ihat n to m;, nmtnlinn, anfeaaon, ^and (ka 
■neodmenl of the furwer life, and a new obedinrt rNaa> 
dhatKWt unto the law* aod will of (»od; tlial is la ^r« 
valerior acu in works «t charitr, accurdiog as ihey be eoai- 
l^sB.1. nandad at God, which be called in Kfipture. *A€ wmit§ 

F ur lke rm orr, A* touching coatrttiuo, which is the Int 

■ (M fcM* WW **r'l Lm^ *• Mfl t ■— ■»! MM «■•• 

mtmtf. Ma. • ili*] *• au, H& • *•] *s m * ^ 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 149 

part, we will, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct A. D. 1556. 
and teach our people committed by us unto their spiritual * vill.*^ 

charge, that the said contrition consisteth in two special 

parts, which must always be conjoined together, and cannot 
be dissevered ; that is to say, the penitent and contrite man 
must first knowledge the filthiness and abomination of his 
own sin, ^unto which knowledge he is brought by hearing 
and considering of the will of God' declared in his laws ; 
and feeling and perceiving in his own conscience that God 
is angry and displeased with him for the same. He must 
also conceive not only great sorrow and inward shame that 
he hath so grievously offended God, but also great fear of 
God'^s displeasure towards him, considering he hath no 
works or merits of his own, which he may worthily lay 
before God, as sufficient satisfaction for his sins. Which 
done, then afterward with this fear, shame and sorrow must 
needs succeed and be conjoined the second part, <^that is to 
wit, a certain faith, trust and confidence of the mercy and 
goodness of God, whereby the penitent must conceive 
cert£un hope and faith that God will forgive him his sins, 
and repute him justified, and of the number of his elect 
children, not for the worthiness of any merit or work done 
by the penitent, but for the only merits of the blood and 
passion of our Saviour Jesu Christ. 

Iteniy That this certain faith and hope is gotten, and also 
confirmed and made more strong by the applying of Christy's 
words and promises of his grace and favour contained in 
his gospel, and the sacraments instituted by him in the New 
Testament. And therefore to attain this certain faith, the 
second part of penance is necessary, that is to say, confession 
to a priest, if it may be had ; for the absolution given by 
the priest was institute of Christ to apply the promises of 
God^'s grace and favour to the penitent. 

Wherefore^ As touching confession, we will, that all 
bishops and preachers shall instruct and teach our people 
committed by us to their spiritual charge, that they ought, 

tl unto which knowledge] whereunto, MS. c that U to wit] viz., MS. 

L 3 

A.a iHCMd a 

[■of «bKi)ulioii 


J by ibe |inal be wpokea by Uw KDtburilj gmn lo 
bin by CbriM n the gnpe). 

/Irn. Tbu ibcy uugfat and roust pve no lea Ulb aad 

g f w fam III ibe Mine oonl* a( ahiulution. mi prnaouiwid by 

lb« Binuten of tbc church, than thoy would gtr* unto Um 

vny wotda and raicv nf God buudf, if be (hould tpcak 

uDto lis out at hoiTcn, Mooonfiiig to the MyiDft of ('hrwt, 

JdM u. ' Ifltaar miw Mnvr yr dajbrgive, Aatt bejbrgivm ,- wAiwr 

'^ «*iu aonrr ^ da rrtaim, Aali bt rrtMmtd. < And a^HO ia 

UiU s. tA- aDothrr plan Chmt Miib, >■ Whoaoevrr kavtik jfott itar^ 

etk mf. 

caiftariBM, tthieh » nails into lbs wiiM«ii of lbs cbwcb, 
bst thai tbay oi^t to npMa lbs aaow at a 'very «Tpcdkai 
wbcfcby tbcy may raquin! and aak 
' t, at Mcb lime aa they 
ih OMVtal no, and hare 
I K) to do ; to the intent they may therrfay attaw 
certain comrort and ooaaolaiiaa of ibcir oooneaen. 

^ ImtdUi^ ^ to the third part (/ peaanoe, «B will, that all 
b«lMipa and pfw chti r a shall inatnict and leac h our pwfle 
coBnuited by ui lu tbrir ■pbiinal charge, that Jlhoi^ 
Chriat aad bb death bs tb« iuftcient oblatiDn, BKriflea, 
■ Mi af a ct ioa, and raeoaipciMe, for the which God ibe Father 
Istyivvlh and mniuech to all MacTa, not only their an, bui 
aho eternal pon due for the nuns ; yet all men mily p 
lent, conliitf and oonTraacd, mutt ocadi alao bring faeth iha 
flruita of penance, that i» lo ny, prayer, faattag, a 
aad nu*t make reatitutiun or fslii&clian in will and d 
thrir nci|ihtuun in luch ihingm as ibey have c 
wtung and injury in, and also must do all other g 
at mercy and charity, and npnaa thrir obrdicnt will li 
caccuiiag and fulfilling uf God's eaaunandinmu outwardly. 

tkrt^ Ml*] a^Hrf la M 

CENT. XVI. of Brilaiii. 151 

when lime, power, and occasion shall be ministered unto A. D. 1136. 
them, or else they shall never be saved. For this is the * viir^ 
express precept and commandment of God, 'i>o y<m the '"' "... 
KortAy fruits o/penance. And St. Paul swth, "^Liie aa in ig, 
times past you have given and applied yourselves, a»d all the 
M&mbers o/your body, to alljilthy living and wickediKss, eon- 
imuaUy increasing the same ; in liie manner note you mutt 
yive and apply yourtelvea tr'hoUy to Justus, increasing conti- 
nually in purity and cleanness of life. "And in another 
place he saith, "/ chastise and suhdue my carnal body, andi Cor. ix. 
tAs affedioiM of the same, and make them oiedimt unto ihe'^' 

Item, That these precepts and works of charity be neces- 
sary works (o our salvation, and God necessarily requireth 
that every penitent man shall perform the same whensoever 
time, power, and occasion shall be ministered unto Pthem so 
to do. 

Item, That by penance, and such good works of the 
same, we shall not only obtain everlasting life, but also we 
shall deserve remission or mitigation of these present pains 
and afflictions in this world, according to the saying of St. 
Faul, Hjfwe would correct and take punishmet^ of ourselves, • Cor. xi. 
tee should not he so grievously corrected of God, And Za- 
charias 'the prophet saith, ' Tarn yourselves unto tM, and /Zodi. i, 3. 
teill turn again unto you. And ' the prophet Esay saith, 
^BreaJc and deal thy bread unto tlte hungry, bring into thy '•»- I'l". ;■ 
house the poor man, and suth as imnt harbour. When thou ' ' 
gffest a naJted man, give Mm clothes to cover hitn with, and 
nfuse not to succour and help the poor and needy, for ha is 
thine ownfesh. And if thou leilt thus do, then shall thy l^ht 
glister 9^ as bright as the sun in the morning, and thy health 
$iaU sooner arise unto thee, and thy jastiee shall go before thy 
faee, and the glory of God shall gather thee up. that thou shall 

I Do s/oa—pmanee] talJn in MS. « tAkt at in — rieanMu ifflifi] 

Latin in MS. " Aod in uiother place be tailhj oniitud in HS. " I 

ehartiM— JVipJrti] ImtininMS. P ihem] him, MS. t Vf 

•rawM— 4/'C«f] tidtin in MS. ' the prophet] omitted in SIS, • Turn 
fourtlitf — tmJo i/ov] Latin in MS. t the prophet] omillcd in MS. 

■I Bmtk mvl iftal — ihatl yianl ivaler] LAtiii in MS. 

1.4 ~ 

The ChMnk irutortf 


».«(j«Mf yUK. Amd winmnw iAm dUA raff vpM 6*1, Oirf 

mlMUMwr flM «l«fr <*y M* OU: (M 
-iimBmg,U!kmIamr*adgt9h^llmf. nM«U«% 

m tJU mm ml umi u ttft; amJ Mm fM «UJI fNv aiatlw 
I— tf— / rwt. aW <4«tf /tiW liy mmt trM Ifiytftw.- Mirf 
OattMiMtlAfMf/i^ aJMnilf: oiW Ora aIm ataJt I* 

Jruit, ami IH» (ir wW^ pr wy fi«l Mwr «Aa0 kwiI ' 

■7%Mf ri««^ and aud) otbvr. thoold be 
Uuj{ht umI iDculcatpd intu the ran t/ our |Mnp)a, i 
inirat to rtir woA {wtxvtAe lb«m unia good work*, i 
tbt wUwine good works lo excfdM awl cunfim ihrtr Wtk 
■id bopr. Mid look for lo ttemz at (.nxTa hand iniii|ptiaa 
md ramiiiiuri of the ■ Jw rii^ calamitin, and ^rimiua 
puimhincfits which G<id tcedelh to ncii in llw world lor 
ibeir lint. 

T%t RaerammA i/A» AMar. 
FourtUf. j^fttouchiof tbeMcmBHUoftlwalur.wtwin. 
thai all bi*lK)|w and prwwhtn thall iMiuct and indi our 
peopbt cwawit M d bjr ui unlo their t)nntual rhwKr, ihM 
Uwjr oogbt and muat ootMUntlr bclMnrr, that under tlw 
fprm «ad Apin of bcvad and wimr, whirfa wc their preatBtly 
dn Hc and pmrin bjr ou tw a td MMca, ta vrrilv. iiihilMi 
tklly, and ntUj coauuied nnd ramprriiendcd ifa* v«fy 
wiflua body and Uood at our Sariuar Jcmh ChiMI, 
whidi WM bora of iho Virgin Mary, and lulvrcd Hpni A* 
OMi lor our ndcmptioa. And, that under the «as tmm 
■■d Aginw vi brad and wtDr, the nry w^tmmm 
Uood of CbriM it corporally, mdly, and in ihe 
■taoc* obifailad, duiribulcd, and rcrcivnl J unto i 
t the Hid McnuBf-Dt. And. lltat 
ml ta to be uacd with all due rr t rTyncc i 
I that CTrry man ought fim tit ptnvr . 
e himarif, and rrKgioutly to try and tuuvh hia < 

« Tl— ihtag*. laltitnia.] nai L I !■ Mv r «m^ ^] na 




CEKT. XVI. of Britam. 1 53 

conscience before he shall receive the same, according to the a.d. 1536. 
saying of St. Paul, ^ Whoioe'cer eateth this body of Christ tm- ^^JJ??'^ 

worthily^ or drinketh of this blood of Christ umoorthily^ shall ;— 

be guilty of the very body and blood of Christ. Wherefore letl^^ ^^' 
every man first prove himself and so let him eat of this bread 
and drink of this drink ; for whosoever eateth it or drinketh 
it untoorthilyy he eateth and drinketh to his oum ahmnation^ 
because he putteth no difference bettoeen the very body of 
Christ ^and other kinds of meat. 


Fifthly^ As touching the order and cause of our justifi- 
cation, we will, that all bishops and preachers shall instruct 
and teach our people committed by us to their spiritual 
charge, that this word justification signifieth remission of 
our sins, and our acceptation or reconciliation into the 
grace and favour of God, that is to say, our perfect reno- 
vation in Christ. 

Item^ That sinners attain this justification by contrition 
and faith joined with charity, after such sort and manner as 
we before mentioned and declared. Not as though our 
contrition, or faith, or any works proceeding thereof, can 
worthily merit or deserve to attain the said justification : for 
the only mercy and grace of the Father promised freely 
unto us for his Son'*s sake Jesus Christ, and the merits of 
his blood and passion, be the only suflScient and worthy 
causes thereof. And yet, that, notwithstanding, to the 
attaining of the ^ same justification, God requireth to be in 
us, not only inward contrition, perfect faith and charity, 
certain hope and confidence, with all other spiritual graces 
and motions; which, as we said before, must necessarily 
concur in remission of our sins, that is to say, our justi- 
fication : but also he requireth and commandeth us, that 
after we be justified, we must also have good works of 
charity and obedience towards God, in the observing and 
fulfilling outwardly of his laws and commandments. For 

2 Whosoever eatelh — very body of Christ] Ijatin in MS. a and other 

kinds of meat] omitted in MS. ^ same] said, MS. 

KM TIk CImnA HitUry aoos *. 

A-Di i||S.ahhoiigfa Moefitaiiaii lo everkitiiig fife fas eoajni til vidi 
''vm^ j"'*M^'wii, yet our good woriu bt otcHnriljr wq wire d M 

lbs Btuioiag of ercrlming Ibtt. Ami «• Iniag jwiiiWd 

be ncGCMwily bomd. «ik1 it is our wwiw ry dutjr to 4b 
tiam. im. ifood vorki, accordiii^ to tba Mjring of 8l Paul, * IT* b 

Hlmi /vt if w lit* M, m alotf nWwrf^rf^y J« 
Amdtmtnry, if ^ iriU mtrtify Om JmJt tfmu- Jl^md 
Km aeeorJimy l« bU Sfiiril, tn aioA J« tawtJ, F'or (nboMMir 
UMiftl^'si>iriii,fG^titfittiutluUrmofGU. Ant 
MaiLmls. Chfiit MJih. ^ If y«» TJU esmt tt immm, titf Ii0 tm^mtmd- 
*'' aMirfMi. And St. Paul, *ipMkuig of evil wark% 

(M.r.11. ' FTAmmmt <«Mi«l mm/iU Jtmb aU7 wmtmw to 
Whcfcfbnwcwill, that all btthopaand jaiiwliiin JiwMf 
and Icacb our people cDmautled by ua unto ibair 
ctiaf]|r, (that God Dccoawiljr ra|inntb of ua to 
works omouuidcd bjr bim, and that boI only outi 
dtU workt, but alto the inward iqpirilual motio 
of th« f idy GboM : ihu ia to iay, to diiad a 
to low God, to hare firm eoofidnee umI trwt ia God, to 
inrucale and call upon God, to tu** ptienca in all ad* 
vcrutiH, to bate am, aad to bava crttain purpoaa wuA *iB 
not to ain again, aad aueh otbar blia BKnioo 
MMLr. M. For CfarM laitb. >^E»eifi ftmr riyiUammmi aiaO mtmd d9 
riflitmmmtm ^ li« AbrAio mad Pi mri mmy ft AaS im •• tm» 
miktimtttimhiiifitmtfhmnm: that ia to ay, «c muN Mt 
only do outwaad civil good woflu. but alio «e tniM Im»« 
iImh fawMJ d inward tpiritual m oUom, on 
' • ID tbt law (/ God. 

^Artidm nttmmimg tltt LndMt t»nmmiM mtd 
Clar«l ^OLfitl; anJJtnl »flmafim. 
At Im ti im j immfm, tnitb it t*, that the wutie hav 
uwd in lb* Old TcMameni, and alw fiir ibe gnat afa 

CENT. XVI. of Briluiti. 155 

lliem, sometime destroyed and put down. And in the New A. U. 1536. 
Testament ihey have been also allowed, as good authors do vill. 

declare. Wherefore we will, that all bishops and preachers 

shall instruct and leach our people committed by us to their 
spiritual charge, how they ought and may use them. And 
first, that there be attributed unto them, that they be repre- 
senlers of virtue and good example. And, that they also 
be by occasion the kindlers and stirrers of men's minds, and 
make men oft to rcmemlwr and lament their sins and 
ofTences, especially the images of Christ and our Lady. And, 
that therefore it is meet that they should stand in the 
churches, and none otherwise to be esteemed. And, to the 
latent '' that rude people should not from henceforih take 
such superstition as in time past, it is thought that the same 
hath used to do ; We will, that our bishops and preachers 
diligently shall teach them, and according to this doctrine 
nrfurm their abuses : for else there might fortune idolatry 
to ensue, which (iod forbid. And as for cen»ng of them, 
and kneeling and offering unto them, with other like wor- 
shippings, although the same hath entered by devotion, and 
fallen to custom, yet the people ought to be diligently 
raught, that they in nowise do it, nor think it meet to be 
done to the same images j but only to be done to God and 
in bis honour, although it be done before the images, 
whether it be of Christ, of the cross, ' of our Lady, or of any 
other saint beside. 

Of honouring 0/ Saint*. 
As touching the honouring of saints, we will, that all 
bisliops and preachers shall instruct and teach our people 
committed by us unto their spiritual ""charges, ihat saints, 
now being with Christ in heaven, be to be honoured of 
Christian people in earth, but not with that confidence and 
honour which arc only due unto God, trusting lo attain at 
their hands that which must be had only of God. But, 
that they be thus to be honoured, because they be known 

k tW nidej Uie, MS. ■ orj or of, MS. " durgo] charge, AIS. 

IM 7k Ckmrrh tJitlory mmw v. 

LI). isjLtbc rterl pmni uf Chriti, bccauw the; be pmmtd m gaJtf 
•■^J™' life out al th» tntiMiur)' world j bccauw thqr «hndy do 

niga in gtiH? vitli Chriai ; and, moai ■pccully to Uud aid 

pnujr Chmt in iheni for tlwtr ncrllml vinuea, wUdi W 
planted id ihcm, fur rxaniple of and l>y ihera tn audi •• 
"vet arc in tin* wiirici, \o Vnc in virtue nnd fpniagmi tmd 
■Ik) dm to fcsr to die for ClirtM ami hii csum', m «■■• at 
ibcra did. And flnallT, to take theni in that thcv may, to 
be the advanccri of our prayer* and Utrtnand* uua CbriM. 
JI5 tbcw ways and tuch like, be HtnU ui be buooufcd aad 
bad in rercrrnce, and by none other. 


Of Pnyi»$ h Saimu. 
prajrinft lo mxM, we trill, that *Q 1 


1 [K gac ht 'ra ihall inMruct ud leach our peoi^ 
hj u* uHo their ipiritual charge, that albeit graoe, 
itfiio, and ■Ivatiao, oanaut be ubuuncd but 1/ 
faj the Bcdiatioci of our Saviour Cbrirt, which b ooly 

t mediuof- Urn tMx siu ; yrt it i* wry laudaMc to pnij 
I'Ib mioU in heaven evcrUitiagly living, wboae charity ia r*v 
I p wwnen t to be inirraeMarB, and to pray for u« and witll 
a* uaio Abnigfaly God, after llii* manner : 

** All holy angela and lainta in hravrn, pray for na, aid 
** with UB, unto the Father, that for lib d«sr Sga J«ai 
■ ** Chrift fail akr, «e may have grace ttf him, and r^mmm 
I **of ouTHoa, with an caniot purpoae (not wainiag gtwrfjf 
** atreagth) to obaervc and keep hi* holy cMmnandaiH^ 
*' and never tii decline fnmi ll>e aanw again unto our Sv*^ 
** end." And in thit manner wc ntay pray to our bkaHd 
Lady, to Si. John BaptUi. to all and every of tht 
or any other aint particuUrly, a* our devotion dolh 
III : m> that it be done without any vam MtperMilion, aa t» 
ihiok that any laint ia morr merciful, or will hear im aoiBir 
than Chriat : or that any aainl doth mtvc tat one tU^ 
mm than 'another, or b pnlron uf tiw aainv. Ami Gka. 
t we oMial kavp biJy*<Uy» unto Gud, in nenory of Bm 



CENT. XVI. of Britain, 157 

and His saints, upon such days as the church hath ordained A.D. 15.^6. 
their memories to be celebrate, except they be mitigated ^ yiij"^ 

and moderated by the assent and commandment of Pus the 

supreme head, to the ordinaries; and then the subjects 
ought to obey it. 

Of Rita and Cerenumies. 

As concerning the rites and ceremonies of Christ's 
church ; as, to have such vestments in doing God^s service 
as be and have been most part used : as sprinkling of holy- 
water, to put us in remembrance of our baptism, and the 
blood of Christ sprinkled for our redemption upon the 
cross : giving of holy bread, to put us in remembrance of 
the sacrament of the altar, that all Christian men be one 
body mystical of Christ, as the bread is made of many 
grains, and yet but one loaf; and to put us in remembrance 
of the receiving of the holy sacrament and body of Christ, 
the which we ought to receive in right charity, which in the 
beginning of Christ's church men did more often receive 
than they use nowadays to do : bearing of candles on Can- 
dlemas-day, in memory of Christ the spiritual light, of 
whom Simeon did prophesy, as is read in the church that 
day: giving of ashes on Ash- Wednesday, to put in remem- 
brance every Christian roan in the beginning of Lent and 
penance, that he is but ashes and earth, and thereto shall 
return, which is right necessary to be uttered from hence- 
forth in our mother-tongue always on the ^Sunday: 
bearing of palms on Palm-Sunday, in memory of the 
receiving of Christ into Hierusalem a little before his death, 
that we may have the same desire to receive him into our 
hearts: creeping to the cross, and humbling ourselves to 
Christ on Good- Friday before the cross, and 'there offering 
unto Christ before the same, and kissing of it in memory of 
our redemption by Christ made upon the cross: setting up 
the sepulture of Christ, whose body after his death was 
buried : the hallowing of the font, and other like exorcisms 

p us] omitted in MS. 4 Sunday] same day, AIS. r there offering] 

offering there, MS. 


Tita Oumh Hu*aey iom «. 

A.U.iu*-*'''! I wii w to i nw by Uw maimKn at Chh«t'i church, — d ill 
"'v'lTl^ other Bkc huddtte eintdOM, ritct Knd ccTctRonin, be not to 
- br ctnimwi) tad caat awsjr, but la br um«1 and onol ini wJ, 

■I ibaagt ipwd and UudaUc, la put a» m nmaahnmn til 
iboae ■piiitiul ihings that thcjr do ■goifyt i 
Ana to br forgotun, or lo be put in oUivioo, bul r 
then in our tBcBiori» from tiinr lo limr ; but nootr at thnr 
•nwBooin hare powvr to remit tin. but ooly to ilk a 
Gft up our antida unto God, by whan oaly our mm W 

0/ Piuyatmf. 

Forunach ai due order at cbariiy reqntrrth. and ihr 
Bnoh of Maeoibee* and diver* anamt doirton plainljr 
■bew m . that it is a very jjood and dianlafab deed lo pray 
far ioula dqianed ; aul foraMnurh alM u mHi iiijii hath 
1 in tlkc rburch ■» ninny years, even frvMS tW 
we will, that all biihopi and prmdiera riMll 
I tncJi our pcciple oommitivd by ut uMo iWir 
J chvge, that no nun ought to be grirvnl with tb» 
coolinuanoe of the niiKt and. that ii ataodcth with the 
very due nrder of charity, a Cbrutiaa maa lo pray far Mmk 
departed, and to oomiaii them in our prayos to God'a 
nercy, and alao to cause other lo pr^ far then in I 
■od exequies, and lo give alms to other to pray C 
whmby they may be relieved and holpeo of bom 
their paia. But, forasfRucfa as the place where they fa 
MBe thereof, and kind of puns there also, he to us naocr* 
tn by Krtpture, ihm-furc this, with all other thinpi, »r 
emit to ■ Alaiighty God, uniu whose mercy it i* meet and 
w wi nW far us to commeBd tbcmt trwtijig that God 
MeeptMh our pniyerv for them, rrfrtring the rest wholly to 
God, to whan is known their estala and ooodiltaa. Whera- 
far* it IS noeh iMCcmwy thai audi abuses be clearly put 
•w^ which tmdir iJm BMSe of pui|pu«y halb been ad- 
vMMed. as, to mmk* omh beficve that lhrou|(h the faoliop of 
*BMM'a paidaaa souk niglK ckarly be drlivered out nf 

« >w^r os<l «rf *fc"Wiit. M< *Bmm\) ft^mm. 


of Britain. 


purgatory and all the pains of it; or, that masses said atA*I>* 1536- 
scaJa ccdiy or otherwise in any place, or before any image, * vill^^ 

might likewise deliver them from all their pain, and send 

them straight to heaven. And other like abuses^. 

* [Theie articles were signed by the 
wkidi they now stand. Burnet has 
printed in his History. Addenda, N^. I 

Thomas Crumwell. 
nardot Ebor. T. Cantuarien. 

Joannes London. 

Johes. Lincohi. 
hbertos Dunehnens. Johes. Lincoln, no- 
mine procuratorio pro Dno. Jo- 
hanne Exon. 

Ja Bathoniensis. 

Thomas Elien. 

Johes. Lincoln, nomine procuratorio 
pro Bna Rowlando Covent. et 

Jdbei, Bangor. 

Nioolaus Sarisburiens. 

Edoardus Herefordens. 

Hugo Wigom. 

Joannes Roiffen. 

Rich. Cicestr. 

Wiielmus Norwicensis. 

Willmus. Menevens. 

Robertus Assaphen. 

Robertus Abb. S. Albani. 
Willmus. Abbas Westm. 
Johes. Abbas Burie. 
Ricus. Abbas Olastonie. 
Hugo Abbas de Redynge. 
Robertus Abbas Malmesber. 
Clemens Abbas Eveshamen. 
Johes. Abbas de Bello. 
Wildm. Sd. Petri Olooestrie. 
Richardus Abbas Wincheloombensis. 
Johes. Abbas de Croyland. 
Robertus Abbas de Thomey. 
Robertus Abbas de Waltham. 
Joannes Abbas Cirencestrie. 
Johes. Abbas Texber. 
Thomas prior Couent. 
Johes. Al)bas de Osene^^ 

following persons, and in the order in 
committed several errors in the list 


Henricus Abbas de Oratiis. 
Anthonius Abbas deEynsham. 
Robertus prior Shen. 
Robertus prior sine Mgr. ordinis de 

Ricus. Abbas de Notteley. 
Hugo prior de Huntyngdon. 
Willmus. Abbas de Stratfford. 
Oabriel Abbas de Buckfestria. 
Henricus Abbas de Wardona. 
Joannes prior de Merton. 
Ric. prior de Walsyngbam. 
Thoms. Abbas de Oarendan. 
Thomas Abbas de Stanley. 
Richard. Abbas de Bytlesden. 
Ricus. prior de Lanthoni. 
Robertus Abbas de Thama. 
Johes. prior de Newenham. 
Radulphus prior de Kyme. 
Richardus Abbas de Bruera. 
Robert. Abbas de Welhowe. 
Bartholomeus prior de Ouerey. 
Willm. de Birgaveni. 
Thomas Abbas de Abendon. 

Inferior domus, 

Ri. Gwent archi. London et Breck. 

Robertus Aldrydg Arch. Colcest. 

Thomas Bedyll Archidiaoon. Comub. 

Ricus. Strete Arch. Derbie et procur. 
deri Couen. et Lich. 

Dauid Pole Archnus. Salop, procura- 
tor Archi. et deri Couen. 

Ricardus Doke Aichnos. Sarum. 

Edmundus Boner Archi. Leyoestrie. 

Thomas Baghe Aichid. Surri«. 

Ricardus Rawson Arch. Ess. 

Edmundus Cranmer Achnus. Cant. 


Tk€ Chunk HUtury 

*'P-'M^ 86. Notliing t'l»o of niuinont [mihnI in thb cooto- 
*vni. eation, mto thnt on tlit^ 2Uth of Julv. Kdwrnrd [Fox] 
TW<M»«» bMi»p (if Hcn.'fitnl brought in a book cmitaioii^ ibe 
2i3.tli kioK** rviioQji, cfinrcivinj^ it unfit in pt'iMin or by 
mZX!^ proxy to appcsr st tlie Ki*i>enil rouncil, bUuly oUled 
by tbo |M>pi> at Muitua (Kftemud removed to 
Tn-iil); And then the cunvocmtiou, haTing fine eon* 
linnctl till' king's mtsoiu, wiu dtMolvcd. 

It WM tnuuau4oil, in n'latinn t» cbun-b or rfaarrb- 
nion. in the coiiti.'m)N>rAnr parliament *, 

■ tTjiiitrfiil rnrat 

GSHT.xvi. of Britain. 161 

L That felons abjuring for petty treason should a. d. 1536. 
not have clergy^. ^ vin.'^ 

ii. That eveiy ecclesiastical and lay-officer shall be 
gwom to renounce the bishop of Rome and his 
authority, and to resist it to his power, and to repute 
any oath taken in the maintenance of the said 
bishop, or his authority, to be void. And the re- 
fusing the said oath, being tendered, shall be 
adjudged high treason'. 

iii. That fruits, during the vacation of a benefice, 
shall be restored to the next incumbent, whose 
charge for first-fruits shall begin from the first 

iv. Which spiritual persons shall be resident upon 
their benefices, and which not ; and for what causes'*. 

V. Release of such who have obtained licenses 
from the see of Rome*'. 

But all these are set down at large in the printed 
statutes, and thither we refer the reader for satis- 
faction ; as, to our History of Abbeys, to be informed 
about the rebellion in the north, occasioned in this 
year by these alterations in religion. 

37. Towards the end of this year, the faithful The Wrth, 
servant of God, William Tyndal, alias Hichins^, wasfint *"*^' 

martyred at Fylford in Flanders, bom about Wales, ^^^S^^d-** 
bred first in Oxford, then in Cambridge, after school- yj^*^|'" 
master to the children of Mr. Welch, a bountiful d«i- 
housekeeper in Gloucestershire. To his house re- 
paired many abbots of that county, (as indeed no 
one shire in England had half so many mitred ones 
which voted in parliament,) and clergymen, whom 

y Cap. I. « Cap. 10. * Cap. 11. ]} Cap. 13.] « Cap. 16. 
»^ Bale, in vita, p. 658. [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 323.] 


lot Tim CImnh HiMtan, mob t. 

AjaujA-iyodtl M welflo— J vHb Ui diiDoane igiinit tbeb 
via ntpentjtioiu, tint dtenruds tbey prefanrfid to fcr- 
bear master Welch bb good efaeer, ntlwr thia to 
iMve ibe atmr mudc tbwirith Mtwr I^mUI^ eooi- 
paajr. Out thift aet tbnr stoniflefaii k> iharp KgifaMt 
him, that be vnm (nreei to i(uit Gtfiurcrtenliire. and 
tender htt frrrtce to Cuttibort Tuii^tall. bUbnp of 
Uottdtut, a gnat teholar tiiniBulf, luttl tlivrvforv pfo- 
baUlc to pmvo a fAtmn to a IcanKid laan. Uini 
TyDdal pmeated io vaiti with an oration out of Uo- 
enXm, which be bad tmnlatcd bto Engliah. Bat, 
tbongb he nied Air hinudf fai two tODgoM, Gmak 
and Englbh, both proTcd ioHlbetaml; tbo btahop 
nlanihi|r. Tliat ho hiul mo alreadj than be mold 
woU Biauilairi. ita thin tlvnial. urer haMoi Trndal 
bejwtM] the nciui ; and, a(U>r much travctUo^, fuiPth 
at last at Antverp. where b« became drrk to the 
companjr of Enghsh tnprdomt adTvntitren. 
"loul^ ^' '''*'° ^ ^xf* *i*^ the New Tiatament. (aa 
.N«*. .nd or mtMt eooeeniment to mas'* aalntioa.) and, wiA 
rfuL'oM the help of John Frith, the Banieh to tfab Jenny, 
^^*"****^ tniwlating it out of thp itnek origfa»L flBfabad, 
prfaMod. aad publisbcd it. Thrn be p roceeded to Ab 
Old. and aeDomiilMbed H fmm Omt^ to Nrbemiak 
inehHivefy, bot tranalMed none of the Propheu nn 
Jonah*, htiltg ptwenled by dnUb. I | 
mtdend the CHd TeMarorot out of the 1 
beat frianda not enthling him to any ikiU i 
the Hebrpw. And maarfcable It was, that i 
to Hambonth i» print the ftwialnwh', be loat all Ui 
booka and ropiea by shipwieelt, which donbled kk 
pafna hi rtstramlatin; it But fac>re he lighted ea 


' r«. HvtyraL omL II. p. 3«4. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 168 

the help of Miles Coverdale, afterward bishop ofA. 0.1536. 
Exeter, to assist him ; and safely they went through ^ viii7 

the work, even when the sweating sickness sw^t 
away thousands in the city with a general mor- 
tality : as if the useful sweating of their brains were 
a preservative against the hurtful sweating of their 
bodies. And indeed painfulness in a lawful calling 
is the best antidote against a public infection. 

89. Yet none will deny, but that many faults Faults mhw 


needing amendment are found in his translation ; oonfeased 
which is no wonder to those who consider, first, such ^J^' 
an undertaking was not the task for a man, but 
men : secondly, no great design is invented and 
perfected at once : thirdly, Tyndal, being an exile, 
wanted many necessary accommodations: fourthly, 
his skill in Hebrew was not considerable ; yea, gene- 
rally, learning in languages was then but in the 
infancy thereof: fifthly, our English tongue was 
not improved to that expressiveness whereat at this 
day it is arrived. However, what he undertook was 
to be admired as glorious ; what he performed, to be 
commended as profitable ; wherein he failed, is to be 
excused as pardonable, and to be scored on the 
account rather of that age, than of the author him- 
self. Yea, Tyndal's pains were useful, had his 
translation done no other good than to help towards 
the making of a better ; our last translators having 
in express charge from king James to consult the 
translation of Tyndal. 

40. But when the Testament of Tyndal's trans- Tyndal and 
lation came over into England, O how were the lation boch 
popish clergy cut to the heart ! how did their blear- ^JJj^J^ 
eyes smart at the shining of the gospel in a vulgar 
tongue ! Down must their Dagon, if this ark be set 

M 2 

16ft Tke CMmrdk Huhry wmc «. 

A.&ii)&.up: down iheix Diuia, if Paul bv )N-nnittcd to 
'vmT' pfwieh u. the |*(«.. Sumf mill, that the BiWe 
oaffht not I« bt- Iniiwlnti-fl ; Mmtc, that it could not 
be, tliat it wan iniptnr>iblL-«; f>tht-n, thai the tnnii- 
latin)if tbvn*of would uiaki' mi'ti rebel affaioft the 
kinj^: and wbr, I pmy, aemtiK thejr diall roftd 
thi-Tcin. Zrf4 i-nr/y mh/ he nAjeet to Me i fj it e r 
poiterM\ f(c^ aiid manj other place* p i ijrin g «li^ 
dieacof Settle went not ao mtich angfj ' 
text, m vntb l^ndal'i commeDt. Ua pnfiwe 1 
•nd notes apon tbo aame : in Bn«, they did nol 4 
prorun* hi» book to be publicly burnt in Paid'a 
ebun^hyofd. but &1mi their maliw (wliieh bath long 
anm to reach at iiurh diittanf^) contrived and ef- 
feetod the ftimngUojr and baniing of Tyndal in 
A|inJy 41. Bale ealleth him the apoatle of the EngUah. 
had Ml And indeed aoaie general parallel (far be it froa om 
^"^ to enforev it to an abaolnte conformilT) nuy be 
obMTved betwixt Su Fnul and uur Tyndal : .St. Paid 
withMootI anil defeattxl the {tower of Klyntai the 
Borre-ivH; IVTMlal. with tbe grace and gravity of hk 
company, put a tnagirian out c^ e«iunl<nancE^ bailif 
brought thither to »hew a eaat of hto ikill by ca- 

ff Fm. ■! f^-m. " wUMMet madm," mm mf 

fc Bnw — ■ tUi- 1- priatnlbMliar HMMMcmtMl 

• [TbfM h a ptwelMwrinw Ibnfc ia tW mom oT PMa^ 

kr tU kkf. wMmM dM«. I»l Tysdib. Wridif, Jayv. ilmf, 

H( farth prahaUjr abmit 154s, BmtW. DmIv. Bw»m. Cew- 

■gofaiH t^ >Aar *)« iMt d^*, Tvorwivr, TrMy, or mf 

mf at Aami aait wti^ otWr, ww wi aiaa ■atttt «a«- 

B9 «M Mi ha** ia Ubh*. tntr to dto tbtfmt m( fatib 

««b«"ilMMttardM Kc» ia lU ptfilnwoi >i Wmala- 

~ *** ~ nl «f Tyaisb'a «r Mh-. hi tfc* . . . jw at tkl* 

J«'t tmadirtw hi rd^ Am TraaMnpta far Uw 

>. mat BBj oUkH Umi Fad.p iit.8UTp>'a(>.p.99.) 

• r«^n«d bj tte art of I Am KiS. «. 


of Britain. 


chanting'^: St. Paul, in Thyatira, converted his A. 0.1536./ 
jailer and all his household'; Tjnidal, during his year viii. 
and half durance, converted his keeper, his daughter, '"'""""■"" 
and other of his family™ : St. Paul was in perils by 
waters^ in perils by robbers^ in perils amongst false 
brethren^; so was Tyndal, whom one Philips, pre- 
tending much friendship, by cunning insinuation be- 
trayed to his destruction. We take our leaves of 
Tyndal with that testimony which the emperor's 
procurator or attorney-general (though his adversary) 
gave of him, Homo fait docttiSy piusy et bonus : " He 
** was a learned, a godly, and a good-natured man®.'* 

k Pox, [II.] p. 367. 

* Acts xvi. 33. 

™ Fox, ut prius. 

"* I Cor. xi. 26. 

o [Fox in his account of 
Tyndale observes that "it is of 
" him reported, that as he was 
" in the castle [of Vilworden] 
'* prisoner, there was much 
" writing and great disputing 
" to and fro, between him and 
" them of the university of 
" Lovaine ; which was not past 
" nine or ten miles from the 
" place where he was prisoner; 
"in such sort that they all had 
" enough to do, and more than 
" they could well wield, to an- 

" swer the authorities and tes- 
" timonies of the scripture, 
" whereupon he most pithily 
" grounded his doctrine." Mar- 
tyrol. II. p. 367. It is not 

Jerhaps generally known that 
acobus Latomus, the cele- 
brated opponent of Luther, 
wrote a confutation of Tin- 
dale's treatise, which he com- 
posed in prison, '^ Super hac 
" assertione, sola fides justificat 
" apud Deum : in quo quidem 
" libro omne bonorum operum 
" merita toUere conabsitur." 
See Latomi Opera, f. i8x. b. 
ed. Lovanii, 1579.] 

M 3 




/ knofw noi of wkai plaa properkf to fuiinr omd itucribt 
yoUf whether cfMiddUsex^ where you have your preMui 
dwellings or of Soiiinghamuhire^ whence Jlrsi youjeiched 
your namu^ orjrom DerbyMhire^ and oiher neighbourimg 
eouniuM^ wherein you are hetr apparent §o ajair mherii^ 
anee. I enty noi your deterred happiness^ bui omiy 
6k$erve it is almost as difficult to Jir a rich muin as a 
befigar ; the one Jot his variety^ the other Jbr his want cf 
habitation. But be you styled Jrom what place you 
please^ be pleased also to accept this cjrpression qf my 
9Crvicc unto you. All that I will add is^ that teeing two 

* [Arnift, SAblr, •cimc 
cinqurfoTlm and « licm rmm- 
puit, argrtit. I>ncrndnl from 
• vrrr ancient familr. ■ituated 
•t l*lifum in XtKtin|(bainftkirt*, 
m rarly ■» thr time of the 
Conqumir. He %nu the mni 
oC Mr (vervM (*lift(m, one of 
tbe rmrlie«t barimc*tJi created 
bj Janie« I., and Frances, hit 

Mcoad wife, who via a dangli. 
tcr c>f Francta. the rarl of 
Cumberland. (Utford ilifUm 
married Francra, a daii|(hter 
of ftir Ileneage Finch, and 
hu family Aucoeeded to the 
barooetcT. Sir Cliflkird dird 
in 1670. See Thc«nHon't N<^ 
tinghanuhire, I. p. 103.] 

ciMT. XVI. The Church History of Britain. 167 

anaent and honourable JamUiet {the one ofNomuui, the 
other qf Saxon extraction) Itajre met in your name, tnay 
their Joint virtues be untied in your nature. 

REAT the king's profit at this time a.d. 1537. 
firom the office for the receipts of 'V"n^ 
tenths and first-fruits, which was now Thebegin- 
first set up in London, and something g^^jj)," 
must be observed of the original "*»■ 
thereof: such monies formerly were paid to the pope, 
vhOfSa pastor pastorum, claimed dedmas decimarum; 
entitling himself thereunto partly from Abraham 
(a priest) paying tithes to Melchizedeck the high- 
priest^, partly from the Levites in the Mosaical 
law pajring the second tithes, that is, the tithes of 
their tithes to the priest : Thus shall you offer an 
heave-offering unto the Lord of all your tithes, which 
ye receive of the children 0/ Israel; and ye shall give 
thereof the Lord's heave-offering to Aaron the priest '. 
Hereupon the pope had his collectors in every 
diocese, who sometimes by bills of exchange, but 
generally in specie, (to the great impoveriBhiiig of 
the land,) yearly returned the tenths and first-fruits 
of the English clergy to Rome. 

2. But the pope being now dead in England, the Commit, 
king was found his heir at common law as to mostlHu^ta" 
of the power and profit the other had usurped. ButSeri^BaJ 
now as the clergy changed their landlord, so theiri™^- 
rents were new rated, (and, I believe, somewhat 
raised,) commissioners being employed in all counties 
(the bishop of the diocese being always one of them) 
to value their yearly revenue, that so their tenths 
and first-fruits may be proportioned accordingly, 

" Gen. xiv. 7,0. Heb. vli. 4. ' Nam. xviii. 38. 

TUt CkmrtA Oitary 

A-D-isn-Tlivte rmtenwera the chiefert penoni in ill c 

ym^ under the degrve of buoni, knd I hid m pn^eot to 

" preaeot th«ir names, h of men of upgnMrtBtwhWi 

extrartion, nune as jH st&nding on the ndni of 

abbejw to beiffatmi their dmui birth into the r 

of gentility. 

Nichola* Cuw, km.; Mutbew Brown, km.; 
Stidolfr. eaq.; John Bwiirivr, g«tt. 

iU^snl Scpoot, knt-t Lawrvncc Tiylard, knL; Joba 
Gotfwick, CM).; John Goodrick. nq. 


WitlUm Courtney, knt.; Thomu Dranis, knt.; Joha 

Hiroall, mayor of Esricr; Jiihn Hull, auditor; Wdfiaia 

SiiDonda, aud'ilor; John Fard, audilor; Joba Soatboola; 



William Srouriim, koL] John llortry, knt.; Andnw 

Luttmll, knt. ; Thonuu Sfwki-, «q.; Huifh rowk-t, «q.; 

Henry CapH, knt.-'; Williain Purtman, gvnL; Rogrr 

Kiai»y, audhor. 

John Talbul. kol.; John Giflord, knL; Wahcr Wrolicy. 
c«).; John Wrotlry. geat. 

John llolfurd, knt.; Pclcr DulUm, knt.; G«urgc Booth, 
«] ; Thomu Alriun. Hi|.i Hichanl Ligh, aq.; Wiffian 


Bat ray deidfrn fiiUled. when I found the retoni of tbo 
mnuniaHoneni' oanii* into the ottra w daJactiw^ 
that in moat rountit-ti thpy uv wlrally unH^f^ 
4 U tkii Mtkod llwr ar* aaBNd. 

csNT. XVI. of Britain. 169 

8. These commissioners were empowered by the a. D. 1537. 
king to send for the scribes and notaries of all *Vin7 
bishops and archdeacons, to swear the receivers and inttnic- 
auditors of incumbents, to view their register books, ^^^J^ 
E^ter books, and all other writings, and to use all «»•*<»»»• 
other ways to know the full value of ecclesiastical 
preferments, with the number and names of persons 
enjojring the same. They were to divide themselves 
by three and three, allotting to eveiy number so 
many deaneries, and to inquire the number and 
names of all abbeys, monasteries, priories, brother- 
ships, sisterships, fellowships, &c., houses religious 
and conventual, as well Charter-house* as others, 
(these Carthusians being specified by name, because 
proudly pretending privileges of papal exemption,) 
and meeting together to certify into the exchequer, 
at the time limited in their commission, the true 
value of such places or preferments. Herein, repa- 
rations, fees of inij-s ^ were not to be deducted, but 
perpetual rents, pensions, alms, synods, fees paid out 
yearly to persons, were to be allowed. 

4. This being a work of time exactly to perform, Some y/mn 
took up some years in the eflTecting thereof. Devon- ^!^ 
shire and Somerset were done in the twenty-seventh, 
Staffordshire, and many other counties, in the thirty- 
fourth of king Henry the Eighth, and most of Wales 
not till the reign of king Edward the Sixth. Yea, 
I am credibly informed, that in Ireland (to which 
kingdom such commissions were afterwards ex- 
tended) the commissioners, partly tired with their . 
troublesome work, partly afraid to pass the dangerous 

« Transcribed with my own ' No clerk in the office could 
hand out of the original in the read this word, 

A-D. .(ji, 


ThtCAmnA Hhtary 

hill of nub(>«. (in Imh. lSU>ut>-Logber,) obtbt came 
into ttie <Niiuity of Klitv, tin* KWiUi-waii extrani^ 
of that blond. So IhU titf clijrjfj thiveof (tboogh 
th* pooTMt of tbn poorviit in Ireland) et^^ thk 
pririlciKe^ that they an> pruttuntl; pul into tbdr 
Uriagit or baoefieoa latlier, without nnr pannctita. 

5. But no tuA Ikvoar wa> »]|uwl><] to vaiy pUee in 
Engbud, wbwtt all were unpartialty iat«d. aod 
TieangM vahied tm^ high aeoonlinf; to Uuir i i w cet 
rawmw b^ penonal pefqabitet. In that agv^ h» 
gwwrdly waa the richest ^vphirrd who had the 
groabstt flock, where obtationn from iho livioj^ and 
obits for the dead (aa c^rtainlj paid a* [wedtal 
titbM) luucb adTaaead tbdr inoatDe. In raoai- 
duration whi-rrof, vkangM (oMitljr lying in market 
lowna and [topuloai parMhaa) went aet tltjt high, 
thoQitfa aoon after thoae obventioiw ninlc with ■ 
■titkm : and the liesia in vain dcaired a propoctkifr 
able abatcnkcnt in the king's booka; wUdi i 
drawn up werv no more to be altend. 

6. Now <|iit.'c'n Marr. a prtnoeM. i 
waa never pnne-riddco. as one wbi> wimid go to the 
coat of her own prinripliw, did by art of puliainent 
ewaratc^ Mxpiit, and diaebarge the clergj fnmi aO 
It* fluita. Aa for teniha, the Mune lUtute' ordewth 
thaai to be paid to eatdinal Pole, who tmm tW 
•anw WM to pay the pesaloni allowed by hrr fiuber 
to Monka and aam at the diiMilotioa of abbcyn : yvt 
■(^ that when aoch penooi; who were bat few and 
agvd (all naned in a deed indarted) ■ 
all mob payoMitB of the dcixy* laaamid i 
ifarii*, riioald ccMc, and be eleariy extinct and 

1 1 ft s PyUp »i Mary. Of. 4. 

CBUT. XVI. of Britain. 171 

7. But her sister queen Elizabeth succeeding her, a.d. 1537. 
and finding so fair a flower as first-fruits and tenths ^Viil7 
fidlen out of her crown, was careful quickly to gather Queen eu. 
it up again, and get it reset therein. A princess ^^Jj|^™" 
most facile to forgive ii\juries, but inexorable to**"*™- 
remit debts; who knowing that necessitous kings 

are subject to great inconveniences, was a thrifty 
improver of her treasure. And no wonder if she 
were exact (though not exacting) to have her dues 
from the clergy, who herein would not favour her 
grand favourite sir Christopher Hatton, who by the 
way was master of this first-fruits office, and was 
much indebted unto her for monies received ; aU 
which arrears her majesty required so severely and 
suddenly from him, that the grief thereof cost him 
his life. I say this queen in the first of her reign 
resumed first-fruits and tenths, only vrith this ease to 
parsonages not exceeding ten marks, and vicarages 
ten pounds, that they should be freed from first* 
fruits^ A clause in this statute, empowering the 
queen to take all that was due unto her from the 
first day of this parliament, was so improved by her 
officers in the exchequer, (who sometimes have none 
of the softest palms to those that fall into their 
hands,) that many ministers were much vexed 
thereby: yea, one observeth that the courtesy in- 
tended to the clergy by queen Mary in remitting 
their tenths, proved in event an injury to many, so 
vexed about their arrears ^ 

8. In vain have some of late heaved at this office. The itate, 
which is &stened to the state with so considerable a^cyof 
revenue, as it advanced thereunto by tenths and**^****" 

^ See the statute, i Eliz. ' M. Parker, Ant. Brit, in 
cap. 4. vita Reginakli Poll. [p. 527.] 

A.D. )|]T. flrst-rniitH. The fnnncr nitmirt. the btter ramiftl, u 
viK.''' dt'pcmling (in tlit? unn-rtain di-stha of tnrurobiiita, 
and ntcli lu succeed thtrm. Mauy indtn^l arcttM- 
mch fmymeniM, a» popbh in their original. But 
oodM that be aaperaticlotu whit^ was plorkfd down 
tij quM'n Marr, ftnd wt up aj^n Iit quvcti Kli^ 
zaltotli? Dewidt'K, utiipiKiiw them mi in their fini fmil 
rountaiti, Mince iH-lriK iihifled, rea, trtnuo«<d tbmodb 
the haitdfi of pnrteotuit kingn, toiithn have their ntd 
|tr(i)iertT oltervd. and aniuirc nn dnubt a new purity 
ta UieniwKe*. And the advocates for this office do 
perttnentlr ptewt. that there ought to be a badge of 
nbjeetion' of the clerfry to tbo aerabr power, hy 
public ackimwlodf^ent of their dcpeDdeoce tbetvun, 
which hv such [«Tnient« u best perlbniied. 
A.liLiiJ'' 9- John Lomhert, alias Nicobon, bm) in Ckm- 
IwiMw bridgi\ had latdv boon much periMwutcd tiT areh> 
^J^ bishof t Warboni about scnne opinioni be held afpunat 
the mr|tHnd )>reM>noe in the Mcrament. And now 
heinf; fallen into frewh troubles on tbe a 
to nuke the quicker work, (fnllowing' the ] 
of St. Paul appealinft (o Cmr,) he appeals to the 
king" : who having Ut4-tv taken upon him the 
tHle of the aopmne head of the rhureh of E 
woald shew that bead hwl a tongue eould i 
natten of diviaitj. to \\'hitehall, tliu pi 
day is appirinted, where an art-n>jal was kept ; the 
king hinnelf Iteing the opikoncnt, and Lambert the 

for LsMiWrt don ant 


of Britain, 


answerer; and where his highness was worsted or a. d. 1538. 
wearied, archbishop Cranmer supplied his place, viii. 
arguing, though civilly, shrewdly, against the truth 
and his own private judgment ". 

10. Was not this worse than keeping the clothes Cranmer'* 
of those who killed St. Stephen, seeing this arch- abieww- 
bishop did actually cast stones at this martyr in theJJjJJ^^^" 
arguments he urged against him ? Nor will it excuse 
Cranmer's cowardice and dissimulation to accuse 
Gardiner's craft and .cruelty, who privily put the 
archbishop on this odious act, such Christian courage 

^ See Fox, Acts and Mon. 
[II. p. 425. For a full ac- 
count of this disputation, see 
Fox, 1. 1. Strype's Cranmer, 
p. 65. The reader will find 
that Cranmer was not only an 
unwilling actor in this scene, 
but shewed also a charity and 
humbleness which even his ad- 
versaries must admire. Lam- 
bert was not condemned by 
the archbishop, but by the 
king in person, Cromwell read- 
ing the sentence. Before this 
was passed, there was a dispu- 
tation, which was opened by a 
speech from Sampson bishop 
of Chichester, (or, according 
to Burnet, Dr. Hayes, Ref. I. 
p. 506.) The king disputed 
against the first position ; and 
then commanded Cranmer to 
continue the argument ; — 
^ who first making a short 
" preface unto his hearers, 
" began his disputation with 
" Lambert very modestly, say- 
" ing, * Brother Lambert, let 
" this matter be handled be- 
'* tween us indifferently, that 
" if I do convince this your 
" argument to be false by the 
•' scriptures, you will willingly 

*' refuse the same; but if you 
** shall prove it true by the 
" manifest testimonies of the 
'^ scripture, I do promise I 
" will willingly embrace the 
•* same,* " &c. — The observa- 
tions therefore of Fuller are 
not just. It is very clear that 
Cranmer's sentiments respect- 
ing the sacrament of the eucha- 
rist underwent agradual change. 
And though at the time of Lam- 
bert's trial he had given up the 
doctrine of transubstantiation, 
yet he was still a believer in 
the corporal presence, and did 
not arrive at the opinions which 
he finally held on this subject 
till 1546, when he was brought 
over from these sentiments by 
Ridley, who had been con- 
verted by reading the treatise 
of Bertram. See Cranmer's 
Answer to Smythe's Preface, 
vol. III. p. 13. (of his works.) 
Preface to the Defence of 
C. D. Embdae, 1557. His 
Examination before Brokes, 
vol. IV. p. 97. (Works), and 
also Jenkyn's Preface, p. Ixxiii, 
where the subject is very clearly 


ThtCkanA HMary 

A.Di|)i- being JwUjr «ipMtad firom ■ pHMO of hli parti Mid 
^vvS!? piano, aa not to be acted hj anotbar eootimiy to Ui 
owD eoMciencc. I mc not tbereforo wbat man ha 
aatd in Cnuinior'o brbitlf, sare onlr that I vr^T 
bopi% one) Hteadfutly bcUevr. that hu mvcd Uod'n 
pardna for this particular o4K*nn\ uid obtained tbe 
nine on bit nnJbigned n.*|ientanr«. Anil becaaw 
tbe fiuw of men'i fiuUta is caannonlv tern in tbo 
friaai of ibdr panidunent. it b ofaaem)*le, that ai 
I^mbert now wai bomt Ibr donyinir tbe curporal 
pnaeooc to Cranmcr (now bit opponent) was i 
wardi coodenincd. and divd at Oxford for : 
tahitng tbe HUno opinion; vhirh Talnar, if k 
■hewn, bifl nonaricnci? had [tnibabljr bcfn 
deaivd witbin bim, and hi« rmlit witbout bim to all 

11. A nutrb XnAag now niadv up hy tbu bud 
Cromnvtr* mntrivooco U-tnixt king IIcnrT' and tbe 
ladjr Anno of Clevea", Dutchmen Aoeked fiwter Iban 

-[BonM. IM. I. p. s'S- inU.Mrfalrtlwll-aldMlMr 

M- TIm mmmhd^ to hk far Im ithiwul bflM^Mr. 

Mr, Aadain, and Mfean. (o tlw wmmSm «f |imIIiwiH m 

: fv tUt MMTMM widi wmmwitj vt 4,oo« aMrfcs. ■■4 a 

CWvn. fa 4 

iW dak* vl CWvn. fa ^ird boM« 

bv. (Hm Cai. 
far dM rmi. p. 

On lb* iTtfcdM 
arMta IUcb> 

■f Tnmi mi i» t ttmi to iThfJMy a^ 

p. It*.) TW ula M Kl iwdif apu* I 

■09 OT Mr 81* ^Mifl^ MA rppslHl OlJ> 

>«■ taw eliM liJ is «wm> arnt moa Mr w th« Um'« 

M tlM 9ik of Jmtj. ^Mr. Oa Um iiMdw kfajf 

ObiW I3tk nT Jwlvlbr kM mmt • Irtuf far brr bntWr, 
>mi b. hM lord J«U IImJi tMii* »k ww iw^rf wkfc 
wWi ft tolwa. 5«o Mwin «( kw tfMtwmt. And kkn ««l 



of Britain. 


fonnerly into England: many of these had active a. d. 1539. 
souls, so that whilst their hands were busied about ^ vii^ 
their manufactures, their heads were also beating 
about points of divinity. Hereof they had mimy 
rude notions, too ignorant to manage them them- 
selves, and too proud to crave the direction of others. 
Their minds had a by-stream of activity more than 
what sufficed to drive on their vocation; and this 
waste of their souls they employed in needless specu- 
lations, and soon after began to broach their strange 
opinions, being branded vnth the general name of 
anabaptists. These anabaptists for the main are but 
Donatists new dipped, and this year their name first 
appears in our English Chronicles ; for I read that 
four anabaptists, three men and one woman, all 
Dutch, bare fagots at Paul's cross, and three days 
after a man and woman of their sect were burnt in 
Smithfield p. 

12. It quickly came to the turn of queen Anne of a.d. 1540. 
Cleves to fall, if not into the displeasure, out of the SnTof 
dear affection of king Henry the Eighth. She had^l^';;^^ 
much of Katharine dowager's austerity, little of 
Anna Boleyn's pleasant wit, less of the beauty of 

the king the ring delivered to 
her at their pretended mar- 
riage, with a request that it 
might be broken in pieces. See 
the notarial instrument of this 
proceeding, dated July 29, 
among the Transcripts for the 
new Foedera, p. 220. Two 
other reasons against this mar- 
riage were pleaded in convo- 
cation ; first, that the king had 
married her against his con- 
sent ; and, next, that the mar- 
riage had never been con- 

summated; and accordingly it 
was judged null and of bo 
force. Burnet, Ref. I. p. 562. 
See the letter of the convo* 
cation to the king in the Firtt 
Collection of Records, p. 308, 
but more correctly printed, to. 
gether with the signatures^ in 
the State Papers, p. 629. It 
IS also printed, with a full ac- 
count of the process of the di- 
vorce from Cranmer's Register, 
in Wilkins' Concil. III. p. 851.] 
P Stow in his Chron. p. 576. 

Juio Sejmour. Home fcmitiinr tiii[M)tcnr}-, that Ac 
aiumrptl itot her prration. »-ii» otij(>rto«l ii^irut her. 
tl)uuf[)i unlr licr |>n<-«'niilniri with thv mhi of thr 
duke of Utmutic mui (mblicly in^rtod on. tat wUeh, 
br set uf p«Hiaiiit>[it ituw mttiag, Ae «m wIuhmIj 

19. Kin^ Hoiinr durst not hut dral hcttcr with 
Anne of Clevca than with mich btn wirtm which wen* 
hia tuitivv subji-cti: not 90 murh for love of her, a* 
for fcmr of h«'r brother tin* duko of CIctvi, candAer- 
ahle (if not tnurb hi hitnn'ir) in bi« union with tbr 
proteatjuit [irinci>* of Gi-rmany. Whervfore he nv 
Rtorvd her all her }owuls, uMij^ned tier pRCvdeac}' 
aboTe all Engliih, {mre hh own that iduiald b« 
qiwai, and chihlreo,) graeed her wHh a new-deriaBd 
■tjle at. His adopted dster. (by which from )tme»- 
forward he Mluttr<l hvr in hb h-lter«, and the in 
BMWvr MubaMTilfvd bcnH*tf.) aJlottvd htv RlchnMnl- 
booae for her rPtirem<>nt, with an angsientatioa of 
■wnt for hiT maintfitocer And now let her b* 
gfald that khf cAcniNtt mi well, voving all wUck had 
fi h ni np i * to kiof; Ileuf^'* bed eamo off gaiiMff^ if 
mmu of tbWr own tire* and repatatiaaa. Sbe 
Ktnmn) no more into her own ronntry, bat lirinf, 
and rlTtnir anno 1J)A7. in Enfrhuid, wac buried in 
Wntniinster church, at iho hnul of kinj; Sfbert. in a 
tmnb not yet finistied: none other of kinjr llenrr* 
wfrea having any. and thi« Aqih* but half a mo- 

aJiM 14. In the last paHiomont. rvfomutioii ninning a 
^SZak. rBir« with lapefBtiliou banlly carrifnl it by the head's 

ml 3.ACMI, par awiiii 

I fMato Banrt. Rrf. I. p, 564.! 
. Hm 'Hum'tSmmj.f. $ii. 


of Britain. 


length; but it was hoped that in this new parlia- a. 0.1539. 
ment (now sitting) true religion would run her rival ^ V^ii.'^ 
quite out of distance: whereas, alas! it not only 
stood still, but went backwards, the Six Articles 
being therein enacted, that whip with six knots, 
each one (as heavily laid on) fetching blood from the 
backs of poor protestants*. 

15. King Henry was much blamed for passing KingHenry 
this act. Indeed, power and profit being the things {^^. 
politic princes chiefly desire, king Henry had already 
attained both by his partial reformation. Power, by 
abolishing the pope's usurpation in his dominions; 
profit, by seizing on the lands and goods of sup- 
pressed monasteries. And thus having served his 

own turn, his zeal wilfully tired to go any further, 
and (only abolishing such popery as was in order to 
his aforesaid designs) he severely urged the rest on 
the practice of his subjects. 

16. Herein he appeared like to Jehu king of Compared 
Israel*, who utterly rooted out the foreign idolatry jdm. "*^ 

* [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 513. 
See the king's draught of an 
act of these Six Articles in 
Wilkins' Concilia, vol. III. p. 
848, where the articles are 
given at length. The sixth is 
thus expressed ; " that auri- 
" cular confession is necessa- 
** rily to be retained and con- 
" tinued, used and frequented 
" in the church of God," and 
not " of necessity to salva- 
•* tion/' which was the very 
issue of debate; the popish 
party labouring to have it de- 
clared that auricular confession 
*' was commanded by Christ as 
" a part of the sacrament of 
*• penance ;*' on which their 


arguments were confuted by 
the king and Cranmer, to 
whose reasonings the house as- 
sented, declaring that " though 
" it was good and profitable, 
" yet it was not necessary by 
•' any precept of the gospel." 
See Burnet, Ref. I. Add. p. 
738, and p. 519, where they 
are printed as worded in the 
act published on this occa- 

* [This was Calvin's com- 
parison. See the letters of 
Fr. Baldwin to J. Calvin, pre- 
fixed to a treatise entitled ; O. 
C. (George Cassander) Author 
libelli de officio pii viri, &c. 
Paris, 1564.] 



Thr CAvrrh Hutan/ 

a.Ol i}j«. nf BaJil, (ft*trliod fnHn the Zidonivia, uid kluioii 

'"viiT'^ spprnprintitl to tli<' family r>r Aiui)>.) but Htill iror- 

nhiiiiKil till' ralvf* in l>&ii uhI IW-ttitM. ibo ■late- 

iilnlaliT itf tlic kiiifH^im : m> our Henry, thoof(li 

liani!>Umj; all (>ulluHli*h Kujivrstition of papal «lo- 

pnidonce» Mill na wr rt nl niul maintained liomc-brad 

popery. pMWcntiiig the rpfuM<Tii tn submit tbeti^ 


Tw^ ]?■ For, bj the pennaakm of bUwp Gatdiner <in 

tin!?! itefianrf of arohUabop CratiniBr, and tlw toed Crnd- 

well, with might and main oppodng' It) it m 


i. That in the aaonuneot of the altar, after c 
cntion, no nibstauee ot bread or wine i 
but the natural body and blood <^ Cbriat. 

ii. Hiat the eotnmnnion in both lundt it t 
cvtmrj ad Hdittfrn. by the law uf (t<Nl to all f 

iii. That pricMM, aAer unlen r«cciTed, may uoi 
marry by the bw of God. 

iv. That Towi of chiatlty oogbt to be ohiemd \}if 
the UwoTGod]. 

V. That it if meet and aecetmrj that private 
ma«c« be admitlod and o^Milinucd in riiorrh«ii. 

vi. Tliat aurienlar coafnaion muit be frf^ucntrd 
by people, aa of DMvarity to MlTatioa*. 

* [All vzOTpl tW Cm »■ rm IiT ihr dakr of NaribQi am 

tiefe. Ctmumt M>t U*iiB( M 111* ifitk »r Ma*. tW tvm. 

fM illMwl Ui Mrtimmli mym bIum wIhi Ud Iwa •iMtari 

Ihaltalf^ f(WBkf*«.p.t;5. from tkc htmm "in 'nwan 

Mto, aad OwMt, lUC 1- p> " wtidM «f aaMam.' m 

SIJ, wfcm tW Mbtnn of wUdi dft iufcSfcnf wm Ika 

OiBBMn'i MfntniB -y-^— ImmI. sat kviMg bMn lib la 

iUn MtidM May W wm.] onm to m yii— I. On 

■ [BwMt. It«r. I. jL CI9- tU jotb of Ifaj, tU lard 

TUw wtkiM wtr« «&fnl to HMMftir. m T^mmm AalW. 


of Britairt. 


Laws bad, as penned, worse, as prosecuted, which a. d. 1539. 
by some bishops' extensive interpretations were made ^ viii!^ 
commensurate to the whole body of popery. 

18. Indeed, the lord Cromwell (unable to riffht hisThc^ord 
owTi) had a design to revenge himself on the opposite dengn 
party, by procuring an act, that " popish priests con- ""'**^ 
" vict of adultery should be subject to the same 

" punishment wth protestant ministers that were 
" married'^." But Gardiner, by his greatness, got 
that law so qualified, that it soon became lea^ eden- 
ttda^ whilst the other remained mordax^ death being 
the penalty of such who were made guilty by the 
six articles, though Nicholas Shaxton of Salisbury, 
and Hugh Latimer of Worcester, found the especial 
fiivour to save themselves by losing of their 
bishoprics y. 

19. And now began Edmund Bonner, alias Savage, Bonna-fint 
(most commonly called by the former, but too truly to signer 
known by the latter name,) newly made bishop of ^ 

brought in for punishing those 
who offended against these ar* 
tides : and a bill drawn up for 
that purpose by the archbishop 
of York was approved, and 
after going through the usual 
process, received the royal as- 
sent on the 28th of June. See 
Burnet, 1. c] 

* [On the 16th of June, 
three days after Cromwell's ar- 
rest by the duke of Norfolk, a 
bill was brought in for mode- 
rating the statute of the six 
articles in the clauses that re- 
lated to the marriage of priests, 
or their incontinency with 
women. By which the pains 
of death were turned to for- 

feitures of goods and chat- 
tels. (Burnet, Ref. I. p. 565.) 
But I do not find any such act 
or design of Cromwell as here 
mentioned by our author.] 

y [Burnet, Ref. I. p. 533. 
They did not escape entirely, 
for being presented for speak- 
ing against these articles, they 
were both imprisoned: Shax- 
ton was confined till the 13th 
of July, 1546, [Burnet, Ref. 
I. p. 682.] when having re- 
canted, he was dismissed ; 
but Latimer was not released 
till the accession of Edward 
VI., about a year after. (Bur- 
net, ib. II. p. 51.)] 


A.tx ttj9. London', to clis|>la]r the t^liiun of hb aneitj 
''viiT' thvruin. which hen* I forbcw to rrpnU, becatna 
ciU'il lit Urjrc by Mr. Fox. For I Atmn my Cbnn^ 
Hiittory tthould )M>'hiivu jtoetf to hi* Ilctok of Mutjn, 
H » lieutcimnt to itN raptnin, only to uifiply bk 
ploro in his siMtciloo, to txt nupplcttu'iital tbrrcanto 
ill Mirh matlfra of moim-nt which havv cMmprU hit 

80. MBtch-amkrnt b(>tw!xt (iriTato p<'r*oiu 
find grvM luvc Tor thotr fniiu, twtwixt priiiMw 
&11 Into diuigcr. at here it proved in the lord 
well, tht' jcnuid contriver of tho kini^'a luarrtap* with 
Aunc orCluvon*. On him (he kin|t bad oonlbnvd 
hotuiun Ml many, and ao raddcnly. tbat ana taa.j 
My, tilt" tTuditi4-i tbcTeof ky imoooeoeted In U* 
KMil, NO that be could nut lutTf time to digMt tMO 
dignity before another wan poured a|Km Idm. Not 
to ifieak of hii maatonbtp of tbo juwel-booae^ be 
«u BMdo fanron, nartw of the ivUa. the king^i vieti^ 
gMMTil in ■piiitnal nuUten, lord privy and, Icnlgfat 
of tbe gKTter, oari of Ehcx. lord gnat cbambefUn 
of Bogfattld. And my author^ obaerrotb. that all 
these honomi wero e«m(erred upon bim in tbu ootn- 
!«■ of fin yean, moat of tbetn poatewod by bun 
not flve HMNttbt; I nay add, and all taken firNn 
Ub In Um than flva ndnotei, with his life oa the 

■ SI. Tbk waa tbo eante why be waa enmd of the 
nohOHy and gcntiy. being by birth ao nnieh beniMtli 
all; 1^ profbnncDt wt bi|:fa above moat of tbaoL 

4aM of L^Jna.) f. 3it. 

• IBaraM. Rat L f. SS" J . 

BriL km I 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 181 

Besides, many of his advancements were interprttedA.D. 1540. 
not so much honours to him, as injuries to others, viii. 
as being either in use improper, or in equity unfit, or """"""^ 
in right unjust, or in conscience imlawful for him to 
accept. His mastership of the rolls, such who were 
bred lawyers conceived it fitter for men of their 
profession. As for the earldom of Essex conferred 
upon him% though the title lately became void by 
the death of [John] Bourchier, the last earl without 
male issue, (and so in the strictness of right in the 
king's free disposal,) yet because he left Anne, a sole 
daughter behind him, Cromwell's invading of that 
honour bred no good blood towards him amongst 
the kindred of that orphan, who were honourable 
and numerous. His lord great chamberlainship of 
England, being an oflSce for many years hereditary 
in the ancient and honourable house of Oxford, 
incensed all of all that family, when beholding him 
possessed thereof. His knighthood of the garter, 
which custom had appropriated to such who by 
three degrees at least could prove their gentle 
descent, being bestowed on him, did but enrage his 
competitors thereof, more honourably extracted. As 
for his being the king's vicar-general in spiritual 
matters, all the clergy did rage thereat, grutching 
much that king Henry the substance, and more, that 
Cromwell, his shadow, should assimie so high a title 
to himself**. Besides, Cromwell's name was odious 
unto them on the account of abbeys dissolved, and 

c [He was created earl of " making up the king's mar- 
Essex, April 14, 1540; and " riage." Barnet, Ref. I. p. 
therefore bishop Burnet thinks 550.] 

*' that the true causes of Crom- ** [See Burnet's Ref. I. p. 

*' well's fall must be found in 527.] 
" some other thing than his 

N 8 


TV CAHrrt, MUtary 

Ru woiwler if (hit Sonisuu (iluckfog down tke |41- 
Un or tbt- po|>Ub churrh hail tliv itst of the itnM^- 
tore falliiif; u|Min htm. 'Ilitiie rpjoiovd when th* 
duke of Norfolk arrewtm) him for treason mt tlM 
council UIjIo, wlu'rioe lie ini» tent iirimner to Um 

S8. And DOW to t\tc»k itnportudljr of him. thoafth 
in priaoo. If wi> n-flc-ct on his pMl» ami tnHlovr- 
mottt*. it ift woiidfrfui to tec how om.' (|ualilr in him 
twrricnded UHitht*r. (Irvat Mcholor bo WBti nooe. 
(the LatiQ Tp«tAmont gotton hr brut being tho 
mailtTpiocu nf bis leoniiiig,) nor any fttailii>d Uwyer. 
(nevfr luii); livinfr, if iulmitt«d, in the iui» of oooft,) 
nor exiH^i-nciHl Mtldjor, (though ueocwaitj cut htatt 
on IhM calling wh<'n the Uuki* of Boatbon b ed ey j 
Bomu.) nor eiiurtier in \m voutli, (till bfvd Ift tbe 
court, H 1 niar coll it, of cantiiuU Wolter't hoiun.) 
■od yet, that of the lawyiT in bini m> hel|ied tbe 
•cbular. tbnt of the Mildier the Uwycr. UuU of Cb« 
cuurtier the Mililier, aiul tliat nf ibo tnTdler m fm- 
fcrtcti nil the nr*t, (being iio Atmngrr to Gvraiuqr. 
well nrqiialntrd with Kmnre. mart familiar with 
Italy,) that the n?*uU nf all togtrther made him (or 
eodowinenla ewi p eot . not to nj admirable. 

S3. It WM laid to hii cliarge, firet. that be h*d 

• CSwUm* 

m «r dMir pmm4 Uw ki^i 
H«t I. p. »9th. On tk jatk af tte 

On tb« talk of tte 
I tk« kH<« Mnf^ 

bf tW dtJu of Norfatk Jbh* B|Mettn| i 

13, 1^40; 1J41 McoHiai to wrth Abm «rf CIm* WM toaia 

rot. 11 f..ji]. (BMnMCltrr. MilwT«i<m(BwMt.lkCalL 

I p. sji.); tiM UloT Bitaia. I. p. jo;.). ud «a tW iWi 

dtrna bru««fct in ■KMMt kin of Jnl; b« wm tm^ is iW 

m Um iTtk of Juw. uhI nwl nrfnU. Fwa, L c 

tWimtiM.M tk*(9tl> tk« IWl. p. sm] 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 188 

exceeded his commission in acting many things of a. ix 1540- 

J 1 • 3^ Henry 

high consequence without acquainting the king viii. 
therewith ; dealing therein, though perchance wisely upon the 
for the state, not warily for himself®. Indeed, it iSweU. 
impossible for such officers, managing not only mul- 
titudes, but multiplicity of matters, but that in some 
things they must mistake. As in many words there 
wanteth not iniquity/ ^ so in the actors of many affairs 
&ults are soon found out. He was also accused to 
set at liberty certain persons not capable of it ; ft)r 
granting licenses and commissions destructive to the 
king's authority ; for being guilty of heresy himself, 
and favouring it in others. Traitorous speeches were 
also charged upon him, spoken two years before in 
the church of St. Peter's the Poor, in Broad- 
street fif; the avouchers thereof pretending, that, as 
hitherto they had concealed them for love of them- 
selves, fearing Cromwell's greatness, so now, for the 
love of the king, they revealed the same. Indeed, 
on the first manifesting of the king's displeasure 
against him, the foes of Cromwell had all their 
mouths open, and his friends their mouths shut up. 

24. The mention of St. Peter's in Broad-street An inju- 
mindeth me of a passage, not unworthy to be recited, many poor 
of an injury offered by this lord Cromwell to manyJJ^J^ 
poor men in the same parish. And, because ©v^ry^^^ 
one is best able to tell his own tale, take it in the 
words of John Stow, being himself deeply concerned 
therein : 

* [See the substance of the 8f ['• On the last day of 

act of attainder in Burnet, Ref. " March, in the thirtieth year 

I. p. 556, and at full length in " of your most gracious reign." 

the Collections to that volume, Act of Attainder in Burnet, 

p. 292.] Ref. I. Coll. p. 297.] 

' Prov. X. 19. 

N 4 

Th» Churtk HiMtmy 

A.a iH* ** [Thu lord Cromwoll hAvfaig fiDkhed hb boon In 
"* vhT* ** IlimgiDortoD-Atreet in Lowkto,] ud bnvlog nmh 
** leuonablr plot of Kniaod loft for a fimiden, be 
" fluucd tlic |«1(>« or the jpudcMW at^omioff to tbe 
" north part tbcrrof oa n niddeo l« bu t&kps dovti, 
** tWi'Dt^>twu foot Ui Im! DicaiunMl forthright intu the 
" north of vwry iiuui'fl irruauil, a line thi-rv to bo 
" dniwu. a tri'iirb to U> rant, a fouudatMn laid, and 
" an hifth brirk wall to lie buiUled. Ujr father had 
" a f^ardru thoiv, and then) waa a boow ■«f"'"f 
** chiau to hia toiith |iale : thii houw they looted 
** from thu gtviuid, and ban- u|Kin rullen into m/ 
" bthcr'i garden twenty-two foot, ere laj latbor 
** heard thereof: no warning waa given him, nor 
** uthi'r antwcr, when he i|iake to the MUTeyora of 
" that work, but that their nuwter, nr Thoouuk oook 
" niaiidi>d them tKi to do. No man darvt fio to argne 
** tho matter, but each man loal hi« land ; and mjr 
" fiUlKT |«id bit whole rent, which was u •**M'fry 
** and eightpvnre the Tt«r, for that half which ww 
" left. Thus morh of mine own Imowledge hnv* I 
** thought good to not*', that the sudilea rtHng of 
** lome men vauMtli tbcm to furjp^t themflelrea^." 

1 am mored the rather to bcliero our Butb<v 
berein, became elaewbcrc be allowL-ih this lord hia 
deacrred praise for bis virtut^ and eipectaUj hii 
bfW|jitalitj, affirming he liad often aeca at tb» lord 
Cromweira gate above two butidrDd | 
twice every day with meat and drink i 
Nor can 1 100 what ma; be miA in exrnw of tUa 
opt^gMJon. exoept any will (dead, that AhiwtAdCt 

fc I w ii j af L wiw. f. I*?. >8b«w'»San«7 of LomfaM, pu 74. 


of Britain. 


servants violently took away the wells from Abrahamiy a.I}, 1^40. 
and yet Abimelech himself never knew more or less ^ viii7 

25. As for the passionate expressions of Crom- The wont 
well ; a knight^, aged well-nigh eighty, whose [|^^^ 
mother was daughter to the lord Cromwell's son,^^^^ 
hath informed me, that the principal passage whereon **^- 
the lord's enemies most insisted was this ; it being 

told the lord Cromwell that one accused him for 
want of fideUty to the king, Cromwell returned in 
passion, " Were he here now, I would strike my 
" dagger into his heart," meaning, into the heart of 
the false accuser; and therein guilty of want of 
charity to his fellow-subject, not of loyalty to his 
sovereign. But seeing the words were a measuring- 
cast as uttered (though not as intended) to whom 
they should relate, the pick-thank repeater avowed 
them uttered against the king himself. So dangerous 
are dubious words and ambiguous expressions, when 
prevalent power is to construe and interpret the 
meaning thereof. 

26. Ten days after his arrest^ he was attainted ofHUtpeedi 
high-treason in parliament, and brought on the^oUL 

J Gen. xxi. 26. 
^ Sir I. Strode of Pamham 
in Dorsetshire. [The words 
charged upon him in the act 
of attainder are these ; " * If the 
" king would turn from it (sc. 
" certain doctrines uttered by 
" Robert Barnes) yet I would 
*' not turn ; and if the king 
did turn, and all his people, 
I would fight in the field in 
mine own person with my 
" sword in my hand against 
" him and against all others ;' 




" and then and there most 
" traitorously pulled out his 
" dagger, and held it on hieh^ 
'^ saying these words ; • Or else 
" this dagger thrust me to the 
" heart, if I would not die in 
" that quarrel against them all ; 
" and I trust if I live one year 
" or two^ it shall not be in the 
" king's power to resist or let 
" it if he would.'" Burnet, ib.] 
^ [This is incorrect. See 
note, p. 453.] 

IWJ 7'Ar rAwn-A HtMtory MMM v. 

A.D.i5«n.KttfroIil the npxt weuk to exenitloa. Here be ipafco 

viit. tlio followitifT wonlfl unto tbe pec^le, whlril the 

nviler tn niiii<'»it«l the morr •eriouulT to pmisr,UnC 

thi'ivli^ he may bi> utiablot to |uu« (ir rntM^Tueil 

theivin) hifl wnlict in wlutt n'lifrion tbtf lunl iltud'". 

" I am came hither to tlJe. and nnt to pUTfpi 
** mjraelf, as Mimu think pcnwivcniuiv that I viU. 
" P<«-. if I ahould M d«>, I were a verr wretch, and & 
** miaiT. I am by the law oonHemni'd to dip, uaA 
" thaiik 1117 Lord God that ttath a{>pnint4K] mc thk 
" deaUi fur ndne oflbnop. For, Bithencv the time 
" that I bare had joan of dtMretion. I bavu Itred a 
** sinner, and ofletHk*) my L<mi (im). for the whirb I 
** ank him heartily for)nvene«M. And it ia not un- 
" knuwii to nmoy of you, thnt I liaro tteen a gmA 
" traveller in this world, an«l. beinj; but of 
" d4*frn-e, wai railed to hifffa estate, and aitlietKw tlw 
** time 1 camo then-unto 1 ban) oSbnded my 
** fiir the whirb I oak htm hovtily lbrgi< 
** and beteerb yrni all to pcmy to God with me^ 
" lie wQl (brjrive me. And now I |iray yon that bo 
" bere. to bear me recoril I die in tbe ralholir (nith. 
" not doubting in any article of my ikitb, no, nor 
** doabtiog in uy Menuneot of the rhurrb. Many 
** have rfmderad ntci, and reported, that I have licen 

* k bmrer of micIi aa have maintained evil opinioM, 

* whick if antme. But I eunfcaa, that like as God 
•■ by hit Holy S|iirlt doth iortnict iw in the tnttb. m 
•* the devil is ready to ledDeo na, and I haTe bam 
" M-ducvd ; but boar nw witoeai that I die In tba 
" catholic Ikith of tbe boly ebareh. And I beartHjr 

ace tbu - 

> [HwMt. lur. 1. ^ 5«».] 

csvT. XVI. of Britain. 187 

'^ desire you to pray for the king^s grace, that heA.D.1540. 

" may long live with you in health and prosperity : ^ ViS^ 

" and that after him his son, prince Edward, that 

" goodly imp, may long reign over you. And once 

^^ again I desire you to pray for me, that so long as 

^^ life remaineth in this flesh I waver nothing in my 

^^ &ith." And so making his prayer, &c.° 

The general terms wherein this his speech is 
couched hath given occasion for wise men to give 
contrary censures thereof. 

Fox in his marginal note on this speech^ p. 515. 

'' A true Christian confession of the lord Cromwell 
" at his death.** 

Lord Herbert in the Index of his History ^ under C. 

'' Cromwell died a Roman catholic, notwith- 
'^ standing he had been such a destroyer of the 
" church^." 

" [Fox's Acts, &c II. p. prayer* made after his speedi 

512.] on tlie scaffold* is printed at 

o [This misrepresentation length in Fox, II. p. 513, from 

arose from his use of the ex- whom this whole acooont has 

pression* " catholic fiiith." been taken, without adknow. 

** But it was then used," says ledgment, by subeequent writ- 

Burnet, "in England in its era. It begins thus :" O Lord 

true sense in opposition to '* Jesus, which art the only 

the novelties of the see of '* health of all men living, and 
" Rome His praying in ** the everlasting life of them 

** English* and that only to ** which die in thee. ... I 

" God through Christ, without ** and knowledge that there is 

" any of those tricks that were *' in myself no hope of aalvm- 

" used when those of that " tion, but all my confidenee, 

*' church died, shewed he was ** hope, and trust, is in thy 

" none of theirs." Ref. I. p. '* moat merciful goodness. I 

570. This remark of Burnet *' have no merits, nor 

is not correct. See note on ** works which I may 

Story's death below. This '* befiore thee, ftc." The 




Trw' it in, •» warj were CromwvU'v exprwiiaM; 
tlut Lather uul BeBannloo might in tltetr own per- 
Miiu huve Mid the mioe, wftbont anjr pnjndiee la 
thoir own pftodito; md tamf concohw tlMt tk« 
mott which tbeao his word* Bmonnt to, will brt 
mftko him a nx-«ticle« protMtant. 

S7- Hut tot Cmmwcll'ii politic q w oeh h' In put 
ox|MHin<1i>tl l»r lii^ plain prttrer whirh be immf^ltatcly 
mfU'r imdf. (to<i loiifc here to iitMrrt, but ovt dcnro at 
iBtfe in Mr. Fox,) uid which <i[ieftltctli him a trna 
protcstanL And if nogativD ngnuMnts bvuI aught 
In thb natter, no mpefstttious woiring of binuHlf^ 
no pnjing to Minia, no dedtti^ of ptm^cn fur him 
after hi* death, itc^ nrnj eridMice Itim no papnt in 
the eloao of his life. Indeed, inti-Cmmwolliila 
count thia controTprx;' (of the n'ligiun bo died in) 
net worth the deciding*. n» jttjiiirta eonenvin^ tlw 
gain gnat tn get him on their side, and tone pro- 
twtaiiti aceountfaig the lo« as little tn part wHh 
htm. IluweTpr, this right ought to he done to hit 
mnnarj. In fixing It on ita own prindplca, and not 
mitpr o ao n ting the aune to poaterftjr. 

Sft. Remarkable ia that paiwage In faia ipeaeh, 
wherein ho confuaaeth himwif br law condpoined to 
die, iNwauae « M017 depondfib thfnn]|M>n. Not long 
ago an art had paned in |>arliani4-n(, thnt on<> might 
bt* nitttinlol of iretuuio b^ bill in pariiunont, and 
roiiM'quontly low bit life, withfrnt anv irfhcr legal 
trial, or being erer brought to anawcr in )ii« own 
The lord Cromwell waa vtwy artire in 


tBiiwhtfawi nam (Owtimli BtottM). « 
' ' «'■ M. at (udiMl r ~ 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 189 

procuring this law to pass, insomuch that it is gene--^-^-»54o- 
rally believed, that the arm and hammer of all king vin« 
Henry's power could never have driven on this act 
through both houses, had not Cromwell first wim- 
bled an hole for the entrance thereof, and politicly 
prepared a major part of lords and commons to 
accept the same. For, indeed otherwise it was 
accounted a law injurious to the liberty which reason 
alloweth to all persons accused, and which might cut 
out the tongue of innocency itself, depriving her of 
pleading in her own behalf. Now, behold the hand 
of Heaven ! It happened that this lord first felt the 
smart of this rod which he made for others, and was 
accordingly condemned before ever he was heard to 
speak for himself 

Nee lex est justior ulla 
Quam necis artifices arte perire sua. 

Most just it is, that they bad laws who make 
Should themselves first of their own laws partake. 

Thus, those who break down the banks, and let in 
the stream of arbitrary power, (be it into the hands 
of prince or people,) are commonly the first them- 
selves which without pity are drowned in the deluge 

29. Thus far I have swam along with the wind vec the lord 
and tide of all our English historians, in charging of J^J[^ 
Cromwell herein. But I find one author of strong p*"*?^ 
credit^ (such he needs to be who swims against the*»««in- 
stream) acquitting the said lord, deriving his intelli- 

be attainted and condemned in 4 Sir Edward Coke^ part iv. 

parliament, a. i539» without of Institut. in Jurisdiction of 

being brought to her answer. Courts, p. 37. [ed. 1644.] 
See.Burnet's Ref. I . p. 530,7 ac] 

l(ta 7%t CAnnA ftitlory kimik t. 

A.n. iMafieneo from lir Thoaiw Gswdto. a gmve judjrr. tlten 
%"Tii7 livinjr, who ■ctjuaiotnl him w followrth : •• King 
** Henry VIII. nunnuuiclnl biin (the lonl Cromwell) 
" Ui MtUnv\ thf chief jnrtloca^ vtd In know. wbrtbiT 
" a iiiaa that wan ibithoonlDf mifrht he attamlitl of 
** hif(h-4muion I>t jiarliament, uiil m-vcr railed to 
" hu anitwfr?" Tho jiidfrm amiwfrcd, tlijit " it wan a 
" dangtToiu qmitton. and that the hijirli miirt «>f 
** parliament ouffbt to jpvc vxamplu to infi-rior 
" courts for |)n>n<i<«litijf orconling to jmlire, and no 
** inferior rnurt rould do tho liki*, and thor thought 
** that tho high cimrt nf jmrliammt would nt'Trr do 
" it. DuL, U-tnK bT the (-xprpM riMnmandrorat of 
** the king, and prcaed bj tho wid earl to give m 
" dirvct aittwt'r,'' thry Maid, that ■* if bo be attaiatcd 
** hj parliament, it could not conus in qoeitioa altera 
" w«nbk whether ho wt>ro called or not called to 

** answer ; and the act of attainder being paaaed 

** bjr imrliamrnt, ilid t>ind an thojr Traolved." The 
parly Rgainftt whom thin wa* inl4.-ndc<l wsji ncvpr 
ealli<d in i|iit>«Unii; hut the fint man afttn- tbi< aoid 
rvei^ntion that waa ao attointt'd, and never called to 
Biwver, wia the aUd earl of Eaaex : wbrrpu|wtn that 
emmeoot and raljiar opinion araong«t onr histniiana 
gnw, that be died by the wme law which he himoelf 

90. But. grant thin lord Cromwell bultv in thia 
and Rome other lu'lio^5^ in the main he will appear a 
worthy i^rMin, amt a great inatnunent of (iod'a glofy 
in the refurming of religioo. Mkd lanarkmble lor 
many (lenwinal emineticiea. ConnMoly wbea meti 
an (a« in a moment) moanted tkon meaiUMaa Ift 
much wealth ami hommr. fin>t they foigeC tbcn- 
aulTco, and then all their old fricndt and arqnaint- 


of Britain, 


ance. Whereas on the contrary, here gratitude a. D. 1540. 
grew with his greatness, and the lord Cromwell con- viii. 
ferred many a courtesy on the children from whose 
father's master Cromwell had formerly received 
favours. As he was a good servant to his master, so 
was he a good master to his servants ; and foreseeing 
his own fall, (which he might have foretold without 
the spirit of prophecy some half a year before,) he 
furnished his men, which had no other livelihood to 
subsist by, with leases, pensions, and annuities, 
whereby after his death they had a comfortable 
maintenance *". 

"" [The character of Crom- 
well has generally been touched 
with a gentler hand than it 
deserves. That he suggested 
to Henry VIII. many uncon- 
stitutional acts and aggressions, 
especially on the clergy, is 
certain : that he was not a sin- 
cere servant to his master is 
also more than doubtful. He 
began life as a clerk in the 
English factory at Antwerp: 
afterwards became a military 
adventurer, served under the 
duke of Bourbon, and was pre- 
sent at the siege of Rome. 
Subsequently he was employed 
as a commercial agent to a Ve- 
netian merchant ; and after this 
anomalous career in Italy, he 
returned home to study the 
law. (See Ty tier's Henry VIII. 
p. 305.) When Wolsey fell 
into disgrace, he attached him- 
self to the court; and rose 
rapidly into favour, as unscru- 
pulous in his suggestions as he 
was unscrupulously used by 
the king. (See this History, 
iii. p. 78.) He was loaded with 

preferments, holding at the 
same time the offices of chan- 
cellor of the exchequer^ and 
chief secretary, royal vicege- 
rent, vicar-general, and prin- 
cipal commissary ; by which 
latter title he was vested with 
the spiritual authority which 
belonged to the king, as su- 
preme head of the church. 
Few men with such powers are 
likely to bear their Unities 
meekly; but Cromwell had 
ruled with an arrogant and un- 
controlled authority: he was 
disliked by the nobdity for his 
upstart dignity, he had offended 
the clergy by his crooked po- 
licy in the debates respecting 
the supremacy, and he was liked 
as little by the middle and lower 
classes for the unscrupulous 
methods which he and his un- 
principled agents had employed 
in dissolving the monasteries ; 
and it needed only the aliena- 
tion of the king's fiavoor to 
produce his ruin. I will con- 
clude this note with a sketch 
of his character from the pen 

IStt TV CktirrA Hnfory mnw v. ■(«*> 91. One M faithful to bU ncrTants ratmoC be ra** 

'V-iiT^ pectt'd fnr an infitk-l in lurt i»rr>vi«lin;[ for hh bmll^, 

iikaw«~ of bin own rliil'ln-n. It ws.* not lhrr(>ftire hb am- 

y^^ bition. but |imTiilcnco, thftt on tho wuni' <lar wlicrria 

he wss cnvteil i«ri of Ewipx b<> ftmnjn.'d Orpgnry 

kit na (wbich ntberwi«o hwi Invd but k Inn] liir 

oewfaMy) to ht< w-tuallj iiuulc boron Cn)iii<n>ll v4 

(Mtdwa. Which h<t«oitr, brmuM? inhermt in the 

wn. WW not fotfolUid on hb btbrr'i UttUDtnrv, but 

dewModi St thf* day od his poitcritT. 

kmwmia mt SB. Wc wiU coocludv hb rtorr with thin n^nark- 

teb^ii. able instancp of hb hatnility: formrrlr thrfp Hnu- 

'' ruhn] a notable bniily of tho Croinwc-tU at Taltcr- 

•hall in IJiiciiln*hirf% rapcciallj rinn.> air Italph 

Cromwvll marrictl tho younffcst nster uul cnbeir nf 

timmiAnm\mnia%tmkm»- " Itrtkn. wbick jwtklljr i*. 

dtntiw (■not b« oMrtkMd. ** rtand tnrth and IrtMrtr t« 

- Umiiwiw Htaral abailb^, •* Ma Mwrtrr. kk on iWofo. 

"bdAtMJ* unUoaW. * "cM opwlOM lN*« IMM 

- ^mAmUkaamXti^tdmm^ " im4« miw of abpu* ] Md 
** w«akBafta,MatiMiU«MMMt- " oooU mm trwt ta Ifaa M- 

- fa^MdanfttaaMMmlUiag -dkratMlrafUwaMdi wUdi 
-to iMii— . ■ Jiiiiti— » U k «U b. hm MhMl 
" le tW will of U* Mv«n 

J— mil iiilMMhw 

" la uruifj it. v* rWm «r Ui " tb> RanMli Am.rA, It w. 
" cJMiMlcr wkkii Mimit of m " pMfB UiM b« wm b iW 

' fwililih pawOT i iMtt tW r»> •• mkiUt lun « •suBj *jn^ 

"" li of « iinia lii M wriUr ** aic»l tmA rajaat. tafUaa 

' ' ' '* fttUacT '* tlw mllMwH; of Um la*, aad 

J mmi M ia •• ib» lavtar*." TjtWt U««fT 

-1^ vuI.^4iv] 


iif Uritaxn. 




William, the last lord Deiiicourt'\ Now there a. d. 1540. 
wanted not some flattering heralds, (excellent viii. 
chemists in pedigrees, to extract any thing from any 
thing,) who would have entitled this lord Cromwell 
to the arms of that ancient family, extinct (in the 
issue male thereof) about the end of king Henry the 
Sixth. His answer unto them was, that " he would 
not wear another man's coat, for fear the right 
owner thereof should pluck it off over his ears :" 
and preferred rather to take a new coat, viz. Azure, 
or, a fess inter three lions rampant, or, a rose gules, 
betwixt two choughs proper^ being somewhat of the 
fullest ; the epidemical disease of all arms given in 
the reign of Henry the Eighth. 

33. After the execution of the lord Cromwell, the Men of 
parliament still sitting, a motley execution happened ju^^^^ 
in Smithfield, three papists hanged by the statute JJJ^^^ 
for denying the king's supremacy, and as many pro- 
testants burnt at the same time and place, by virtue 
of the six articles, djing with more pain, and no less 

Edward Powell, Thomas Abel, Rich. Fetherston^. 

^ Camden's Brit, in Lin- 
cohishire, [p. 407.] 

* See Vincent on Brooke 
ill the earls of Essex, [p. 185.] 

" [^Burnet's Ref. I. p. 590. 
On the 30th of July, two days 
after Cromwell's death. Fox, 
Acts, &c. II. p. 526. The 
same writer says that they 
were not brought to their an- 
swers, nor yet knew any cause 
of their condemnation : and 
this is afterwards asserted by 
Dr. Barnes in his speech to 


the people at his execution 
(ib. p. 527.). It appears how- 
ever, from the words of the 
act, that they were condemned 
for perverting scripture to sup- 
port their heresies. See Bur- 
net, Ref. I. p. 594. Strype 
has given a more complete ac- 
count of these men and their 
doctrines. Memorials, I. p. 367. 
V [These three persons are 
mentioned above as having 
written against the divorce. 
See Book V. Cent. xvi. §. 17.] 


I!H TV CkMTt-h tUtlary BOOl « 

A.1^^**** PrniettamU. 

VIII- Wf\vtt BaniN diirtor ordirinitj; Thomu fiomt 
[or (lutnnl], William Jvn>m*. bacbt'Km tif tlH- 

TIiIn oium) mu br lhi< diflt-rpncL' of n>li|p»iM in 
thv kiii^H privy roDiicil, wliiTcin tlir [mpMi pMtr 
mllnl for th(> cx^TtitifMi itr thcot* pnttnrtaittv, whilst 
tb(* pmtnrtAitt IohIr in tbc muiiril, (ont of polirr to 
rpftrpw lh«* iilbfn' «>affc>nie#, or If tliat liulc*), naX, of 
cli-riif to rvvengo H,) rrinl w taut, that tbv Urn 
mifrlit lake eflbet on Uw papiMv. And wbil«t lunthvr 
md** WM ible to mtc tboae of tbtir nwn opinitini^ 
Ixith ba<l |MiwtY to dcMrnj tho«o of their o|>]KMiti? 
putT. ThfT wi-w drafDP*il nn bunll««, roopli-d tw»> 
and two, a papi« and a prott'stant*. (cattie of dif- 
ferent kindx jftkoil to draw, or rather to bv drawn 
liifrcther,) ifiMtmurh ■• a HwrnanJat profeawih, that 
to the thrw papMta tbia thdr oinniimI natrfaiiifr waa 
to tbiin. ^M wtortf gratiwB me itdaitraUhu^. "more 
" h<«vT and intolnmblo than death itaelf:" but tht* 
imrti-stant* t*xprcni>d no turb iliataali' brn«l, tKrt 
angry out of prinriplod of pride for tbo joiniof of 
lh4'ir Itodim togrther, bat grieved out oftbt^ grouada 
of rh&ritT. ibat tbrir aoala aoon after itbonM ao Ur 
be |iart4Hl uundcr. A ctianger. Btanding by, did 
wonder (aa well be might) what ivligkm the king 
waa of. hill vword rutting on botli sitlea, prototant* 
far bCTVtii<«, and pa|>iittii for traitota. of whom in iJm 
Huno month'. LAiirrnci> Cooke, prior of Uoo caat t r . 

■ CMwia Id Ktarj thm T 8m4«« il» tcUMNM Aa(L 
(in.p.i}>-i45 •^165)- I- '$•)■ 

■ TWr aatmm an — nwim- * f Fas myt Im Angwa. AMi, 
id la Pai.Act^tEcIL p- 519- ftc It- p- 54a.] 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 195 

and six others, were sent the same way for the a. D. 1540. 

^ 3a Henry 

same onence. viii. 

34. But to return to such acts of the parliament a statute 
as concern the church, therein a statute was made, JJJ^^of 
commanding every man " fully, truly, and effectually ^^^^^ 
" to divide, set out, yield or pay all and singular 
" tithes and offerings, according to the lawful cus- 
^' toms and usages of the i)arishes and places where 
" such tithes or duties shall grow, arise, come, or be 
" due a." And remedy is given for ecclesiastic per- 
sons before the ordinary ; and for laymen, that 
claimed appropriated tithes by grant from the c«>wi, 
in the secular courts by such actions as usually lay 
possessions had been subject to. The occasion of 
which statute is intimated in the preamble thereof, 
" because in few years past many presumed more 
'' contemptuously, and commonly than in times past 
" had been seen or known to substract and withdraw 
'' their lawful and accustomed tithes. Encouraged 
thereunto for that that divers lay persons having 
tithes to them and their heirs, had no due remedy 
" by order and course of the ecclesiastical laws to 
" recover their right." And no wonder, seeing their 
sovereign had set them so large and so late a pre- 
cedent in destroying of abbeys, if subjects thought 
that in their distance and proportion they might also 
be bold to detain the rights of the church, especially 
because it seemed unreasonable that they should 
receive wages who did no work, and that the hire of 
the labourers in the vineyard should be given to 
lazy lookers-on. This statute, in favour of lay-im- 
propriators, was beneficial to the clergy to recover 

•32 Hen, VIII. cap. 7. 
O 2 


Thr CAMnk HUlary 

A-D- i}4«-th4>ir itntiUl tith«-« at ominioii litw. )M-tiifi ii|iiallj 
Vltl Mlvniitnpitl liv ttmt wlucli wjut tml |>ritu-i|KillT tt>- 
teiiiliHl fitr thrill. tM>nuL<H^- ut ibt* rourtint'iiiv >if (Iii-ir 
intt?n-st. in cxm' of tithes. A ■taluir aUo iiuuU>. (lut 
" it wmt Inwful fut oil prnuniii ti» rontnirt niarrta^* 
•• who vttv iK>t |iniliiliitt>(l Ijt iitA'% law^" For 
allli)iii}r)i (>nfi:iiri' tiir (irvnt (wlio liul md Ivwi 
U-aniiiijC. Init mun' nicKlcfltv than \n* nueevmuni) ilid 
rH>t HolK fiirditl tlic inurump of iimwn-jifmtnn* m 
uiiUwful, liut |>ni4)riitiaIlT dlMuadc it a* utiBttuift; 
yet Bft«T-|H^<« pn>bibit«<l thnt uiil <)tlu*r dritrrM 
rurtliiT (■(T thorcbf ti> fot tnfiiicy Tor ili-timiHtionL 
WIiAt a nuw tbew Mnouiite*] iintn, itunr own 
Boditon rail oiilr coiti)mti'. MN^tiiff .S>loiiM>n liimapir 
tent »hi|>s but t'vtry thini rear to Opliir fi»r ffoM': 
wberuu bis bitliocw, by ^eui\ia^ aurii larulliif>, from 
Umw lodiat BHute aiuiiuU retunw of tnfiiuti* |>n>fit. 
Ancl thbi bv eunc verr ooavmiently to rompW 
with king Ilcniy'i oocaamni, vbo bad Um Nnl-(ruits 
ibitvor, and pruMntl; aft«r imriM Katharine 
ilnwanl, counn^mian to Amu Bolern, bi» Mx-i>nd 
wifr. wbirb. hj tlio raiHHi law. Fonncrij wm fbfw 
biddi'i), witbnut a vpcc^l dL«|N.>nMiti<in fint obuiiMxI. 
AiM^iu* U- But now to »t4'|i out of tlu' jtariiatDitit into 
^"^"T* tbe eonnication, a (tlare mon' )>n>|>iT for our em- 
ployment, then' wf htull fitnl Nrrhbiabn|> (.'ranioer 
UndinfT iii bin Iwrnv at IhiiilVwIuuf. anil thracp pm* 
eei^ng on foot, with tbt- mm* nurii-d bcfutv bint, 
into the choir of l*auU; wbcrc, at the hif^ altar 
biiJioji lloniHT olBriatoi) (if I tpoak (rropvHT) ■ mam 
of the Moly («bMt, Ih-. Kicban) ilox. arrbdeaooa of 

k 31 lint VIII. tap. jM. BvnMt. lUf. 1. jid;*)!).] 


of Britain, 


Ely, preached a Latin sermon on this text, Vos estis^-^'^i^'^' 
sal tcrrcp. Richard Gwent, doctor of law, and arch- *viii. 
deacon of London, was chosen prolocutor. Tlien 
intimation was given, that the king allowed them 
liberty to treat of matters in religion, to peruse the 
canons de shno?iia vitanda^ with other ecclesiastical 
constitutions ; to continue the good ones, and make 
new ones pro temporis eangentia. In the third 
session on Friday, several bishops were assigned to 
peruse several books of the translation of the New 
Testament, in order as followeth*^: 

^ Transcribed with my own 
hand out of the Records of 
Canterbury, [liishop Burnet 
thinks that Fuller has mis- 
taken the year ; " and that 
*• which he calls the convoca- 
** tion of this year was the 
" convocation of the year 1 542 : 
** for he tells us that their 
** seventh session was the loth 
** of iVIarch. (See p. 201.) 
** Now in this year the con- 
** vocation did not sit down 
" till the 13th of April, but 
'* that year it sat all March. 
** So likewise he tells us of 
*^ the bishops of Westminster, 
" Gloucester, and Peterbo- 
" rough bearing a share in this 
*• convocation : whereas these 
** were not consecrated before 
** winter, and could not sit as 
^* bishops in this synod. And 
*' besides, Thirlby sat at this 
" time in the lower house." 
Ref. I. p. 572 = 286. 

The bishop is right, accord- 
ing to the extracts made from 
the registers by Dr. Heylin, 
printed in Wilkins, III. p. 862, 
if by 1542 he means the civil 

year. But he is wrong in say- 
ing that Fuller has fixed the 
seventh session to the loth of 
March. (Seep. 201.) The fol- 
lowing is a brief abstract of 
the j)roceedings of convoca- 
tion : on their first session, 
Jan. 20, the usual ceremonies 
were performed. On the se- 
cond, Jan. 27, the archbishop 
declared the kings pleasure 
that the house should correct 
ecclesiastical abuses, directing 
their attention to such of the 
errors in the English trans- 
lation of the Bible as required 
correction, &c. On the third. 
Feb. 3, the question was put 
whether they would retain the 
present translation of the Bi. 
ble ; and it was resolved, that 
it could not be retained with 
its present errors, that it should 
be examined, and time given 
for exhibiting the errors to the 
house. On the fourth, Feb. 10, 
no business. On the fifth, Feb. 
13, the prolocutor exhibited 
the result of the examinations 
of the Old Testiuuent by those 
who had been appointed to 

O 3 


IB n, Cknnk HUUwf, 

ArehbithiipC'rantser; Mattfatnr. 

Jolin LiDcuIn*; Klarli, 

Strphiii Winchnier'; Luiv. 

ThiMiuu Eljr* ; John. 

NicholM Rocbnicrk ; Acta of tbe ApMtk*. 

Ridtinl Chichritrr ■ ; Rouiam. 

John Sarum'i I. am) II. rcmmhiam. 

WilEwB Si. DavicTai ; (t*ljilijn«, EphMiaM. Philip 

JoliB Wflfcotef «> ; I. ud II. TbnMloaina. 

Bnbctt St. Aaph" } Timathv, Tiiiu, I 

Robert Lbodaff^: I. «nd if. Vcxtr 

John HnvfnnlPi HetitTwt. 

Tboowi WtJUmiiMUrt ; Junn, I. II. mhI III. John, 

■■■■.■■■.■■*• ) 

f lUnebtign- 

MMtHtt «M anolUMl to m%. 
•niM lnd> OU umI NewTw 
tunentk. Oa tW liitk. F)cb. 
i;. G«nUivr nmA the Ikt 
wkkk 11 iwiBud by Puller. 
(.3ft. 0« tiM mnmA, Vth. 
14. {nU H>l • 

hM rtMH&H - 

«r IbMM. Ml IMdUM Ik* 

LOTd*« IVar«. Hw Cnid, Md 
tlw DtolMM in tW TwW 
loofM. 0« ihi d^llh Umtk 
3. ii •«• 4»iiw»toiJ ite tW 

I all 

tka 1M1, tbtac» to ihm p6 of 
April, ud m M till ilw i<tk 
of F«k. neat jnau', 1543 j aa 
tU SIM alwUtk WMik. ha^ 
tba at— iiralh iwiiM. Ika 
wcbbblMn dKfarad ilM !■ m 
tbaW. I 

CENT. XVI. of Britain, 199 

Why Edmund Bonner, bishop of Loudon, then a. d. 1543. 
and there present, had no part in this perusal al- '^Viii.'^^ 
lotted him, as I find no reason rendered thereof, so 
I will not interpose my own conjecture. 

36. In the sixth session Gardiner publicly read a Words in 

1 /. X . 1 /» 1 . 11 . theT«ta- 

cataloime of Latm words of his own collection out ment which 
of the Testament, and desired that for their genuine desired^ 
and native meaning, and for the majesty of the"^JJ^ 
matter in them contained, these words might bef"^*'®*" 

° the trans- 

retaiiied in their own nature as much as might be ; ori»t»on- 
be very fitly englished, with the least alteration, 
being in number and order here inserted*: 

Ecclesia, pccnitcntia, pontifex, ancilla, contritus, ola- 
caiista^, justitia, justificare, idiota, clementa, baptizare, 
martyr, adorare, dignus, sandalium, simplex, tetn&rdia, 
sacrainentum, simulachrum, gloria, conflictationeA, eere- 
nionia, mysterium, religio, Spiritus aanctus, spiritus, 
inercos, confiteor tibi Pater, panis prsepositionis, com- 
munio, persoverare, dilectus, sapientia, pietas, presbyter, 
litcs, servus, opera, sacrificium, benedictio, humilis, humi- 
lita8, scientia, gentilis, synagoga, ejicere, misericordia, 
eoniplacui, increpare, distribueretur orbis, inculpatus, se- 
nior, conflictationes, apocalypsis, satisfactio, contentio, 
conscientia, peecatum, peccator, idolum, pnidentia, pru- 
denter, parabola, magnifico, oriens, subditus, didragma, 
hospitalitas, episcopus, gratia, charitas, tyrannus, conou- 
piscentia, cisera, apostolus, apostolatus, cgenus, stater, 
societas, zizania, mysteriu% Christus, conversari, pro- 
fitcor, impositio manuum, idololatria, Dominus, sanotus, 

^ Acta Synod. Cant. an. corrected in the list given by 
154T. p. 48, 49. Take fiaults Wilkins, Cone. III. p. 861, 

and ull, as in the original. without authority howev^, 

^' Though sensible of tau- the catalogue of them was evi- 

tolo-zy, (otherwise spelt,) I dently transcribed from Fuller. 

durst not vary from the ori- See also Strype's Memorials, 

ginal. [These errors have been I. p. 371.] 

O 4 


7%r I'kurrk HUlory 

ru. innUtur. ptMclut. JiinummbilU. ioiiki 
>, [inifaiiui^ niciiiiiililii, virtiiti-*^ il(«iiiiwtii 

36. Tliv judidotui rvader bath no wooiht |N?ru9vd 
thMc wonb, but pn-wntlr h«' Kort* them in two 
nuika : (int, •omi< Tt-w unLmnsEalsblf. withnac k» 
uf life or liiMtn*: lht>«i* arf r(intitiui'<) in our RiijflL^ 
T«»tam(.-nt cntin-. it Ixriiig wjiiwive*! Itt'tlt-r that 
nrinbtof* Rhmiid ■•xpniind tluiiv wnntn ia tWir wr^ 
maim, thmn nltiT tbi-m in th«r trxU. Itut l>L*«Mm 
tbcae, miwt iir tlii> vontml ^irt an> not Mt vni[ibaU<«l 
in Uwnm^lvp*. tmt tlint tlit'v ntnt Iw n*iKlcrcd In 
EoglUi. vritliMit [Mvjmlire i»f imlb. WhiTL-fon; 
(jardioer'i dedgn ploiulT appmred in Mjokling fur 
tfau prowrriag nt n nuDj Latin wcwda Ui oUicutv 
the •criptun*: wb«. Ih»0)rh wanttnff \WKvr U\ ki<rp 
the lifcht of the won) Trom vhinitiff. nou^it out of 
polirj (o pat it into a ilark-lanthom : raiitrnrir to the 
«>nf)tant practirv of (toal in MTijrtun>. k'Tcllinj; hi^ 
lianl i'lprt'wioii* to th<- i-npncity of thv mouKVt. 
For fon-i^ ti-m» an* aJwatM Itniu^^lit in, likf JaH«|ih. 
wHh an inti'rpnrtcr *. Kmnianiu-I <lf>th not piuw with- 
out an fxpoiitkiii. God icitA u* l : nor Kpbatba 
meafVt bat rouiniL-ntiil on. 6r tho» npnt^*: XkimU*. 
the popish litJthop niultiplMil tht- mixtur«> of l^tin 
ouae* in ibi> Ti<«tanu'ut. to t*.-»ch thi- laitT their 
dbtaiiri'; who thoiifrh a<lntittr<[ into the outwsnl 
rourt of ^-cttnnion mattfr. wen- vet fk>liam>t) cntranor 
into thu boljr uf holit* of thca*.- mTHturiou* v%* 
imariouk ivaerveil onlr for ihv unilen>t«iilinfr ufthr 
Ugfa-pffiiat to plem' inlu tht-m. Mnn.'orcr, tUa 
taadr <!ardifier not only tender, but fond to han^ 

* (t*a. xlii 31. 

t M<ai 1 


CENT. XVI. of Britain. 201 

these words continued in kind without translation ; a.d. 1542. 
because the profit of the Romish church was deeply ' viii. 
in some of them concerned : witness the word 
penance^ which, according to the vulgar sound, con- 
trary to the original sense thereof, was a magazine 
of will-worship, and brought in much gain to the 
priests, who were desirous to keep that word, because 
that word kept them. I find not what entertain- 
ment Gardiner's motion met with, it seems so sus- 
pended in success, as neither generally received nor 

36. In a following session*, Cranmer, archbishop March 10. 
of Canterbury, informed the house, that " it was the suSdeA for 
" king's will and pleasure, that the translation both Jj^Jg^^J®^* 
" of the Old and New Testament should be exa- p"*^**®"- 
" mined by both universities." This met with much 
opposition in the house, all the bishops, Ely and 

St David's excepted, making their protests to the 
contrary. These affirmed, "the universities were 
much decayed of late, wherein all things were 
carried by young men, whose judgments were not 
" to be relied on, so that the learning of the land 
" was chiefly in this convocation." But the arch- 
bishop said, " he would stick close to the will and 
" pleasure of the king his master, and that the uni- 
" versities should examine the translation." And 
here (for aught I can find to the contrary) the 
matter ceased, and the convocation soon after was 

37. The cruel prosecution of the protestants still The %\x 
continued on the six articles. And yet the parlia-gomewiiat 
ment now somewhat abated the illegal fury thereof :°"^^' 

a [That is, the ninth. See Wilkins, Cone. iii. p. 862.] 



Tht Chtnk Hhiary 

A. A 1(41. tat femwrijr tnj kclivo officer of tbv liUfao|w at htt 

"viu7 pfewore mulertnl all nnpvcUMl pentwit. aod ftate- 

mUsd MOie to tkmtli. But aftcnrmnlii it wu n.<<|uiri>d, 

thnt " *ucb otffxuivn slioiiltl fint Im* round fru'lt? by 

"a jury of twvlvu mt'ii;" a nib Im ihu «bi<cU of 

their cruelty, that it «m<«l tlie Mw of Miiue, and 

prolongod the deaths uf otUen^. 

i*M- *s- SB. Now began the last (MiriionM'nt in the kiqg'a 

*«hNr^icign, wherein many thiufrs of roiuwiiworv wwe 

ifchWi^ enarted: fiiat, an art a^n«t iwury. StvtHHily, for 

^v"* tfthra in I^mdon*'. Thirtllv, for ui i-xrhatifrf of 

Unils botwixt the kinjr'H tuAJMitT aitd Tlxmuut (.'nui* 

miT. an*blM»bt>p of (_'anti<rbiiry, llolivrt llolifati*. 

h [At tb* (uUBf *<tthia act 
i>f lh« His Afticln, ill 1519. it 
WM aoMlHi. Ilwt ifujr'titouU 
MMk. pnadi, or writ* fpiaat 
ik Int clMn», tJwr iImmU W 
bm M iMndM. awl iMr 

CJb iiiiiiilt if aplMi 
odMr cUawm tlwjr JwvU 
b* fiondnuMd i« A0 M Mom, 
Md iMr iM^Md nonkte 
fcrMiML For llw mmtkia 
of tW Ml, wwMwiwiniw <nn 
iMM4 u yihBp Miotkm. 
I— fcliag Umm to tska infcr- 
■Mtkn*. bf tW i«i1m of two 
fwnom, M ta la^nir* fay iIm 
■■tha of twain BMR I all ndt 
MciuatisaM Imiisc tiM mom 
vibM ia kw. M if iIm mmUv 

for amy offeoe* «ad«r dU> Ml 
«^nr|it on tka I " * 


d b« ■ fvrdiel u^twrlrc 
t fiffi. VIII. c. r4. 
BhI (■ tlw fwmi IS43 h <n» 
Imwil MMBWy b> iMUfr tKia 
ad. owing Id tlw ■■uwhhu 
ftW iiiiiiirii , to wliieb b 
dbnM eowMlmfaW bcilttr. 
Il «na aennliMt* MMclad. 
llil mmt AooiAa ain^ii 

bvfot* indiclHaM. eurat by ■ 
•nmM frm CM «f ika MM. 
ciL 36 U«k VUL r. f. P^ 
tbt w ttboj of p>»caiiif fwi 
lUi Mt pwrtoM lA i1mb> •!• 
nwrinw. tW mdwaajrooa* 
Mlt fm, II. p. 530. Saa aha 
Barwt, Rrf. I. pp. fsH^*}"' 
66i>3i>- Foi. II. p. 566. A 
AtrtWr mudifKatKNi uf Uiia act 
M«ai* 10 tun bcM InlM^vd 
In 3$ ll#n. VIII. o.l,«UA 
aUowwl nanona taaaUair aao* 
tnrt to lU rrB|tk« ■mlilfc^iil 
■incv 1 540. lb* jrmt i4 fmlmn 
iJm fUs AnkJaa, lofwaMifar 
tbc woNid oAnk* tbr; w*f« l» 
bMT a ha-l. Air tb» liriiJ ta 

* Arv tiw priatMl «atat« ti 
thi* faar. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain, 203 

archbishop of York, and Edmund Bonner, bishop of a.d. 1545. 
London ; which the king annexed to the duchy of ^ Vm."^^ 
Lancaster. Fourthly, an act for union of churches, 
not exceeding the value of six pounds. Lastly, that 
doctors of the civil law, being married, might exercise 
ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 

39. At this time also, by the king's command. The ori. 
were the stews suppressed. A line or two I hope^^.** 
will not defile our Church-history in the description 

and detestation of such filthy persons and practices. 
There stood a place on the south bank over against 
London'^ called the Stews, where live fishes were 
formerly kept, there to be M^ashed in ponds from 
their slime and muddiness, to make the more whole- 
some and pleasant food, which was the original use 
of these Stews, and the proper meaning of the word®. 
Afterwards the place was converted to a worse use, 
but still retaining its own name, from the scouring 
of fish to the defiling of men ; brothel-houses being 
built there, and publicly permitted by the state. 
These were sixteen in number, known by the several 
signs, whereof one was the cardinal's hat^ and it is 
to be feared that too many of the clergy (then for- 
bidden marriage) were too constant customers to it. 
Such who lived in these colleges of lust were called • 
single women, and pity it was so good a name should 
be put upon so lewd persons. 

40. Divers constitutions were made in the eighth Tbe r^gu- 
year of king Henry the Second for the regulating of the stew?, 
these houses, whereof some may inoffensively, yea, 
profitably be inserted. 

(1 [That is, in the borough sex, [p. 31a. So ased in the 
of South vvark.] statutes, 37 Hen. VIII. c. 6.] 

« Camden's Brit, in Middle- ^ Stow's Survey, p. 449. 

804 TU ChmnJt Hittanf mmk v. 

A.P-i}u i. " No Nt«'W>lHtl<l('r obouM kit-p nyt-n hU rltMm 
'VliT'' •* "H On- holy <laT». or kivj» anr in )iw )iuum' oti 
'^"^'^~ " thow davx. 

U. ** No Mttfrkf wonun lo bt< kc|»t »fi*iiiiit bvr will, 
•* if oat of rrmone of coiwlmo- »li.' wnnld k«vc 
" that lfw<l lift\ 

Iti. " No utrw-hrililer to n.'wirt' wit man'i vrilv, <»■ 
*• m\y woman of ri'|i)fi«Hi. 

iv. " No nun to Im> dnwii or t-ntinsl iiit« wiy of 
** tho«c bouM^ and ibi* roniitabli-)* kihI l«ilii& wurv 
** vsvTf WM^k to w>urb tbu mnr. T\*t^ wore not Ui 
"* M>ll brtw), alt', fl(>«h, A*b, wood, r(«l, or uiy 
" vicliujn*." 

Thb wu don<', partly hi^mirac tbry sboald not 

M^roM tbiiM* tniiti-^. tNnii); ibc livflifaood of more 

honrrt peopU\ uhI [xutly U-st vinipU* rlia)iiut>o, id 

■M'kiny f<»r mu-b m*cvMarii-«, nboiild bo invt'igled 

into fiin. Surb woti]«.<n living and drlnff in tbrir 

iinfiil lift* wfiv I'xrluded Chriadin burial, uid bad a 

plot of ffrctuiid far fron the puMi rburcb a{>{»uiiiU^ 

for tlxtn, ralli-<l. The ahifrle woman'* cburrhyard. 

TiMiBif» 41. Tbi'M' raiitiittts and rotuititutiuns could mrt 

WtfMM make thi-m. who orr t«d in thc*niM-)Tr«, to be kwnL 

^il^^ thouffb hnply kM*|rifi^ lome who ««ce ha<l from 

*•** * hpiflfr wofw- ; mich % tolenttkm of ifai hriofr nttrriy 

anlawful. For though netniml powMM Biay tiy an 

ho w (joalified and eorrerlvd to main* thvm not only 

tkot tioxiouB, but in flomt* rawM (a* wttely opflivd) 

mrdiol, Tct morml pofawtm, I mt-an, thlnf^ niuftil of 

lbi'niM'lvt« ran nt-viT tn- mi imbTiHl njid n^ilalt<(l, 

Inil tliat rtill tb*-y will rrmaiii |<cmit-toiu ami uu- 

■ [Thaw iLiiHifliii— ■» pnatcd at (naOvr kaglli w Amt** 


of Britain. 


lawful; the only way to order and amend, being toA.D. 1545. 
remove and extirpate them. ^ viu7 

42. Yet there wanted not those (better idle than Argument 
so employed) who endeavoured with arguments toj^*"^"'" 
maintain, some (so shameless) the necessity, but'^^*- 
more the conveniency, of such brothel-houses. No 
wonder if wanton wits pleaded for wanton women. 
Whoredom (like the whores) was painted over with 
politic reasons for the pennission thereof, which may 
easily be washed away if the following parallel be 
but seriously penised. 

I. IMairs infirniitv herein, 
since his natural corruption, is 
grown so general, it is needful 
to connive at such houses, as 
a kind of remedy to prevent 
worse incontinency with mar- 
ried women, the whole land 
being the cleaner for the pub- 
lic sinks or sewers of the 

2. As Moses permitted di- 
vorcement*^ to the Jews, stews 
may be connived at on the 
same account, for the hardness 
of men's hearts. 

1. It is absurd to say, and 
belibelleth Divine Providence, 
that any thing is really need- 
ful that is not lawful. Such 
pretended necessity, created 
by bad men, must be anni- 
hilated by good laws. Let 
marriage run in its proper 
channel, being permitted to 
all persons, and then no need 
of such noisome sinks, which 
may well be dammed up. The 
malady cannot be accounted a 
remedy : for whilst matrimony 
is appointed and blessed by 
God to cool the heat of lust, 
whoredom doth double the 
drought thereof. 

2. Christians ought not so 
much to listen to Moses his 
permission, as to Christ his 
reprehension thereof. Besides, 
some faults had a cover for 
them in the twilight of the 
law, which have none in the 
sunshine of the gospel. 

h Mark x. 5. 


Tkt CimtA Uiattrp 

A.IlL<5«i. J. Stiwigr wonni wtn no i* < - - - 

'Vhl^ ■*"">'" '■ I*^' >*'*'' vmdm tfcMM^fw IM tka nnHHi; 

mdB paUidr kiHwa plMdad mmUi of tW J<«Ui «». 

I iMCmUivSaknMal. Tk«M w—WMllh. bat aot lo lU 

wA lawn bjr iIh Min o( m 

4. Hujr grart fimUiai wm 4. Wlwr* kwlou ha** pn- 
wImm ■Hvt4 MM bnu*. Umj W«« 

frsM RHvrfifiu 4m1 MM MMbtr iUM.««BmKaDtia««fldiM 

tlM MM wHIi tmmmttAtj af hdmI aaf mm* tiMraoT. N« 

dulilien. an many cbiUnn fas iMHont' 

■1) vrik tu BMB. wUdt an 

UtMinpfrxn Ood. 

5. Baali Mrwa an CmUm. 5. Lm Um pansMHrt «kan 

aUa b lhw<yi natkni; yaa, lalaran wWm. wWck, aa a 

ia Rdow llMlf, knack af pop«y «aa mmv 

rf pop«y «aa MMT kfc .^J 

■a to p bafar* Cm^H^H 
w ibaH b thah- «r. I 

kialbr Ulopibafar* 

ta Ulinr tlMn b thair oar. 

6. Tha mtffnmia% mt atowa 6. TUa wJaabMa tntfc fa 

WmU aot niaka otan mv* la^y graMad. Pmkaaea ikara 

AtKt», \mt man «kaa : not any dow ba ■» RofUA folk 

RM** Wncacvly hawaa t . bnt •■- aJallvnm. bat tta^MoA «m 

cntly wBotMi. la all popO' tbaa 

liaaat wttka (JMala 

Tboa rhwtitjr, hv tbt* rountcDuirc of autboritjr, 
Kot at ImI a Snal conqnnt iif wmnloancaa. Inilivd fur- 
mttij, in tbt* one wd IwcnUetlt j«v of Hearj Uw 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 907 

Seventhly, for a time the stews were closed up; butA.D.i546« 

aft H^B«>v 

afterwards opened again, though reduced firom six- viii. 
teen to twelve ; but now, by the king^s command- 
ment, this regiment of sinners was totally and finally 
routed, the king^s pleasure herein proclaimed by 
sound of trumpet, and their houses peopled with 
other inhabitants of honest conversation. 

48. We lately mentioned the exchanire of laadPraiatw 


betwixt the king and the two archbishops. On which hy pomp, 
account be it remembered, though I find not the 
exact year, Otford in Kent was given the king, 
whereof thus our great antiquary : *^ William War- 
'' ham, archbishop of Canterbury, built Otford for 
*' himself and his successors, so sumptuously, that, 
'^ for to avoid envy, Cranmer, who next succeeded 
^^ him, was constrained to exchange it with king 
'^ Henry the Eighth ^^ Could the clergy have found 
out the mean betvrixt baseness and braveiy, too 
sordid and too sumptuous, they might have fixed 
themselves therein with the more security; whilst 
their palaces, built so big as to reoeive, and so 
beautiful as to invite the king and his court, made 
(especially if lying near London) covetousness to 
long after them. And, although some competent 
consideration was given in exchange, yet politic pre* 
lates disliked such commutations, as which guaged 
the root of episcopal lands from their first property 
and ancient foundation. 

44. The last person of quality which suflfoied The cU- 


k Rob. Fabian in his Cliro- the only mancxr whidi for as* 

nicle, anno 1506. [qootad bj eolar pdiqr (akal) Cnuimer 

Stow, ib.] reaigMd to Um Idu. See 

1 Camden in hia Brit, in Str^'a Cranmer^ p. 035.] 
Kent, [p. 23 a. This was not 


TAr OmrA Hit/on, 

A.ii.<j4f>.inartvn]om in thb» kinjr> rviffn wu Atiiio ATMoagh. 
■" vili'^ rt/'"' Kynif". Sin- »«.* W(»nJu[ifull¥ cxtnotoU the 
tUu;Hil<'r "f «ir William AyH.*im;;h. of Kclwir in 1 
mliwliin*. of tht-' «f^' of twi*utv-fiTt- irow; 
wit, lii:«ut}r, U*amii){f, ukI n>)i^<)ii. |imniivd 
murli (<iitt«*ni nu tbu i)iut.-n'H ndv of the rourt, i 
n* iiiiicli tuitriHl from (he po|ii*li |K-rMfuti[i|r biKbofM. 
Mut tlir JcMiit" ruiitlcnitM htT for loavini; hor bua- 
band at home, uh) '* giuMiiijr to jpwpi'l. btmI xmaip it 
** m cxiurt." alirnj^i <m\i»cnimig brnclf, not bj ber 
niarriitl, but nuu<]fu iturniuiic: ihi> ratber, hccmiwc^ 
U-inj; often oXAniiiivd wliAt niuwn Aw rotild ffive of 
fiwuakinfT ber bibthnml. sbi- n-fiiM-*] to AniiiKt>r to uy, 
nre in ifat* kin^ al'iiic. Monti-r Kns tumelb oATUio 
vbole mmttor to Jobii Uuk*. luid. I bavinff bia mami- 
leript in my band, thongfat tit to jiuKit this bia fol- 
lowing acooant tbertof, tboagb not knowing wfaeUwr 
the Mine wilt give tbe rnuler mtis&rtton". 
BarfiB 4d, A matrb M*aM made, hy tlir [tuwrr nf tbdr 
WhM- potvot*, brtnixt .\fr. Kyiiir bf* MHi in ].iihv>Uufaii>r, 
^^ and «r William Ar»co«j(h lii* i'I«U»t •laujihtvr, who 
rhaiMHt) to die bfforo tbe rotn|tli>ti»)t tbeiv«ir. 8ir 
William, loth to loau u rirb an \«Ar, and bavii^ 
|«]r«d put of ber portion, for larn>'« nakc mmprUed 
lUa Amw, hb aevond daajililtT, m ra|i|il5 bor nrter^t 
p la ce, and to marry him affaittM ht>r own will and 

• R«f I 

'iiwa. OftWatha 
inl wM BnnCM M wlvvu^ 
N tba bad of Wmm. b >f». 
■mW. 1^. «mI Uw otkar 
M Um naw i^Mor n jMnavy. 
1547. Tlw trnXj-tftk !«■• 
, htrlT HMT- |r*pli in lb« mt ii ■!■»> • 
■• trrcd la HwllMiM br tW mW vi 
"iUmUk ma'i apUdan. InmIi. 
• wHk tha (MdalkB iif Jaha bw.) 

«■. Ac- 1U> 491. 

• [TUi i* vvidrad^ BO oili«r 

■■ • MA. eopT «~ 

"KwttbMIMI of 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 209 

consent; notwithstanding, the marriage once pa8tyA.i>.i546. 
she demeaned herself like a Christian wife, and bare ^ vm7 
him two children P. In process of time, by oft ' 

reading of the sacred Bible, she clearly fell from all 
papistry, to a perfect belief in Jesus Christ. Where- 
upon, her husband was so offended, that (by sug- 
gestion of the priests) he violently drove her out of 
his house. And she on this occasion sought from 
the law a divorce ; and, because of his cruel usage, 
would not return unto him again, thinking herself 
free from that uncomely kind of coacted marriage, 
by the doctrine of St. Paul, But if the unbelieving 
depart^ let him depart. A brother or sifter is not 
binder bondage in such cases : but God hath called us 
to peace ^. This is the effect of what our author 
speaketh in moe words. Now whether this rule 
laid down by St. Paul betwixt Christian and heathen 
be also commensurate betwixt protestant and papist, 
is not my work to decide. Perchance she would 
only answer to the king for her behaviour towards 
lier husband, as hoping for some tenderness from his 
highness, because of some general conformity in the 
first part of her case with the king's : as who for by- 
respects was first married to, then divorced from his 
brother's wife. 

46. Her several examinations are largely penned She is fim 
by herself, extant in Mr. Fox, where the reader may then immt, 
find them. But be it remembered, that, whereas 
lieresy only was charged upon her, without the least 
suspicion of treason, yet was she racked to detect 

P Bale's Manuscript, p. 91, fol. andStrype'8Mein.I.p.387, 

92. [See Bale's Latter Exam, and Life of Cranmer, 206, for 

of A. Ayscough, fol. 15. ed. some remarks on Bale's wwk.] 
1547. Burnet*8 Ref. I. p. 341. ^ 1 Cor. vii. 15. 



Tkt eiUrr* tftriMy 

A- &*nfc w> OMit ladiM of her opiaioii, b; tlw kti 
^toT Wriodwriey. the then, md lb Hubert Bteh,Uicp«»l> 
lord chaaodlor'. Bnt whether it ww noble in the«» 
lofdlb or kgal in Uu«e lawjrvn, or mmrk-atioui In 
theie ehiiMeUfin, to nek one alreedjr coDdemnetl to 
deeth, bdongelh to otben to detendne. Thrir 
antHj tEEtocted no dkeovef? from her, irtkoee «ai^ 
■taoey DOW node reoompenie lor har fotmer inim^ 
tie*. irU be trae whet !■ dmqfoi opoo becAat 
be&m AiB bod twice eubKiibed the reel preeeoee is 
the ■KancDt of the eltoi^ but eeoloMly died et kit 
fai the euneet dtniol thenoC beinf enoagst thoeo 
who. eeeofdhn to the fveoept in die pnpbt-t, f lor i 
/M tkt Lord m du Jint*. Ucr Mifif-riiif in Smith- 
Aeld wu moit toleKinlj pvrfarm<Nl. wbfrr (hrev men, 
Nlcholm Belenian, pcie«t of .Shropihin>, John Loo> 
eeUi. pinthanen of the hoDMhold of Idng Henry the 
Eighth, end John AdiBN^ ■ poor toUor of Loadon, 
were ell bomt together*. Thiee ooai4e of gnelHlee 
Meeting together in four penoo^ ctuST "^ l*^* 
■Mle end fenale, gentle end simptc^ mode the Ibel 
of the Mme Bfv. 
■«p>» 47. John Bele n^ittm this Anne Ayeeo ^g li 
'"'^'anioogit the niunbcf- of his English Icemcd wiHeit*. 
for bur eieminetiuoa, lettvn, and poenu, wrote with 
her own huid*; tbou^ theJeenHwjeen hia br hie 
pnioK, M if no worfci, nvo thoee of the 

'Pai.lI.(7B. [OMoTthew tW kin. naMcdaff I 
wte mim* hw Mi LadT iiiiiriji mJm Cra 
Vmmjtwtmmhmkmdmimt^ atm. fawJlw. ami a 

m ak th» AUn Indi of 
UTafiw Amu Hmrf VIU.] 

■ 1^ axlv. 1 5. 

• [Bm lU WiMn Hmm llw 
BMnril ia Londoe to MvaCHT 
htn, m4 to iIm cMUMd wink 


roL I. p. M •^1 

> ^I>riMMlfalP■n.ll.^s7^■] 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 211 

became her sex. I have seen a manuscript of herA.D.1546. 
verses, (afterwards printed at Marpurg in Germany,) vm. 
and must confess I better approve her charity in the 
four last, than her poetry in all the rest^: 

Yet, Lord, I thee desire, 

For that they do to me, 
Let them not taste the hire 

Of their iniquity. 

However, those that have drunk deeper than she of 
Helicon would be loth to pledge her in the bitter 
cup of martyrdom. So I take my leave of her 

48. Now began the troubles of queen Catherine The king 
Parr, whom the king married some two years since. KaSmne 
For he, either being or believing himself wronged by ^*"* 
his last wife, whom he married for a maid, resolved 

now to take a widow to wife, who had given proof 
of her chastity and loyalty to her former husband ; 
and thereupon married this Catherine, the daughter 
of sir Thomas Parr, of Kendal, the relict of John 
Ne\ill, lord Latimer; one of great piety, beauty, 
and discretion. Next to the Bible, she studied the 
king's disposition, observing him to her utmost. And 
need she had of a nimble soul, to attend at all times 
on his humour, whose fury had now got the addition 
of frowardness thereunto. She was rather nurse 
than wife unto him, who was more decayed by sick- 
ness and intemperance than old age. 

49. Yet sometimes she would presume to dis- The oontpi. 
course with the king about points of religion, de-^|^« " 
fending the protestant tenets by scripture and"^™***®^" 

^ [These are likewise print- " tion, &c" fol. 63, printed 
ed in Dale's " Latter Examina- at Marpurg in 1547.] 


Sl< TV ClarrrA Ifutary wwi v. 

A.i fcitrf .iiMou; and KMiietlttes mtdd bold up tbe Idiig th; 
'vm7 doM hard at it. Thb dlipleaaed bia. who loved 
\etmtnem and libertf , in bb dotbca* argUDoat^ a 
•etkm; and «■■ qineUy obaerved by G 
othan^ who wnv tbo qneca s raniiiea> Isai 
takinjr advantage of an tmhapjiv jaorture of 1 
Gardiner ilrpv up articlra ajfainM her, and bai 
tbem wbacribwl with the king'* »wn hand, t 
■Mnw bcT to the Tower ; whither bad iho been ■ 
roAyM Mifia ntrorMum, without doubt ibc had j 
lowed the way of hli former wito* in that place. 
>r9^ SO. But Dirinv ProTidftiec ordeiHh all tbioga to 
SriLwi fiUI out for the good of (iod'a childnni. Chaueellor 
Wriotbealejr pot the paper of thnaw articles (prcdmn 
j«vela !) bi DO wono cabinet than his own boaoini. 
flcDco it CMualljr feU out, wa« taki-n op I17 one of 
the quora'i acnrmnta, and bnragbt to her gtaee^ wfao^ 
on ber ^knew and tubniMon to the king, obtained 
bia paidoo. ngned and Bcalutl unto her witb ntanjr 
kiaNi and enbnoea. Ai for eiirh her coemlea, 
who came at the prvaent to attach ber. (intending, 
br virttH' »( the king's warrant, to scimI ber the 
•hortwt waj to her long botnc,) thi'T weiv wnt back 
with what BUida wene nunhliog than a flea in tbo 
car. e w o tbe tatnrta and tbrnit» uf the ennged 
king againat tbam*. 
rwnmtM, SI. And jci Panoiia t4*lb us*, that, "notwitb- 
1^0 ** staiidixig. the king puiposcd to bare >>umcd her, if 
** Ih* bad Ured." I know not wbciKe be derived 

r[~KaUb«rr<witlwbeMn —JwiBW^hrtiiiwiifaMssWi.] 

-orcwoftiwalynnyaMB- ■ [Fox. IV II. 514.) 

•' takm." mn Vm, tUtftn. ■ la bii Ki— JMrisa ml 

11. jB],) who k. I hAtn. dw P«'a " UMljn.- !■ Jmmt, 

«0)i nttlHtliy fo tUs naMKk c. le. ^.453. 


of Britain, 


this liis strange intelligence, and therefore, justly a. d. 1546. 
suspect the truth hereof; the rather, because I find ^ viS7 
her in great grace with the king, as appeareth by the 
good language and great legacy he gave her in his 
will, which here we thought fit to transcribe, both 
for the rarity thereof, and because containing many 
passages which may reflect much light upon our 
Church History''. 

^ [By a letter from Mait- 
land to secretary sir William 
Cecil, (printed by Burnet in 
vol. I. of Collection of Records, 
p. 405=267.) it appears that 
this will was never signed by 
the king, and consequently 
was never a legal document: 
and that '* in the time of his 
" sickness being divers times 
" pressed to put his hand to 
** the will written, he refused 
"to do it." Yet notwith- 
standing this objection, and the 
observations of various writers, 
there is a curious entry in the 
last monthly lists of instru- 
ments, in this reign, '' to the 
" number of fourscore and six, 
** which the king's majesty 
•* caused me, William Clare, to 
" stamp with his highness' se- 
" cret stamp at divers times and 
" places in this moneth of Ja- 
" nuary, an. 38. Hen. VIII." 
At the eighty-fifth number 
is the following : *' Your ma- 
*' jesty's last will and testa- 
'* ment, bearing date at West- 
" minster the 30th day of De- 
'* cember last past, written in 
" a book of paper, signed 

'* above in the beginning, and 
" beneath in the end, and 
*' sealed with the signet in the 
" presence of the earl of Hert- 
*' ford, Mr. Secretary Pagett, 
" Mr. Denny, and Mr. Her- 
*' bert, and also in the pre- 
'* sence of certain other per- 
" sons, whose names are sub- 
" scribed with their own hands 
*' as witnesses to the same ; 
" which testament your ma- 
" jesty delivered then in our 
'* sights with your own hand 
" to the said earl of Hertford, 
" as your own deed, last will 
" anJ testament, revoking and 
*' annulling all other your 
'* highness' former wills and 
" testaments." State Papers, 
vol. I. p. 897.] This entry is 
also of great importance, in 
another point, as tending to 
exculpate Somerset from the 
charge which Mr. Tytler seems 
to have brought against him of 
possessing himself of the will 
illegally. (Original Letters for 
Reign of Edward VI. I. 19.) 
The king having delivered the 
will with his own hands into 
Somerset's keeping.] 


TktC/kureA Hitton/ 


A.IX iM*. In the name of God, and (if the gbiriout end I 
yiU^ VirgitM our Ladj- Sunt >Un«. lod all ibc Koljr c 

—of Heavm. We IIcnrTt W th* gncv of Gij, Kmg of 

EnitUiid. Fnuev, and IrvUod. dcrrod«r of the failh, and 
on rarth immcdiatrlv tindrr Giitl ihr •upmnc bead of ifaa 
Church tif Kngland and Ireland. *.4 that nonnm; Uw OKblb; 
cdhng to our mnnnbcance ihc fjvaX gifu and iMBcdtaaf 
Almightir Uod giTcn unto u* in lltt* Irantjrinrj life, w 
give unto him our nwat humble and lowlit thankk. acknow* 
Uflgin^t iKtrarlfn iDiuflycjmi m rucriv pan<- lu dnrruE or 
ren>ii|)rD«:v thv mme ; but fvarc that «tc harr tiot wonhlia 
racTti»rd ih« Munc. And cixHMWing funhtrmcve wilh 
nunrlun thai >rT be as ■• al] mankind ntonall. and bcvtw 
in Vfxaam, briietinft itrvcrthrlna aod hopiOK that every 
rbntiao crvaturc \ii\n$i henr in ihif laanjXarj and 
wwH cl wd world under Gwl, and dvtn|[ in atcdfaat and 
prKvct faith, iitdraviiuring and vMTnunf[ himtelf to ex»> 
cute in lii* lifetitnr (if Fm- hav« lewure) luch jguoA deeda 
and charjruble iturku a* ^riplurv cmitnandeih, and h 
mair he to the bdnour and pleasure <if Gtal. t* (vdained bj 
rhhat'i paMfam to be HRvd and to aliainc eternal life, of 
whu-h nunher w* verlli* truit bv hi* grvcr to be one : 
And thai nwrie creature, the more high Iw it in cMMa^ 
honour, rule, and authtwitir in this worM, tbe nam be k 
bound la lour, vrue, ami ihankc Gnd, and lb« Bwn £& 
feHfia lo cndmniur bimadfr to doe good and cbafiubb 
worlica, lo llie Uud, l»on<>ur, and pnne of AInightie Gad 
■nd tbe pmfil uf hii «nule : We aim oiling lo our nmew 
fannce the digtutic, itale, hooour, rule, and govemaunm^ 
that Alinigfatie God hath promoted i» unto io ihi* «i«U, 
and thai neytber wee nur anjr other mortall ctvaturc b w H ll ^ 
cd) the iIbw, nor pUee, when nor where it thall | 
Alaigblie Gud Is oUc bin out uf tbia tfWMla 
WiIGh ibnvCm wtA awdi^ bjr God^ grMs, b 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 215 

passage out of this world, to dispose, give, ordaine, our last A. D. 1546. 
mind [and] will, and to lament in that sort as we trust shall ^ yin.^ 

be acceptable to Almightie God, our onlie Saviour JesUs 

Christ, and all the holie companie of Heaven, and the due 
satisfaction of God^s brethren in earth, now being of wholle 
and perfect minde, adhering wholly to the right faith of 
Christ and his doctrine, renouncing and abhorring alsoe 
our olde and detestable life, and being in perfecte minde 
and will by his grace never to returne to the same nor 
such like, and minding by God'^s grace never to vane 
therefrom, as long as any remembrance, breath, or inward 
knowledge doth or maie remaine within this mortal bodie, 
most humblie and hartelie doe commend and bequeath our 
soule to Almightie God, who in persona of the Sonne 
redemed the same with his most pretious bodie and blood 
in time of his passion, and, for our better remembrance 
thereof, hath lefte heere with us in his church militant the 
consecration and administration of his pretious bodie and 
blood, to our no litle consolation and comforte, if we as 
thankfuUie accept the same as he lovinglie and unde- 
seruedly on our behalf hath ordained it for our only 
bencfitte and not for his: Also, we doe instantlie desire 
and require the blessed Virgine Marie his mother, with all 
the holy companie of Heaven, continually to pray for us 
and with us while we live in this world, and in time of 
passing out of the same, that we maie the sooner obtayne 
eternall life after our departure out of this transitory life, 
which we doe both hope and claime by Chrisf s passion and 
word. And as for my bodie, which when the soule is 
departed shall then remaine but as a dead carcase, and see 
returne to the vild matter that it was made of, were it not 
for the crown and dignitie which God hath called us unto, 
and that we would not be an infringer of worldly policies 
and customes when they be not contrarie to God's lawes, 
we would be content to have it buryed in any place accus- 
tomed for Christian folks were it never soe vild, for it is 
but ashes, and to ashes it shall returne againe ; neverthe- 
less, because we would be loath in the reputation of the 

P 4 


riu Chttrtk UMvry 

A-D^vt|«t> people to doe iniury la iha difpMtc whtch wi an mu 
VltT' WDrtfab callrd UDto, wr w oootrai, and aUii by ihna 

" p w gnu, otir I.ut ^Vill md TvvtanirRt, dor wtH nai 

urdatne, ihat our bodic be burird and enUfml to the qtawm 
nt uur Collrftc uf WiiHor, midway bdween ll>e balb and 
the hig4i ■lur ; and iberc to be made and ■«, aa aoun 
as oxiVLtiicnthe ittaip br dtimia afUr our deWMar, by our 
nuruton, ai our omU am) chaf|[ca (if it be am donne bj 
iM in our lifrttinr), an hooounible Umbe for our boon to 
K*i ill, ohidi i« well onvanl and almost made iberfu** 
alfvady. with a fair grate about it, in which wc will alaoa 
tlw booca o( our true and laving wife QiHcnt Jane br pot 
aUoe, and that there be pfwided, onLuned, made, and 
•cttr. at ibe cusu and chaises of us, or hj our niralnrs 
(if it be Hot doooe in our Ufetinw), ■ coaveajrenl auher, 
hananUit prrpand and aparelled with all iw aoner of 
tbin^ nquiMlc and BtueMfie for daiUr raaau there la ba 
aaid perpotually aa Im^ •■ the world diall indure: Abo* 
wr will the tombcs and aullan of Kin^ llrary the Sitth. 
and alnc of Xing Edward tbc Founh, our grtal unfcia 
and gnodtathrr, br made more prinrt^ir. in the mmm 
placaa where ihric now br, at our char);rs. And aJwa w« 
will and •prtially denrc and mfuire that hIktt and whcn- 
MtrytT it kball jilcatr Gnd to call lu out of this Iranwinry 
world to hit infjriiite nwRie and gnor, be it hrywiJ Uiir 
aea* or in any other plan withoot the Bwlnw of England, 
or within the Mtne, thai otir etenitoiv, soe none as am- 
vrnirmiltc thriv nukie, ihall cause all drrine srrvier aecus> 
tooicd fnr drsil fulkes ii> be rdebratod for ns in the nmt 
p ro pper plarv where it ihsll fortune ui lo depart out of 
ibis iramytorie bfr ; and over that we will, that whenan- 
rrer and wbrrewKver il ihall pknie God lo call in oul of 
this innsyiory life, to hu infinite arrcie and gncw, be it 
wiiliin ihb n^nw or oithiiut, that our eaaculors, in aa 
goodlie, brWfe, and cnavenyent haste aa Umm cmi or naia 
order, prvpnrr, or auM our bodie to he rvnMved, can. 
vetfld, or brought into the mad colkdge of Winsor. and 
iba stntiw of Placafao and Dvigv, with a saramo and maaa. 

CENT. xvf. of Britain, 217 

on the morrowe, at our costs and charges, dcvoutlie to be A. D. 1546. 
donne, observed, and kepte solemnlie, there to be buryed and ^ vilL^ 
enterred in the place appointed for our said tomb to be '■ 

made for the same intent, and all this to be donne in as 
devout wise as it can or maie be donne. And we will and 
charge our executors, that thaie dispose and give in alms 
to the most poore and needie people that maie be found, 
(common beggars as much as may be avoided), in as short 
space as possible theie may after our departure out of this 
transitorie life, 1000 marks of lawful monee of England, 
parte in the same place and thereabouts where it shall 
please God to call us to his mercie, partly in the way, and 
parte in the same place of our burial, after their discretions. 
And to move the poor people that shall have our almes to 
praic heartilie unto God for the remission of our offences 
and the welth of our soule, also we will, with as convenient 
s})ecd as maie be donne after our departure out of this 
worlds if it be not donne in our life time, that the Deane 
and Channons of our free chappell of Saint George, within 
our castle of Winsor, shall have manors, lands, tenements, 
and spiritual promotions, to the yearlie value of 600/. over 
all charges, made sure to them and their successours for 
ever, uppon theise conditions hereafter ensuing. And, for 
the due accomplyshment and performance of all other 
things conteyned with the same, in the form of an inden- 
ture, signed with our own hand, shall be passed, by waie 
of covenants for that purpose, between the said Deanne 
and Channons, and our executors (if it pass not between 
us and the said Deane and Channons in our life), that is 
to say, the said Deane and Channons and their successors 
for ever, shall finde two priests to saie masses at the said 
aultcr, to be made where we have appointed our tombe 
to be made and stand, and also after our decease keepe 
yearlie foure sollemne obits for us within the said CoUedge 
of Winsor, and at eurie of the said obits to cause a solemn 
sermon to be made, and also at every of the said obits to 
give to poore people an alms of 10/.; and also to give 
forever yearlie for ever to 13 poore men, which shall be 


7U Cimtk Uittorp*c.c»lleil Pootv Knigbu, lo c««ris of tham ttd. by dne: md 
'*y^^ oDco in tbr vnirv, jrcarii* Ibr war, a loa|[ go^o* "f «!>•• 

doth, vtth like Uuur nppoa lh« brM inbrathctrd, «iili ■ 

MM nd criHK at Ssliit O«orgi within ttw Ganrr, w^ a 
—nth uf ral doth ; and la mtA a ooe 0/ the 13 Paoas 
Knigfau ai ahall bt appoinud gonmor and head at Uwa 
3/. 6f. Bdl. fiNWcr yvarif, over and ahrm dw wd iid^ 
bjr the date 1 And aha to eauw evcne Sondaw in th« jrran 
fiv ercT a •maoa to be made «l Wimor afumnd, ae ia 
the Mid indcoUm aad ravmanu thai be murv fullir and 
partkokfTia npreMcd ; willinj;. charging and mjutriag 
our aaoae Priooa Edwan). all our rxecutan and cenib- 
mUo** vfaicb •hal be aamed beraiftcr, and alJ our biina 
and ■ucB H w w vbich (hall be kingm of Hm raalae, ai thaa 
viU aoaweai* befcni Ataightie Ovd ai the dnadTuD dnt 
of judgnacot, that tbeia aad avtiia of them doe m iha 
aid indroturr and aauranwat to be a itde between tit aad 
the Hid Dcaae and Channont, or belwtaa tbrai and omt 
t, and all thing! thcrrin, maie be duly put is 
I, ub w mJ . and krpi fi>r ever perprtuaUir. aceord- 
iqf to thia our Ian will and tcstan>eni. And a* eoocnwaif 
the Older and ifiipMittaa at the imperall crownc of theaa 
n0inn at Ei^tand aad Ireland, with our title nt Fnan, 
and all di g nit i ea , biHiaun, prvcmiaracra, prmguivca, 

of tin 

1 and aln hr a ftoD and pl«ae giRr, (fitpiMiion, 
dedaralkm, haiitaiiait, and appuinimrnt. with 
our daugblarv Mearj and tllitabrili duU 
iBe have, hoUt and tojay, the Mid ioiperiail avvaa 

cf Imm and heina of the wvetaD bodiM of m and our aid 
Man* PriBM Edward, bwftUbe begotten, and hia heirat 
■ad afaaa lor a ftdl giAa^ d ie pn niie n . aMiupBuiit. dcvlara. 
I whtm, and ot «hai 

CKKT. XVI. o/Britain. «19 

of the Mvcrall bodies of us and of our said sonne Prince A. D. 1546. 
Edwtird, and of our s^d daughters Meary and Elizabeth, ^ vui^ 

lawfulUc begotten, we by those presents doe make and 

declare our lest will and testament concerning the said 
iin|>erialt crowne. and all other the premisses, in manner 
and forme following : that is to sue, we will by these 
presents, that, immediatelie after our departure out of this 
present life, our said sonne Prince Edward shall have and 
enjoie the said imperiall crowne and realm of England and 
Irelund, our title of France, with all digniies. honours, 
prceminencies, prerogatives, authorities and jurisdictions, 
lands and possessions to the same annexed or belonging to 
bim and his heires of his bodie lawfullie begotten ; and, 
for default of such issue of our said sonne Prince Edward's 
bodie lawfullie begotten, we will the said imperiall crowne, 
and all other the premisses, after our two deceases, shall 
whoUie remaine and come to the heires of our body law- 
fullie begotten of the body of our entiretie beloved wife 
Queene Kathenne that now is, or of any other our lawfuU 
wife that we shall hereafter marie ; and for lackc of such 
isKiuc and heires, we will also, that, after our decease, and 
furdefauttof heires of the several bodies of us and of our said 
Bonne Prince Edward lawfullie begotten, the said imperiall 
crowne, and all other the premisses, shall whollic remaine 
and come lo our said daughter Mary and the heires of her 
bodie lawfully begotten, upon condition thai our said 
daughter Afary, after our decease, shall not mary, nor take 
any personc to her husband, without the asent and consent 
of the Prcvic Counsellors and others appointed by us to 
our dearest sonne Prince Edward aforesaid to be of coud- 
saile, or of the most parte of them, or the most part of such 
of them as shal be then aUve, thereunto had before the 
said marriage, in wryting, sealed with their seales; all which 
condilyons, we declare, liraiL, appointe, and will, by theee 
presents, shal be knit and invested to the said estate of our 
daughter Mary in the said imperiall crowne, and all oilier 
the premisses ; and if it fortune thai our said daughter doe 
die without issue of her bodic lawfullie begotten, wc will 

«SeO Tlu Ckmrck Himr^ mxhi v. 

A.D.if4&ltuit. ftficr our drcc i t, and for Ciulie of imuc of llw «*e- 
''vVn^ "■" '^""^ uf UB, of our aiil KDnc rnno: F^wuA. Uw- 

fuHic tM^tttrD, wkI of our ilaiif^titrr Mmry. the uid im. 

p-ryall cntwiw, umI all tuittr the prraium, ihdl wbolKe 
rvmaine ■nd nime to our iflHl daufchirr Kliiabrth, wid le 
tl»e hrim of her bodic U»fuU»c brj^iro. apfmn c 
thu our Mid dau^htrr EI'imImhIi, after our dcvcaw 
Dot inany. nor take any prrtonne tn her ImtlMod < 
ihr aivent and cononl of the I'mic t'ounarllorv, and 
othrrt ■ppoinicd by us to Ik of counullc with iwr Hwl 
dcami MMinc I'rincv Kdward, or of the dmmi parte of Midi 
of tbrm a* *hall be thro alyve, themtnio, before tlic Mid 
nmrymfic, had in wryiii^ W l ed vith their M«lca ; wbicb 
coodilHHi. "G drcbuv, but. appamit, aod <rill, by thew 
praaralit ilial br tn iba Hid ralair uf cMir uid daofbttr 
Klii^xth in iltc Mid imprrysll crowoe, and ulbcT tb* 
pww iM ci, knii ■ntl in«4-stvtl. And if it •hati happra tfaal 
our Mid daughlrr Eliubrth do <l>e without twue ot bcr 
bodie lawfuIlK bef(oiien, we will, thai, after our dtUMC, 
and for defaulle of tMiie of ihe trvrrall bodiei of u* aad of 
our Mid luane I'riooe Kdirmrd, and of our Mid daughWca 
Mary and EJixabrth, ibe nid inipenaU aatnm and o dm r 
the p ni m iM e a . after our deeoue, ihall whoUia mnaina ami 
oona to the heirrs of the bodie of the Ijufio PranoM our 
BOMB, ddnt daughlrr to our late usier the Fmicfa Qor— >, 
tawfuffia bvKMtrn. And for defaultc of mhJi ivua of tba 
bodte of Iha Mid Ladie Frawx-*, wr wiU thai tha mU 
inpBryall crowiw and other the premiMca, after our di^ 
nmae, and for faulu of iMoe of ihe aevaral bodin of ii% 
and of uur Mid wnne Prince Rdwaid, and of our mU 
dauf^iera Mary and KItulirth, and of tba Ldtfia Pnaen, 
lawfulbe befuticn. thall whuUie refnaioa and ONiic to iW 
beifTa of the body of the Lwly ElMOor oar aaaoa, NCaad 
daaghtar In oar mU lata ■ator the Prnwh Quaena, kv- 
ftdfia hagottao. And if it bappea tha Mid Eleanor to S» 
wkboat IMM of bcr hudie lawfuIEc befcoilen. we will, that 
afker mr Jwa aM , and fur drfaultr of iMiie of the K-vrrall 
hnlica vl m, ami of tMr Mid aonne PruKv Edwanl. aad *4 

CENT. XVI. of Britmn. , SSI 

our 8ud daughters Mary and Elizabeth, and of the said A. IX 1546. 
Ladie Frances and Ladie Eleanor, lawfullie begotten, the ^ vil?^ 

said imperiall crowne and other the premisses shall whollie ~ 

remaine and come to the next rightfuU hdrs. Alsoe we 
will, that, if our said daughter Mary doe marrie without 
the consent and agreement of the Previe Counsellors, and 
others appointed by us to be of counsell to our said sonne 
Prince Edward, or the most of them, or the most parte <^ 
such of them as shal be then alive, thereunto, before sud 
marriage, had in wryting, sealed with their seales, as is 
aforesaid, that then and from thenceforth, for lacke of 
heires of the severall bodies of us and of our said sonne 
Prince Edward lawfullie begotten, the sud imperiall 
crowne, and other the premisses, shall wholly remaine be 
and come to our said daughter Elizabeth, to the heires <^ 
her bodie lawfully begotten, in such manner and forme as 
though our said daughter Meary were then dead without 
any issue of the bodie of our said daughter Mary lawfvlly 
begotten, any thing conteyned in this our will, or in any 
acte of parlement or statut to the contrary, notwithstanding. 
And in case that our said daughter the Lady Mary doe . 
keepe and performe the said conditions, expressed^ de- 
clared, and limitted to her estate in the said imperiall 
crowne, and other the premisses, by this our last will 
declared; and that our said daughter Elizabeth for her 
parte doe not keepe and performe the said condition de- 
clared and limitted by this our last will to the estate of the 
said Ladie Elizabeth in the said imperiall crowne of theise 
realmes of England and Ireland, and other the premisses; 
wc will, that then and from thenceforth, after our decease, 
and for lacke of heires of the several bodies of us and of 
our said sonne Prince Edward, and of our said daughter 
Mary, lawfullie begotten, the smd imperiall crowne, and 
other the premisses, shall whollie remaine and come to the 
next heires of the bodie of the said Ladie Frances lawfully 
begotten, in such manner and forme as though the said 
Ladie Elizabeth were then dead, without any heires of her 
bodie lawfullie begotten, any thing conteyned in this will, 

TV Ckurtk Uhion, 

A.llttMldr inHT*clear Hatute lo ihr contrary, notttiihttcMfifllf J 


over, for Uckv ut Uhic uf tlw Mid L^ic 

-Prsaen hwfnilie bcgntim, ta 1m- and oonununl to t*teb 
penocu in like rvnuimlvn nnd nUm «» U lirfofv tniitlBd 
and dccUtwI. And mv bctog iwiw at thit lyior, UuBkca ba 
In (toll, (if pcrfi-nc iminorri doc conititutc and onUa* 
tbeae pcnooagH Aillowing our rxcruinn. and pcrfnmcn t£ 
thb our last will and tcstammt ; willing commanding aad 
praying then, to take uppon tiirm tlw occupatiao and 
pcrfbrauUKv of tlir Mmc a* executor* ; that U to MM, Um 
Archbithtip uf Canterbury, the Lord WiToilicatir. Cha*- 
cc4W uf l^gland ; thv Lord St. John, Grvat Masurr «f 
our Houk; the Erie at Ilenfonl, Gmat Cbambniai of 
EnglaBd ; the htwd Ruarll. Lord Vnrna SMle} iW 
ViacouM Liilr, High AdratraJI of Engbnd ; tk« Boliap «C 
Durcame, TonMall; Sit Anthona Browne, Knight, llMlar 
of our How; Sir Edward Montague, Kaigfat, Omtm 
Judge or the Commoa Plnn ; Juaticc Bromk^ ; Sir ttd- 
ward NtirU), Knight, ('haDcvllor ot the AugBwataiiaaa | 
Sir William Paget, Knight, our Chirfe Scoviaria; Sk 
Aoihany Dmny, Sir WiU'ian) llerhen, Koigbta, Ckitf 
Qentlnnro at our Prrric Chatnbn-; Sir Edward WoUoa, 
Knight, and Mr. Doctor Wollon hit bntbrr ; all Utern 
«v will lo be our executora, and counadkwv at the Prrvie 
Comuell with our nid aonnc Princw Edward, in all wmUm* 
both aneenriag hia private a&irea and puUiqua aftim 
ot the naim. willing and charging ibcm, am) i 
them, ai ihcia mtiM aixl ihaU anawere ai the d 
mnit. Irulte and fulhc lo mo thn my la« will p 
all thinga. with ai mndi ^ir«de and diKgeix* a 
and that none of then pnanina to meddle with any of our 
Iretuure, or to doe aoj lluag appninird by our «id will 
alone, union the moM parte at the whoUe number vt tbrir«iton doc cooieat. and by wryting agree lo the 
■■te. And we will that our Mid esecuiorv, or tke moM 
part* at tbtm, may Uwfullk doe what theie UiaU (luak 
am w o yu M far the cwcntiun </ thw iwr will, without bniag 
UmibM by nur mid minr, or any ulbrr, far the mmmi 

cBXT. XVI, of Britain. S8S 

willing further, by this our last will aiid testament, that A. D. i .(46. 
Sir Edmund Pcckham, our trustie servant, and yet Coferer "' viu!'^ 

of our House, shall be Tresurer, and have the receptc 

and laying out of all such treasure and monye as shall be 
defrayed by our executors for the pcrforaiance of this our 
lost wilt ; straighttic charing and commanding the said 
Sir Edmund, that he paie no great some of moncye but he 
have first the handes of our said executors, or of the most 
part of them, for his discharge touching the same; charg- 
ing him further, uppon his allegiance, to make a true 
ac£ounte of all such somes as shall be delivered to bis 
hands for this purpose. And, since we have now named 
and constituted our executors, we will and charge them, 
that, first and above all things, as they will answere before 
God, and as we put our singular trust and confidence in 
them, that theic cause all our due debts that can reasun- 
ablic be showed and proved before them, to be trutie con- 
tented and paide as soonc as they convenyentlic canne or 
maie after our decease, without longer delay ; and that 
they doe execute these points first, that is to saie, the 
payment of our debts, with redrese of injuries, if any sudi 
can be duly proved, though to us they be unknown, before 
any otlier part of this our will and testament, our buryell 
funercll and exequies excepted. Furthermore, we will that 
ail such grants and gtiifts as we have made, given, or pro- 
mised to any, which be not yet perfected, under our sign 
or any our seals as (heie ought to be, and all such recom- 
penses for exchanges, sales, or any other thing or things as 
ought to have been made by us, and be not yet accom- 
plished, shall be perfected in everie pointe towards all 
manner of men, for discharge of our conscyeiice; charging 
our executors, and all the rest of our counsellors, to see 
the same donne, performed, fynished, and accomplished, in 
everie pointe, forescdng that the said guifts, grants, pro- 
Diises, and recompenses, shall appeare to our executors, or 
the most parte of them, to have been granted, made, 
accortled, or promised by us in any manner of wise. Fur- 
ther, according to the lawes of Almighty God, and for the 

A 0.iytb.(mtiietiy love *h>ch wc benv la mtr toaat l*rinw KJward. 
''Viii.'^ ^"^ <" ihwour rcMknc, wc dpcUn him, wxonlinft to jurtie*^ 

n}ui(ir, And oxMCjrvtKr, to be nur Uwfull hrirr, and doc 

give and bcquMlh in him tba KKCr^fNi </ our rvalna at 
Ewglwwl and Iratand, with our uU« of Frmee, and all our 
doninacM, both on itii* nde iht anw and bvjond, a eon- 
najwat portion for our will and l ia U w n tot to be rtwrtaJ. 
Alaih w« (ivr unto him all our fdate, Mirffc of hoaaihalj, 
artillery, urdnancr, tauaj-tiom, iliipa, cabin, and aU ollwr 
tiling* and inplomrau to then twloagitig: And mwij 
aJw, and }ewvh, Mvia|t audi portioaB ai ihaU mtMt ihw 
our U*t will and teMamrtU ; duffinft and naaiaaailwg 
him, ua painr of our cunt (twiog h« hath ao lon^ a 
father of u«, and ihal tMir cbrifc labtur and Mudchr la tUa 
world is to rUaUith him in tbo tmptriall crowne of thlt 
nalmc after our dcoaar, in (uch aortr at mav br [iliawng 
to God, and to the wraith of thii mlmr, and to hit own* 
bcNWur and qujrri), that he be ruled and ordeivd, both ■■ 
hia narriafrr, and alto in onlning of the aiGum of tba 
raalme, aa wdl outward a* inward ; and akoe in all hk own 
private affiurc*, and in fti^ing of oBcM of charge bjr tba 
adriar and couoarll oT our rimfat mltrvlr bdond Mn«a<l 
lurm, ih« Archhikhop of Canterlmrjr ; the Lwd WriuUwJj, 
Chanodlour of Eoglond ; the Lord St. Joba. Gnat MaMr 
of our Home; iHv Lord RuMaD, IaitA Priria SmIi At 
Earl of Hertfordt GraM Chambcflaio of Ei^laad i iIh 
Vtaeount LU^ High AdaHrall of Engtaad : the Vmkap 
Tooatall of Dumme; Sir Aathno; Brownr, Kni^ 
MaMar of onr Ham : Sir William Pafnt, our Chiaf 
Sorrvtarr; Sir AntboBj DronT; Sir William llrrhcrt; 
JuMkv M(xii«f[up, and Bnaufeyt Sir F^wanj Wutoa; 
Mr. Doctor Wotion, and Sir Edward North; wliom w« 
otdaine, nanw, and a|>puintr. and \tj ihne prcarnU, ngoad 
with our liand, doe make and ctmttiiutA our Prrrie Cu u nw ll 
with fMr «aid Hmne, and will that ittcir hare the govime. 
mvBt of our Moa d(«re Mmne I'nncc Fdoan), and of all 
our rraInK*. doninyona, and Hibjins and all the affairra 
publiquc and privMr, untill he ihdl have aoiMnplulicd iba 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 225 

1 8th ycare of his age. And for because the varietie, and A. D. 1546. 
number of things, affaires, and matters, are and may be '^ vill.*^ 
such as, we not knowing the certaintie of them before, can- 
not convenyentlie prescribe a certaine order or rule unto 
our said counsellors for theire behaviour and proceedings 
in this charge, which wee have now, and do appoint unto 
them, about our said sonne, during the time of his mi- 
norytie aforesaid ; we therefore, for the special trust and 
confidence which we have in them, will, and by these pre- 
sents doe give and grant full power and authorytie unto 
our said counsellors, that they all, or the more parte of 
them, being assembled in counsell together, or if any of 
them fortune to die, the more parte of them which shall be for 
the time living, being assembled in counsell togeather, shall 
and maie make, devise, and ordaine, what things soever 
theie, or the most parte of them, as aforesaid, shall, during 
the minorytie of our said sonne, thinke meete, necessarie or 
convenyent, for the benefit, honour, and suretie, or the 
weale, proffit, and comodite of our said sonne, his 
realmes, domynions, or subjects, or the discharge of our 
conscience, and the same things devised, made, or ordained 
by them, or the more parte of them as aforesaid, shall and 
maie lawfullie doe^ execute, and accomplishe, or cause to 
be done, executed, and accomplished, by their discretions, 
or the discretions of the more parte of them aforesaid, in as 
large and ample manner as if we had or did express unto 
them, by a more spetiall commissyon under our great scale 
of England, every particular cause that maie chaunce or 
occurre during the time of our Sonne's minoritie, and the 
self-same manner of proceeding which theie shall for the 
same time thinke meete to use and followe; willing and 
charging our said sonne, and all others which shall here- 
after be counsellors to our said sonne, that they never 
charge, molest, trouble, or disquiet our aforesaid coun- 
sellors, nor any of them, for the devising or doing, nor any 
other person for the doing of that theie shall devise, or the 
more parte of them devise or doe, assembled as is aforesaid. 
And we doe charge expreslie the same our entirelie be- 


am The CJkmnh Hittory 

A.0ii|4Llat«d oouiMcllor» waA eXMruttm, ttuu ihejr ihall ukc fl 
l^^llJI^ ibciR the rukc and (-h«rf{c uf our mkI mmiw wkI haira, t 
— ^^ all hi» ctiu*r« and affaires, ami of the whiilr raalmr. Aatofi ] 
nncriheln* all things ai umlrr him and in hb name, until 
twr Mid man! and tivirv Rhall Ik- balo«ed in marriaga bgr , 
their adviMT, and ihnl ibc i8th ycarr be rxptrvd; viHiag i 
and dctjrnng furtbrnnorc our aid tnutia ooumrilon, aad I 
tbto all uor trutlia ami awured wmnta, and thinUiK all 
iMbcr our kmng nifajacU, to aid and aMia our fjun iid ' 
CDunaaHon m tha cxacutiuD of the pranban during Uw | 
albtvMid line; not doubting but lliej will in all ihi 
dcate loe trulia and uiir^tljr ai tboc iball haw omm 
think ihcm vi-Il chuKO fcir tlic charga oaaiyiicd untii thfo, 
•trai^tlK charf^nft our nid oounwllots and cxccuton, and 
in GtKt'a nan»c «c mhiirt ihaia, that, far the vngnkr i 
■{wtlall coufTilcoce which »a hat« and aver bad of thi 
lu Imvv a due and dilij^t tjr, perftcte scale, lovc^ ■ 
afTerticm lu Um' huoour, ■urelie, calate, and dignitit^if 
■aid wonc, and the good cttatc and praaperilie of tT' 
nalm i and that, all dvlaics art aparta, tbcjr vtU ■ 
awjite our nud oMmcllan and executors to tbe | 
■nca of this our p«*arat tntamcnt and laal will in i 
parte, as they will answer bofurv God at tbe day of Ji 
nwM, turn vnurit Jmiiitmrt rirof rf morttMU. And I 
thennofv, tar the ipeciall iru«t and nmfjrdmcc i 
have in tha Earica of Anmdle and Kmcx thai now b% I 
Sir Thooiaa Cheny, Knight. Thmunr of our HotMefaoU | 1 
Sir John Gtigt, Kntgfat, ComptroUrr of our Ilouadwld t I 
Sir Anthony Wingfield, Knight, our Vic»Chamb>rbiaa ; I 
Sir William Peter, Kmgbt, one of our two . 
Scerrtanca ; Sir RicWd Rich, Knight ; Sir John 1 
Knight ; Sir Halpbe Sadkr. Knight ; Sir Thonaa £ 
Knight 1 Sir RidMnl Soiilbwdl, Sir Edmnd ] 
Knighu; they, and aearia of Umnb, riMll 
fur tbe aMlii^ and anaitiiig of the bmaa 
and our eMculurs, when theie or «ay of ibcm i 
called by our aid esemlota, or the Bort parte of I 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. StVI 

Item^ We bequeath to our daughters Mary and Eliza- A. D. 1546. 
beth'^s maryages, theie being marryed to any outward Po- ^ viiL^ 

tentate by the advise of our said counsellors (if we bestowe 

them not in our lifetime) 10,000/. in monnye, plate, Jewells, 
and household stufie, for each of them, or a larger sum, as 
to the discretion of our executors, or the more parte of 
them, shall be thought convenyent; willing them on my 
blessinge to be ordered, as well in marriage as in all other 
lawfull things, by the advise of our said counsellors ; and, 
in case they will not, then the som to be mynished at the 
counsellors discretion. 

Further, our will is, that from the first houer of our 
death untill such tyme as the said counsellors can provyde 
cyther of them or both some honourable marriages, theie 
shall have each of them 3000/. uUra reprisas to live on ; 
willing and charging the said counsellors to lymit and 
appointe to either of them such sage officers and mynisters 
for ordering thereof as it maie be imployed, both to our 
honour and theirs. And for the great love, obedyence, 
chastnes of life, and wisdome, being in our forenamed wife 
and queenc, we bequeath unto hir, for hir propper use, 
and as it shall please hir to order it, 3000/. in plate, 
Jewells, and stuff of household, besides such apparel! as it 
shall please her to take of such as she hath already : and 
further, we give unto her 1000/. in monnye, with the 
injoying of her dowrie and jointure, according to our 
grante by acte of parliament. Furthermore, for the kind- 
ness and good service that our said executors have shewed 
unto us, wc give and bequeath unto each of them such 
soms of monnye, or the value of the same, as hereafter 
ensueth : First, to the Archbishop of Canterbury 500 
markes; to the Lord Wryotheslie 500/.; to the Lord St. 
John 500/.; to the Lord Russell 500/.; to the Erie of 
Hertford 500/.; to the Viscount Lisle 500/.; to the Bishop 
of Duresmc 300/.; to Sir Anthony Browne 300/.; to Sir 
William Paget 300/.; to Sir Anthony Dennye 300/.; to 
Sir William Herbert 300/.; to Justice Mountague 300/.; 
to Justice Bromley 300/.; to Sir Edward North 300/.; to 


Tht Churrh Ihtlutx, 

A.&is»».Sir Eilward Wrtlon 300/-; in Mr \\KXar Wotlon 300I.: 
''viu'' "'*' '""•■ '*"■ M*^"" '"** ""^ f«»our Uwl we han- lo our 

tnwtle nnimvllors, and mhcr «»iir •rr*«DU WrwifttT follow* 

ing, «rc p«« and lic<|Uc«ih unlu ihcm mkIi kmbims of 
nomfj, or the value iht-raof. m h tottad uppon tbvir hcaiWt 
Pint, lo Uw Eric of K«wi loo/.i i» Sir ThooiM CIli My 
30o/.t la Um Lord Herbert jooL; to Sir Juhn Gmge aooL% 
to Sir ThonuH Seymour looi.; to John Gale* sooJLi w 
Sir Thoou Umcw, Knight, loo/.; to Hir Th^mu S|Mk* 
100 ■larii*! to Sir Phillip Hubbie loo markn: to Sir 
TboBMs Pwtoa 100 rorrkv* i lo Sir Mauritv Ildrklia lio 
mcrkM: to Sir Halpb Sadlrr 100/.; 10 Sir Thoaiu CtrAn 
aoo/.; to Sir Pvtn Mvwtu loo mrrinj tu Edwuil Brf> 
liofituun 300 nnica; to Thooiu Audlie 300 mrrlutt to 
Edmund Harmra 100 mcrkn; loJohn l*«ine looawrlH*; 
to llatry Nevill 100/.; to Wtlliun SyobartK loof.: lo 
RicJunl Cooke too/.; to John Otbumr ioo/.[ lo David 
Vioccot locJ-i t(i Jonm RuOirth, Kveper ti our Ilouw 
herv, 100 Bwrfcn ; to Richard Cicvll, VoiNan of nut Bi)1m% 
100 merlin; to Thuoua Sti!rah«ilfl, Grome of nur Hobo^ 
too iDvrkn; to Johit Rowland, Pagv d( oiir Robea, jo/.: 
lu ibc Erie of AroBdle, Lord Chambrriynr, aoc^.: m Sir 
ADibcmy WnffieU, Vice-ChuibeHyar, aoo/.; lo Sir Ed- 
mund Pfdiham aoo/.; to Sir Richard Rich loo/.; lo Sir 
John Ilakrr ]oo/. ; Ui Sir Richard SoulhwH) loo/, t to 
Mr. IX^tor Owen 100/. i to Mr IXoctor Wtndf loo/L; 
10 Mr. Doctur Crainrv loo/.; lo TbiMiia* Abnp 100 

merhm to Pauickr 100 mrrin; to — AjrWu too 

Mlcrlica; to timrjr E<w«sl 100 mrrin ; to Rirhan) Frrrm 
100 bnHv; III — HuIUmI 100 nwrkM: lo the (our 
OvotlMiMfi Uabm at our Chamber (being dm\y waitert) 
aooL m all. And »r will almv thai our ancutnrm, or iha 
■Don puw of tbcaa, ihall giv* ordcn tar ihv p a y m i nt of 
mtek lugaeym aa the; ihan thnhr mrvlr lo auch our mdi* 

trgan by thn our (xvaeni tg iame oi. Timaiiy, thi* |i 
wrjiliiiy IB paper wr onlainr and maka ow laH viD and 
la rf a me at ; and will ihr mam be wf u laJ and tafcan to all 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 229 

intents and purposes for our good, strong, available, most a. D. 1546. 
pcrfecte and last will and testament; and doe declare all ^^Jlf^ 

other wills and testaments made at any time by us to be 

voide and of none effect. 

In witness whereof we have signed it with our hand, in 
our [)alace of Westminster, the 30th deac of December, in 
the yeare of our Lord God 1546, after the computation of 
the Church of England, and of our raigne the 38th yeare, 
being present, and called to be witnesses, the persons which 
have wrytten their names hereunder. 


John Gate. William Saintbabbe. Robert Hewicke. 

William Clerke. 

Richard Cooke Patrick. Edward Harman. 

George Owen. 
Henry Nevill. David Vincent. Thomas Wendy, 

51. This the king's will was drawn up some two when thia 
years since, before he went to Boulogne, as is inti-^adT"* 
mated in a passage, " Be it beyond the sea," &c., 
which now was only fairly written over again, with- 
out any alteration, save that Stephen Gardiner was 
expunged from being one of his executors*. It 
seems, that formerly, finding none substituted in 
Gardiner's room, he appointed seventeen executors, 
that so a decisive vote might avoid equality of voices. 
And although, in this will, provision is made for 
" multitude of masses to be said for his soul," yet 
one^ pretending to extraordinary intelligence herein, 
would persuade us, that king Henry intended in his 

a [Burnet's Reformat. I. p. ditary Right, &c. App. VIII.] 
349. ed. fol. See also the copy ^ Fox, in his Acts and Mo- 
of this will in Bedford's Here- numents, II. p. 647. 

Q 3 

2M0 Tht Cfmrth Uutvry 

A.a ifAbltcr dsjni in thornugfa a reformation. a« Dott 
VIII. left ooe nuMi in the land, if ik-oth hiut not p 

rg«^ ffS. Amongit hii MrranU in onlinanr altfttdnnce, 
tail. to whom l^ianea wvro be()UCAlhcd. Iticban) CvciL 
tlKTt' named " yeoman of the robe*," ms tbc btber 
to Wiltiniii (V-ril. uftiTworda baroa of Buiffalvjr, and 
loni tn-ajiurer of Kofflaad. Tbomai St«nibi4d. 
** gTuoni of the rubes." and aftermnlf of the bed- 
chamber (« kiiiff K*)wanl VI.*, wac one of them who 
tnutslated tbe I'tnlnu into Knf^lah metre, being tlusB 
■cooontcd an exrellont jtoet ; though he who wars 
bajn in tbote dart descrretb not itt in our age. 
Now. Mwing by the ruli** of jtutice, and the king^i 
own appointment, hi* debu were to be paid befim 
bis IcftsricM ; and aetnng many of bin pcnotial dtdita 
remained uuaitiafied till the days of queen RItiabKllt 
probably moat of thne l^;aeieii were nerer paid, 
«q>oeially to inTerior penons: ai if it were hoDoor 
enougli for thtnu to have nc4i pum liequcatbod unto 
though tterer beatowed npoa them. 
Mm u mbii 53. Whereafi nunition in thi« will of "a mooumont 
■haUivbj*' well imwanU am) almnrt nuwle." it if the mmo 
iHniT^ wbirh ninliiml WoW-y bnilt for king llenrr, and 
not for liim*cir. ta \» rommonir nfMirted. Wbiiw- 
fore, whetvan tberv gneth a talc, that king llmjy, 
one day finding the canliuU with the workmen 
making hii moatmwat. dwHild ny nnto him. "Tumble 
~ youncir in thii tomb whibtt ytm an> alire; for. 
** when dead, you ahall never lie tborein ;~ it n a 
merv Brtion. tlie rmnlinal originally intending tbe 
«inv for the king, a* ap|imieth bjr tbe ancient in- 

■ Ab intiaw nbifalo " Bdbvh CiM. p. ji%. 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 281 

scription thereupon^ wherein king Henry wa8A-^»546. 
styled "lord'' (not king) "of Ireland," without addi- ^ viS^ 
tion of "supreme head of the church," plainly 
shewing the same was of ancient date in the days of 
the cardinal. 

54. Whereas the lady Mary and Elizabeth, their why hit 
marriages are so severely conditioned, that, if made at liberty 
without consent of the council, they were to forfeit Jjjj^^ 
their right to the crown ; men interpret it as pro- 
vided in terrorem^ and not otherwise. Yet this 
clause was it which afterwards put so plausible a 
pretence on Wyat his rebellion ; which, though made 

of rotten cloth, had notwithstanding a good colour 
thereon. Now, whereas the king^s neices (the 
daughters to Mary his younger sister) were not 
clogged in this his will with such restrictions con- 
cerning their marriages, the plain reason was, 
because both of them were already married before 
this will was made: Frances, the elder, to Henry 
Gray, marquess Dorset, afterward duke of Suffolk ; 
and Eleanor, the younger, to Henry Clifford, earl of 

55. The portion of but ten thousand pounds Ten dm- 
apiece left to his two daughters, was not much the porcioii 
unproportionable to the value of money, as it went Jji,''^ 
in that age, though a sum small for such an use in 

our days. And I have heard, that queen Elizabeth, 
being informed that Dr. Pilkington, bishop of 
Durham, had given ten thousand pounds in marriage 
with his daughter ; and, being offended that a pre- 
late's daughter should equal a princess in portion, 
took away one thousand pounds a year from that 

d Godwin, in Henry VIII. p. aoo. [^155. ed. 1653.] 



The Chunk HiiUin/ 

■ bMrnprir. uw] nuripn^tl it fnr the Ix>ttcr munta 
of the ffnmMm tif B<-rwirk. 

56. V'cnr nim-h of hi« uwii arliitmrinvw ^PP*^ 
^ thb will of kitiff llvnnr. (•titsilinj* the rntwn kcm 

to his ovrit fanrj, ngniiut all rifflit aiit) n-owm. 
firrt, hiiw unjiut «ba it. tlut hii fpm«h> iame i 
quivii K>thariii«.* Pnrr, hi§ Uwt wife, (luul be 
nnj,) nhmilcl itihi-rit thi< (-n>wti ttcfnn* Marr luid I 
nhi'lh. h» olilont finiijrhtoni hj bis fnnnor witm! 
Mnrj oinl ElJzalifth wi-n> n»t his Inv-ful cliiMn 
how canit' tlivy by uiy rijiffat tu the <Townf If I 
Inwltil rhildtvii. why wns thi*ir birthriffbt mod t 
niority not obMTYiHl in rocct^sinn f Wrll it wu I 
them thai Hi'tinr HtxMy, hi« natnnl noii, (but i 
of supemattirnl auil vxtmonlinafr friilownienti^) i 
dnul: olhrrwiw* (aotnt' misfHTt) hod he nirvjvod li 
VA^nxA th«> Sixth, wi* mif;lit pmsoitly havo I 
of a Iciiiff llmry Uh' Niiittt. so jpemt ww bla I 
■AKtion, and to unlimited bis power to 

57. Hut thv Knnd injunr in this his i 
Is, that ht* (juito j«sM*th uTtT the childnii of ] 
purt. his ddcst sisUT, raarricHl into HootUnd, i 
all ber insuc. tkot so much as making the loHl I 
tioG tbemit 

M. GmU indeed, wbiti tbto will waa int i 
waa thf antipathy wtiirh. for U»e pieai 
Um against thi> Scotrh, with wbon Ukeo Iw i 
aetoal war; tfaitufih at other times, whiA in | 
humour, vrry ruuruwus to Us kindrvd of that rx- 
tracti'Hi. Kor, most snru it ii^ that when ftlai^orvt 
Duagtas, bis •btcr's dangfater, vaa married to Mau 
tbew, carl of Leuiux, fav publicly prolvaaed, that. ** in 
** eaao Us own iamo blkd, h« thcmM be tight gla 

CENT. XVI. of Britain. 23S 

" some of her body should succeed to the crown f as a.d. 1546. 
it came to pass®. ^ viiil7 

59. Of the eleven witnesses, whose names are sub- Legacees 
scribed to his will, the nine first are also legatees J^7i^nSb! 
therein, and, therefore, (because reputed parties,) not 
sufficient witnesses, had it been the will of a private 
person. But the testaments of princes move in a 
higher sphere than to take notice of such punctilios ; 

and, foreigners being unfit to be admitted to such 
privacies, domestical servants were preferred, as the 
properest wtnesses, to attest an instrument of their 
lord and master. 

60. It is but just with God, that he who had tooLitdeofhis 
much of his will done, when living, should have the J^roS^' 
less, when dead, of his testament performed. The 
ensuing reformation swept away the masses and 
chantry-priests founded to pray for his soul. The 
tombs of Henry the Sixth and Edward the Fourth 

(the one the last of Lancaster, the other the first 
of York, the titles of both which houses met in 
this Henry,) remain at this day in statu quo priuSj 
without any amendment. Where, by the way, seeing 
in this will king Henry the Sixth is styled his uncle, 
I cannot make out the relation in the common sense 
of the word, except any will say, that kings' uncles 
(as their cousins) are oft taken in a large and favour- 
able accoption. But the main wherein his will missed 
the intent is, in that the Scotch line, neglected and 
omitted by him, (ordinary heirs are made in heaven, 
heirs to crowns in the heaven of heavens,) came in 
their due time to the throne, their undoubted right 
thereunto recognized by act of parliament. 

c Henry lord Darnley. her sod, fiather to king James. 

S34 anU CAmnA Hklmy smn v. 

A.D. •}«« 61. AA«r t2w nuking of this hii will, he mnived 

viii.'^ % fall uoitth, falling ininuHliatt'lj nick, lie had 

aii«tMMa,M»fiMeorpM, ■ body and half, very abdominoai 

'^t^^ *^ unwieldy with hi ; and it wai d««th to him Ui 

^ *"*^ be dieted, lo great hia appetite ; and death to him 

not to be dieted, ao great bis rorpuk'uej. But now 

all hifl hnmonn repaired to one ptarp, and tettleil 

tbumwlrea in an old lore b bis tbifi;b. whiob quit^klj 

grew to be greatly inilanicd. Here flame met with 

firu, the anguish of Xhe ware with an hot and la»- 

patient temper ; *o that, during hb aiekDeM. few of 

hb aemnta dunrt app roorh bta preienoe. Hi* fkf- 

rfaiaii% giving him oTer, de«n>«l some, who tondcmd 

the good of bis scml, to admonish him of bla iwtete. 

Bat mcb, wfao could fly with good tidinga, wodU 

not halt te him with ill news. Besidea, kldy a Inr 

wia made^ that none should i^eak any thli^ of Cte 

Ung't death. Which act, thoogb only intenM to 

rvtraoeh the pfodicUons and mode pfoplwdaa of 

■oothsayen^ yeC now all the ooortien. glail of M 

legal a oorert for their oowanUoe. alleged it. to 

ciruw thenuplve* to inform the king of his a{>- 

proaching end. At but nr Anthony Denny went 

boldly unto him, and plainly iir(|aaint«d bim of hia 

dying omdition : whi-n.-u}K)n orebbisbop CraDMar 

was, by tbt> king his ck'sin', snit for, Xo give bim tonw 

gfaosUy oounsel and comfort. 

P''fcf*. 6S. Bnt befbro Cnuuner, then being at Croydoai. 

br i f-rf>. could eome to bim. be was altogetlMr speechlcM^ 

*"' ' but BDt i w ctoi The uefaWihop cutfaoctt>d him te 

pfawe all hia traat In God*s nwretca thorough Chriat. 

and bcsougbt him. that, if bo oouM not in words, be 

Would by H>nH> wgii or othft t«'»tifT thi» bta hope; 

who then wringvd tbu arrbbl«liop'N band as bard as 

fKKT, XVI. tif Britain. 9SS 

he could, and shortly after expired, having livedA.D.is46- 

l8 Henry 

fifty five years and seven months, and thereof viii. 
reigned thirty seven years, nine months, and six Jan. 18. 

63. As for the report of Sanders, that king Henry, i.ying 
perceiving the pangs of approaching death, called for 

a great bowl of white wine, and, drinking it ofl^ 
should say to the company, " We have lost all ;" — it 
ia enough to say, It is a report of Sanders. As loud 
a lie is it what he afBnneth, that the last words 
heard from his mouth were, " The monks ! the 
" monks!" and so gave up the ghost. This may go 
hand in hand with what another catholic^ relates, — 
that a black dog (he might as truly have said a blue 
one) licked up his blood, whilst the stench of his 
corpse could be charmed with no embalming; 
though, indeed, there was no other noisomeness than 
what necessarily attendeth on any dead body of 
equal corpulency. 

64. Vices most commonly charged on his memory iiii vum 
are : nrst, covetottsness. Me was an emment mstance 

to verily the observation, omnis prodigm est avarus ; 
vast his profusiveness, (coming a fork after a rake,) 
not only spending the great treasure left him by his 
father, but also vast wealth beside, and yet ever in 
want, and rapacious to supply the same. Secondly, 
cruelty ; being scarce ever observed to pardon any 
noble person whom he condemned to death. I find 
but two black swans in all the current of his reign 
that tasted of his fevour herein. And, therefore, 
when Arthur lord Lisle, imprisoned, and daily ex- 
pecting death in the Tower, was unexpectedly set 

f Kiclmra Hall in his MS. Life of bishop Fisher. 

S30 Thr (kurrA JlUtary 

A,tt.tf4/^fnt>, Lf ifutaiitiT' died of Ridden y>v'; m> UmI I 
'viii^ M-enifl kiiiff IU*i»7*i pity proved iw mortal u him 
crui'ltj-. Thinik, tponiommat ; wfaioh cmiinot bo tnt- 
cnoLtl. Hut tbuw fbullB wcru (if Dot awr) enn 
pouoi) with bii virttius, of t-alour, bouatr, ^ 
leftmii^ Mid love ur IttinuMl mvn, Mnrco otte d^ 
wouiog A mltrc all hia davii. 
WI7 u« 65. "Hic monument mcntinoutl In bU 
11.WW1 ** almoftt audit," tnu nercr all immIu, but lofl i 
jm.'*' fret; whori-fif many rrawmii am nntdervd. 
imputv it to the very waat of workmon, t 
finUIi it, arcordiug to Uw axartoeM where w it h it 
WA8 bfpin : a conoeit, in my mind. littlo bettor tham 
fcaitdalum tecmti, and very domjnitory tn the art and 
inj;i-nuitT of onr tge. Otb«rs more tnily aarribe it to 
iba cuatlilMM tbcrooC wliicti dcterrud b» l uu c— o w 
ftwaSIlMlhvofH^ Indeed, kbtg Henry the Seva^ 
b ereethift hli own monimient in hie chtpol at 
Wc«tmin»t4?r, did ihertin Ht a pattern of d(«)Wr for 
all p(Mtoritv to imitate. And y«t Sander* tells its'. 
that 4|uc<en Mary had a great mind to make ap hi* 
tofuK but duntt Dot, for fear a ratholir ■Sould wem 
to rouutetianoc the memory of odo drinj; in ojivn 
■ebfann with the rhurrb of Itomt>. A» for hts im|ier> 
feet moDument, it wait Iiehehl like the Imutbu fl^ 
tlve, bvarin^ no fruit, and runibering the j 
(I m«an the chapel wbt^rvin It Mood;) and t 
it wan, nnce the?*' civil wan, took down 1 
by «drr of |4irltameat. 
^m4m 66. In the rvign of qneen Mary it wmn n?|K>rtvd. 
pm». that canlinal Pole (whim ipleeo generally vi-ntvd 

■ 0«dwi« ii HMfy Vtll., 

fclfcii. p. 1131 = 154.] 

> D» HdtiM 


of Britain. 


itself against dead men's bodies) had a design, with a. d. 1546. 
the principal clergy of England, to take up and bum ^ viil^ 
the body of king Henry the Eighth. This plot is said 
to be discovered by Dr. Weston, dean of Westminster''. 
But because Weston was justly obnoxious for his 
scandalous living, (for which at that time he stood 
committed to the Tower,) and bare a personal 
grudge to the cardinal, his report was the less 
credited, as proceeding from revenge and desire to 
procure his own enlargement. 

67. Indeed, when a vault, seven years since, was The bonM 
pierced in the midst of the quire at Windsor, therein Hen^ 
to inter the corpse of king Charles, they lighted on*****^* 
two coffins therein. Now (though no memory alive 
could reach the same, yet) constant tradition, 
seconded Mith a coincidency of all signs and circimi- 
stances^ concluded these coffins to contain the bones 
of king Henry VIII., and his dear queen Jane Sey- 
mour. And yet the bigness of the coffin (though 
very great) did not altogether answer that giant-like 
proj)ortion which posterity hath fancied of him". 

^ Fox's Acts and Monu- 
ments, p. 2102. 

' See more hereof at the 
burial of king Charles I., [in 
the hitter pages of this His- 

" [The opinion which is ge- 
nerally entertained of the un- 
wieldly size and corpulency of 

this king, and to which Fuller 
has before referred, is directly 
contradicted by Grafton, a very 
credible and respectable au- 
thority. According to this 
writer, the king was of per- 
sonage '* tall and mighty, not 
" gross, but in a comely pro- 
" portion." p. 1282.] 













■AVING formerly proved at large'', 
that it is lawful for any, and expedient 
for me, to have infant patrons for my 
books, let me give an account why 
tliis parcel of my history was set apart for your 
honour, not being cast by chance, but led by choice 
to this my dedication. 

=> [\\')lliaiti Jameii, heir to more noble or loyal family 

Jiini^s, third earl of North- could not have been selected 

iinipton, and onlv son by hU to whom our author could have 

lirst iiifc, Isiilietla, daughter paid a more deserved compli- 

and coheir of Richard Sack. ment. The young lord's grand- 

\i\\e, earl uf Dorset. This in- father, Spencer, was an especial 

fiint patron of Fuller died favourite and a constant com- 

vuung, at what nge I have not panioD to king Charles, both 

lit-en able to ascertain, but pro- before and after his accession 

bubly ijuite in his infancv. A to the crown. " Two things," 



Pint, 1 rosolvod with mjHelf to Mloet i 
l«troa for this my Iluftonr uf AbbeT*, vliaie i 

^1 UayA, •• be WDuU 1mt« of Um j^tmat, tmd w klBa^ 

~" ||ladawhli;i.i:liuNik< hlii tfca hamit wf tW M^y 

Ua lUrvcl •■• refmcd all qaaflct, ^rfal^ 

"cMtar, b«iiH| not oolj cUcf " He would nol owe Ui KfrM 

"MitlaBW of Ui« Hcary '• Uum wtwksd forMuith* 

••VIII.-* bea-ckuBbvr.bat Uw ■ <rwti.' (Sm Lknrd't Mcm. 

'• iKini nuui b lui bvoor. hail 155, ud ■ aobb A i w rtw aff 

• not a ilK«-btd»M of Mmy U* lw lard C 

" laiid,(MlkanwwMiMliiaU boo. 111. p. 459.) JumwIW 

" Ui mdMt MtHml ««ato,) cUnt of tlw Ibu •«■, (An* 

" thaacb," wnh nj antiwr. of wbcM wen thu dav cIm^ 

. Mra ing b tW laU witfc Mr C 

1. Id. tWr,) aaeaaaJing to Ua ttal» 

•* aloMina. &e. H* cmild not and go—wad, aaal a iTWwpaf 

** andnra jaatii^ wftfc rali^ao, in tlw nbab la dan* Ika 4mI 

" Uim baing ao paopla, of bodjr of Ua (adiar. a ta^Mal 

** wharaligiaawanr.MlMd wfcM ibn rafoaad ; m ««•• 

"Mrioaa and gnmt Uwo^ita dat, brnMUun tana tba laat 

•• of Uuir Namra ; aur an Mian bto fUl. H« aha 

*■ oatli, oa aajr aienit jodidal a%aa&ad UaMclf bf kk fetm. 

" and Kibonn o w afaaa, often twrj in dcfaooa of tfca raval 

** lyrii^ tku of prlaM eatiw, wtpttUij bi ilw raoaf 

" llaar^r. ' tfcat be kttmw an of Banbuiy caalla, wWn W 

" |a<Be or *ala«, to b* woa or bad loft bJa bravo bnilMr. tit 

"loBi.tbaiwaawartliaaaatb."' WJliaai Coaapia*. h Ua llf«< 

TUa eucUeal aoUoana. after taaaal. A eoUbr whaaa afaly 

m^tmhoMj wm Mafaablid. aad wlaw 

ad oifacUlV bravm ma aMal to bit ola^. 

ibadTUwar, Ha difaiidail Am ^da a^hiat 

■kad or da. «U tbe iioww wbieb iba aaa^ 

par- oaald briaf agalael hiai. aa- 

1 Mat podag Ua aartaa irbif 

Ma UloM Iba Wd of battle danger «ia tbo ymitM. mA 

ta tba Moiaenc aad tat* «f — -'-'-'-'-g tbe brtocb wbaa 

rietoryi whba bodyof 1100 aU WI aravad Uol "Aafaaa 
"of aarriaaf ear* 1Jot< 
gthal Jr WaObm 

Md MlUallr. aad eefwcUlr 
brhkeaadaeibilbad ' 
b arbUi ba nbiairad 

tm aind dngaaaa 
I wmmnj oa Betb 

wba M«« ibas triplad Ua « 

b«a. A boMr vkMT. b«l " bad. •« gtwi Ua rfgj 

dartr piiiiliaiail. by tU Bfc » aar lor a waafc af tba 

of tU* gallaat omb, wba^ " ■• aawaariad Ua diSL., 

cbaigbg atlbabaadofU* -Ibalbahad vn^J^l 

trmna. waa tbraan fton Ua •■ tinea aewr 4n. die hII 

ban atb III iiaaiB -a " * ^^ 



cestor was not only of credit and repute in the 
reign, but also of favour and esteem in the affection 
of king Henry the Eighth. 

Secondly, he should be such (if possible to be 
found) who had no partage at all in abbey lands at 
their dissolution, that so his judgment might be 
unbiassed in the reading hereof. 

Both my requisites have happily met in your 
honour, whose direct ancestor, sir William Compton, 
was not only chief gentleman of the bed-chamber to 
the aforesaid king, but also (as a noble pen*^ writing 
his life informeth us) the third man in his favour in 
the beginning of his reign ; yet had he not a shoe- 

** so eminent his piety ; that 
'* he acted all things by com- 
" mon council and consent, 
'^ such his wariness and pru- 
*' dence." (Memoirs, p. 355.) An 
undaunted loyalist and a good 
churchman, honoured by the 
pitiful spite of Cromwell, who 
nicknamed him '* the sober 
'* young man, and the godly 
** cavalier/' When sir Wil- 
liam could no longer serve the 
father he transferred his alle- 
giance to the son, being a main 
instrument in the restoration 
which happily he lived to see 
accomplished, dying in 1663. 
Equal to their brother in loy- 
alty were sir Charles and Spen- 
cer Compton, the former sur- 
prising Breston castle with only 
six men, the other serving his 
king and his country with an un- 
blemished character ; of whom 
it was said^ "nemo unquam vel 

" mussitavit male." Last of all 
was Dr. Henry Compton, the 
munificent bishop of London, 
under whom St. Paul's cathe- 
dral was begun and finished. 
Never in any family was the 
adage more truly fulfilled, 
*' fortis creantur fortibus et 
" bonis :" — grandfather and 
father and sons, all preeminent 
in loyalty, all unblemished in 
reputation. As in their veins 
ran the blood of the greatest 
nobility in England, so they 
equalled the nobleness of their 
blood by the nobleness of their 
behaviour. And though their 
extraction was high, reaching 
even to the very highest, yet 
was it the lowest quality about 

^ In several dedicatory epi- 
stles in my Pisgah Sight. 

<^ The lord Herbert in his 
history of Henry VIII., p. 8. 

R 2 


btcbet of abbey laiKl. tli( 
bunxl bitii nve bin nwii 



D^ noUiinir 
ftb«tim'itct' ; a 
paternal i-nlaW, fu 



DM what sinoo bj acrcaiina (if matcbm hatli 
Ulilo it. 

Thwi aro toq tbo pcmto doaigiMi) for my | 
ami I Wliovi- Tory fi-w (if ant) in KtifilaiMl c 
thvir batiiln in the aame baain. to liavo no Mmw 
land* Btickinx to their finf^ets ; and tliiu Itoing fivraC 
fnim bfinj; a inirtj, in duo time jron will bo flttci* la 
U' 8 jud)rr>. to )«.iH un)«rtial aenteooe on what i$ 
wri(t«*u oci thin Kubjt'Ct. 

And mtw let me make ynnr lonl«hi|) nniU' a litlltv 
an)uainliu]t you witb a paooge in thi- li-gi'nd uf 
Nlrhola* a |>opiiih BBint : the; re|iort of liim'. thai 
wlicn an infant banpinfr on hi* inotbiT*« Imast, 
lie fiwtt^M \\''ediitiNlaf-s and Fri<)ay». and could mrt Wt 
»TgtyA to nirk morr than nnco a day'. 

But, fpii»\ my loni. In.- not t*i ceifmoniwiu. ur 
ratlii-r MijicniiitJout, to imitate bii> eianjple : wraa 
hot younx'lf until ym Iw wfnntil, and Irt all dan be 
allkt> tn your honour. I dan- aMiin- you, no tiArk 
of MUK-tily the 1*>M for a drop of milk tbc more. 
A ffno<l nwr ii no hindemnre to n prvrkraa Jcwri, 
and a healthful boity no aljaMimioit t» a boly MmL 

And when your turd«lup ahall arrive at riper 

* Ub. pMdnL IB life 8. Cmmmi. ■ pvwa «f gm 
NkM-M. S5. alMiaMMi aUiw Uai -tU 

• [IiM BMlfei lU «M -Hl.Nkhgla>arawdM«k.- 

^»ifel*th»nrfe.«irWilBH» Wn lri.|fc3S4-T 


years, consult your own extraction, as the best 
remembrancer of worthy behaviour. In whose veins 
there is the confluence of so many rivulets, that 
a mean herald, by the guidance thereof upwards, 
may be led to the fountains of the most of the 
English nobility ^ 

All I will add is this, as you give three helmets 
for your arms, may you be careful to take the 
fourth, even the helmet of salvation^; an helmet 
which here is worn close, whilst soldiers in the 
church militant we see but in part^ but hereafter 
shall be borne (like the helmet of princes) with the 
beaver open in the church triumphant, whe7i we 
shall see as we are seen. The desire of, 

Your honour's most engaged beadsman, 


f [See the pedigree of this ton8hire,I.p.344. ed.Whalley.] 
rainily in Bridge's Northamp- ^ Eph. vi. 17. 

K :> 

9W Thr Hutwrjf i^dUteyi 

tintt orij^nal of inonk<i in tho world, to calM In^T 
fto*^tr, liorauM- lirinji aliiiiL' ItT tbvnui.'lvt'i. 
TMriHHu 2. llc-rt* tlifv in ttu' •k-M'tlii Iio|nm1 to find mrks 
^m1>i> mid Ktftrks, Tt'tt. bra^tn llu>mM>lv(*» inorv kJiiil thui 
"'''^'"■' men luul \tci;n lo them : wluit would hide and h*«l, 
rover atid keep wuin, mttpiI tliutn fur ck>4bt«. Dot 
placiug(ii<t Uieir «iicn«w>r» in nft^T-Agt'*) uiv ludtDnw 
in llieir linlHt, foldwl u|) in Ibr affeirUtl 
tbcnxif. vVa Utt tlit>tr fuu<l, the praM wu 
rluth, tbc gniund tht-ir tabic, herb* and i 
dift, wild (hiiu and bcrriua t)u*ir daintiw. bm 
thoir Mun>, fbvir nailn tbinr kniToi, tbeir bniidv tlu^ir 
cupa, ihf HL'Xt well tbfir wine ctdbir; but what 
Ibuir bill of faiv wai)t4-d ill cli»vr it lud in gnre ; 
th4>ir lif<> bcin;^' routtautly Mjifnt in prnTer. n-wlfnjt. 
muMnjr. and Rurh liki- pii>i» tinploymwiU. Tbt-y 
luntod wilitarinuM itM'lf iut^ Micivty, and rl««fiii^ 
tbciiwelvct asunder by tbc divine art of nioiilatloii, 
did tnakc of ont\ two, or mntv, opjHMin^, anHwcriuy, 
modrratinfi in thirir own bo»onim and Ihi^v in ibrni- 
M-dvM with Tarifly of bvnn-nlr rwri-alitm". Il 
would do imc pfxHl, oven but to tbink of tbdr jpywi- 
ntiH, and at tin' ndxiund atMl M.<ennd band to nicdl- 
tati' on tb4>ir nMHlitation*. Kur if t*vt-r {Mivrnr wa« 
1*1 bi< ••nvit'd, it wa* Imtiv AikI I B{>|N>al to the 
iiiuilentt' mc-n of Ihwn* timv% wbrlbfr in (he hcij^t 
oftlk-w wuftil wari iIh-v liavi' mft xoim-tinHii wtabed 
(not out of |iaMtoiiBli- diHlvmiN-r. but wrioua rvroU 
let-tiou of tbemwiTrk) Mime melt private plan* tv 
rvtim unto, wberr, out pf tbo noist* of tbin rbunonHtu 
World, iber mijiiil Imvu ri'iNMed tbenmdii'a, ami 
KiTeil (mmI with tm>re ()»!«•(. 

3. TIm**!' niouk* wfn^ nf two Mtrti^ eilber Mirh 
^■ft IIimI fmm actual, or from imtnfnunt p<*rw«>ii- 

ROOK VI. in England. 249 

tion*. For when a danger is not created by auty, orobe- 
timorous fancy, but rationally represented as pro- '^"^' 
bable, in such a case the principles of prudence, not 
out of cowardice, but caution, warrant men to pro- 
vide for their safety. Neither of these bound them- 
selves with a wilful vow to observe poverty, but 
poverty rather vowed to observe them, waiting con- 
stantly upon them. Neither did they vow chastity, 
though keeping it better than such as vowed it in 
after-ages. As for the vow of obedience, it was 
both needless and impossible in their condition, 
having none beneath or above them, living alone, 
and their whole convent, as one may say, consisting 
of a single person ; and as they entered on this 
course of life rather by impulsion than election, so 
when peace was restored they returned to their 
former homes in cities and towns, resuming their 
callings, which they had not left off, but for a time 
laid aside. The first British monks that we meet 
M ith in this kind were immediately after the mar- 
tyrdom of St. Alban ; for then, saith Gildas, Qui 
supcrfuermit sylvis ac desertiSj abditisque speluncis se 
occnltnvcrunt^ ; " such as survived hid themselves in 
'' woods and deserts, and secret dens of the earth." 
As long after on the like occasion, when the pagan 
Saxons and Danes invaded this island, many religious 
persons retired themselves to solitary lives. 


After these succeeded a second sort of monks silver 

niotik& 8UC- 

a Soe Polyilore Virgil tie ca] vi. annutat. 332. 
Iiivonlione reniin, [vii. i.]uiid *» [Ilistoria Gildae, ch. viii.] 
Sixtus SeiK'iisis, [in Bibliothe- 

T^'^ Itating ■ •olitarr life, wbun no raible need tanmi 

<iiiii mi ii Uhso Uieminto, u noidier feeling nor fearing nqr 

qtporent penmmtion ; yet ttuno eomnderuig tlie iA> 

eooMtanrj of human nmtten, that thoofh tbej hmi 

imMporitj for the prevent, it might dooo he chm^ii. 

into a contrarr cmdition, if cither the i 

doaTonrs of th<> de%i[ took rfli*ct. or niiifnl ( 

were rcwnnleil aconliii;; tn their desertit I 

cboae a lone liff, also prompted perrhancc tberaorio 

hf their own mrlanrholy disposiition. 

fiMAid S. Aftcrwnnlii it waa rmmtcd oonTCoieat, that 

tbriM^to wath who bitlHTtn dwelt dewikte in ifatirti. «aU 

{^0 tered aminder, olmtild ho gmtbend tofteCber to Uv* 

J*?""*" undi*r one nxif, limiiwe thHr ctmipany would be 

ohi'orful in livalth, and noiniful in HokneM, one to 

anotliiT. lleniM* thciiv two wnnln, thuii^i cuntm; 

to wmiid. Rfniify the Mine: A/omulrniim^, a plac« 

oontaininjr men lirin^ nion^ ; {VmnAi'mi, u ji\mns 

containing men liTing m eommom, For (h<ni|rti 

tbejr wwB Mqueatemd Atm the rett of the world, 

yat tbej •ifjojred mntnal aoeietjr amongRt thw^ 

mhrca. Awl again, though at aolesnn timea tihay 

tbuM wlw tini m Militafy life. 

• [TW «<vd MaMffcii b tb* CoJn lUgwWaM, an. i . wL. 
" ■' .661. 

IV ttrm tlKn6m «feU 

tvlnun, Hch m tW trawltf, mwttr. wko HvW aloM la lb 

vMllotlMWvhalivp4iacMB< iiili 1 ii . 11 I H ^ ^ M . 

tkal k. UriMF uA«r iW —a 
' bat mat OHoc bi «in^^^l 

lW» «M K tkM dM, mIW did.ilwf 

■iMiT nf imi IV lltfTv wbi la- «r avnikr. ami dnfcB. lijiwhil 

UbM t«N>M.MMl tin4 uddrt tir «>calar } 
tm [Mftimlar nilr llnlstriN, 

BOOK vj. in England, 251 

joined in their public devotions and refections, 
yet no doubt they observed hours by them- 
selves in their private orisons : of these, some 
were gardeners like Adam, husbandmen like Noah, 
caught fish with Peter, made tents with Paul, as 
every man was either advised by his inclhiation, or 
directed by his dexterity, and no calling was counted 
base that was found beneficial. Much were they 
delighted with making of hives, as the emblem of a 
convent for order and industry, wherein the bees, 
under a master their abbot, have several cells, and 
live and labour in a regular discipline. In a word, 
they had hard hands and tender hearts, sustaining 
themselves by their labour, and relieving others 
by their charity, as formerly hath been observed in 
the monks of Bangor. 

3. Take a taste of their austerity who lived atThediid- 
Vall Rosine, since called Menevia in Pembroke- ^*,^- 
shiro, under the method of S. David ^. They wereH"^ .^ 
raised with the crowing of the cock from their beds, 
and then betook themselves to their prayers, and 
spent the rest of the day in their several callings ; 
when their task was done they again bestowed them- 
selves in prayers, meditations, reading and writing : 
and at night, when the heavens were full of stars, 
they first began to feed, having their temperate 
repast to satisfy hunger on bread, water, and herbs. 
Then the third time they went to their prayers, and 
so to bed, till the circulation of their daily employ- 
ment returned in the morning. A spectacle of 
virtue and continence, who, although they received 

^ Hiirpsfiekl, Hist. Eccl. Angl. p. 40. 

tai Tkei 

nothing, or anv thitif( n<rT anwHIhi^ of othen, y«C 
wvrt* Mt for froin irniittiij; rKTvtnarir*, that lir their 
paiiiK thp^ |iniviil(il <iiiiiti>n&nrt* for imtiiT |>onr ptvplts 
tirphans wiilnwn, uiil Htran^fi-pt. 
?•"«■ 4. IIiTf, as Wf ratiiiot iMit hijrlily <^>mn)i>nct tli«> 
■woiKw jnti'prity of llifir iM-art* bfrcin. so wr niuirt wltlwl 
HI. ^iK'ninon, (hat what in tli<.*ni wiu iiiti-ntiniiaJIv f(nad 
|ipiv4^kI ocH-Bfi'Muillv *^>vil, hatching *>u)>ervtitiuii tinilrr 
the wannth of thoir d«T(»tiori. For (hoiijrh cvm 
tbi**!- a« TL't won* free from human ontinaiK-ift ami 
ruwN, y(>t will-wnr*hi|t rn>pt in in>cnnbh< in thi' DrXt 
apt', (tartw an- i-ailtT «i*ii jrrown thiiii (rro*i»p.t anil 
trmr and vidoiwnc** mmc in hy (Ii-yn-*^ TTie 
monk* oftennu^lit havinfc mifllrfeorr luna'tl laiy, 
tli(>n ^>ttin|> wmlth waxrtl wuntiin. an<l at last. 
t'lhlnwvil with mi)M-riluitT. lK-«-aDU> notorioit-lr wickml. 
as hvrcmfttY aball afi[M!ar. Tliu\ an I'linv n-jxirlrlh 
of the ga^o stone, that M^i a-fire it bunk'th more 
fiiTn^ljr if watt-r tic caat on, hut y ('Xlin^iahn) if oil 
tiu pourif) thrreupon, m> Ibu n-al of monnMie mm 
WW itiflan»<d the inon; with tht- hitter water of 

■flBcCloo, wiiilft in profttwritr tt il '>f ]»lcntT 

flDmdMMl their pteCjr. Hn ill a Mt'wanI io hiiiiiaii 
cnrmplinn of oiitwarti ha|>)iini>wi, nfti-m-r u^jni* It to 
the rrcf'jvi'r'a hurt than th<- iiivrr't |H"n. 



^ Thm waM <i»e main fault in all KnfH<*h abhcin^ 

J|*^that till' huilihTT> <liH not ilin <hv|i ■•n<m^i to Ut tht> 

^^^ Ibunilatioii. >■ imtutMhH on tbv fimndifnl awl 

mouMtTinjT Uittom of «ipct«ttli4m For cvptt aio- 

tiaolfrr wa» nmcrivtsl a ma^acior of im-rii huih fnr 


in England. 


the founder, \m ancestors, and posterity. And 
although all these dotations did carry the title of 
pure alms, yet seriously considered, they will be 
found nither forced than free, as extorted from men 
with the fear of purgatory, one flash of which fire 
believed is able to melt a miser into charity ; yea, 
which is worse, many of their foundations had their 
mortar tempered with innocent blood, for which we 
may conceive afterwards they sped never a whit the 
better. To give some instances of many. 

2. Wolpher, king of the Mercians, having mur- PeterUo- 
dered Wolphald and Rufine, his own sons, withb^^^nj. 
cruel and barbarous immanity, because they had^^^^j. 
devoted themselves unto Christ and embraced his 
religion, afterwards turning Christian himself, to 

wash away the stuin of his impiety built that famous 
abbey, since known by the name of Peterborough ^. 

3. King Athelstane drowned his brother Ed^^in, Mjddieton 
having put him into a little wherry or cock-boat thj^me 
without any tackling or furniture thereunto, (to the *^*^**"^°' 
end he might impute his wickedness to the waves,) 

and afterwards, as a satisfaction to ap[)ease his ghosts 
built the fair abbey of Middleton in Dorsetshire*. 

^ Camden's Brit, in North- 
amptonshire, [p. 379. See 
note in vol. I. p. 215.] 

^ Idem in Dorsetshire, [p. 1 56. 
This was by no means univer- 
sally the case, much rather the 
exception than the rule. Mo- 
nasteries had long been built 
in England before kings or 
princes raised them as a kind 
of satisfaction or atonement. 
The first foundation of this 
kind (omitting Bangor) was 
the monastery of St. Peter and 

St. Paul at Canterbury, built 
by St. Augustine at the di* 
rection and expense of king 
.^delbert in 597, (Canterbury 
being at that time the metro* 
polls,) solely for missionary 
purposes, as the chronicler 
quoted in the Monasticon de- 
scribes it : *' ut ibi praedica. 
'' rent, baptizarent, et quos-. 
" cumque possint ad fidem 
" Jesu Christi vocarent." (Mo- 
nasticon, I. p. 18. Bede, £. H. 
'• P- 33*) Near the same time. 

i TV Hutorjt tfAUtpt sows *i. 

^^"^^B 4. To join to Uiom two bniuiM of mrmki ooe af 
muu. (ndi todetj hoUi not been nracoepufali^ 
jEUHth, Boooful wife to kin; Edfv, tuiving cootifwd 
the death of Kdwutl hor fon-in-Iaw, king of Fug; 
land, munlorM him by a cunijianjr of hadutcfs md 
villuiiit nt bi-r ap|Mtmtmcnt at Corfe omUo in Ddl^ 
Meuhirf, (to jiavf tbu vny fur thu luocMaioD of hm 
•on Etbolilretl to the miwn,) aftcrwanli balk 
lUtely nounery of Ambnabury, witb Mmw 
rriigions hoiues'. 
_ 5. It b confeMcd, that wilful murder may be 

■t^^* donod in Cbriat, and Uioy whu dunv it are goBtf 
C^ (a* Ducb a» lin in their {xiwvr) of a wunt< mal- 
munkr in th<-'ir uiicbantabk> opiniuii; yot thll WB 
My. thai alt the chauntinjcv nt thi* monk* and onna 
in their ronvvnU cuuld iH>t drvnii the noiMi of iuw- 
fwnt bt<K>d. And if tbttM* roundcrv of abbvyi thoi^i 
that their murdur could bu cx|iiati<d by railing MKb 
beautiAil building Ihoir moat poUidied awrU* lad 
eoatly carred t>iec«a were in tlio eiprwlup of tikm 
propbet, bot dwMng otwr tAeir rf—<H» n'ju Mlft 
imltmpertJ mortar*. Bat though abbey* long dna* 

^% Wiiliiliiil • -• 

L p. 56.): tkt ant la IUI7 
UmJ in 6$5. (ll«]rMr. App. 
|k 41.) AaJ ia ' 

,» -f |«rdi 

uooK VI. /■/( EngUnid. 255 

have boen demolished, wc leave tlieir founders to 
stand or fall to their own Maker, when his all-seeing 
eye hath discerned betwixt the errors of their Judg- 
meut and integrity of their afTections, endeavouring 
that which they conceived was to the glory of God. 
and advance of true religion. 


So much of the superstition of the founders, come 
we now to their superstition, and other notorious montuJi 
sins, who lived in these foundations. But lirst we EingUnd. 
will premise their several orders. Herein we pretend 
not to any critical skill ; for though every minister 
of Ciod's word (whereof I am the meanest) is a 

next miller God, we greatly 
owe wIiHtevcr is great and 
good. Men's errors we wTite 
in IrBBs. their benefits in dust ; 
and so it has been with them. 
The good which they hare 
dune bus been forgotten ; the 
evils which tliey did, (or, which 
in the world's eye is much the 
some, avaricious spoilers have 
persuaded the world that they 
did,) are still held up to scorn, 
and to ubiise them has become 
part of our religion. And yet, 
to use the words of Dr. 
Marsham : " Monachatus olim 
" fuit maxima para gentia ee- 
'■ clesiasticffi, el parieles cieno- 
" bialcs diu sanctitatis et nie- 
" lioris literaturie fuerunt se- 
" pes. Ex illo seminario pro- 
" dieriint ingentia ilia Cliri- 
" stiani orbia lumina Beda, 
" Alcuinus, AVillebrorduB, Bo- 
" nifacius al'ii ob doctrinom 
" et propagatam fidem impense 
" colendi." Marsham, Upatrv- 

\aiOK, p. 30.] 

>> [For this account of the 
sevprnl religious orders Fuller 
is objetly indebted to Weever*! 
Funeral Monuments, p. 117, 
sq. { may obEerve in passing. 
that the Scots and Britons, of 
whom there is mention made 
in various passages of Bede'a 
Ecclesiastical History, were 
probably of the Egyptian or- 
der, and followed the Egyptian 
rule. Those who were intro- 
duced by St. Augustine were 
Benedictines, {nlgri monachi, 
so called from the darkness of 
their dress, the British wearing 
while,) and followed the rule 
of S. Benedict, of the Western, 
OS the British were of the East- 
ern order. And hence the dis- 
putes respecting the tonsure 
and the observance of Easter, 
on which I hnve made some 
remarks iu the first volume of 
this history.] 


Tht mnat^ <!fJUtyM 

«f>iritiiBl h<*nil<1. t*i drrivi- and ilHiiw tlic [K*>lifcrr«« 
and f^i-rii-alitftii'n uf nnt institution «)iiHi Itntli iu 
itri^iial In (i^k)'* Won), yet they an* tiut tN>uad (not 
to aay it h k k<anHfl ifpioranc**) to be nkillM hi tbe 
iltNlurtlotiH, <li«iMinii«, niid nuh-HivJMiiiiN <rf them 
oplcrs whirti liovc no friuiicbliiMi in tin* «rri|»turr. 
Vt-n, hear wKnt Mattlivw Panx. beiuf; m monk of 
S. Allinii'h, with, TVrf Jum a/fftantrrinl ttHimrM im 
AHyiia, at nrdinum coHftuiu ridrrrimr iHordimatrnK 
It U powible tlien for my be*t dili;reii(.'e to poiitndt 
Ml eiTor mkI iniprojiricty iti riTkoitinff tlunn op. 
Kur what wnmW !« it if one ht- Imt in t woofl. to 
wliirb Ihuir nutncmiu dHcr* may well Iw tvKiabM, 
thoti;:h in oil tbU w<mm) then* ai^iionn noC nn<' plwii 
of OndV plantin^f, vt nxw of their own abhoU iimmi 
TvmAHcabty did obcturvoJ. In n word. whi>n ibe 
/rtiy ofE^^ tf'W ON/ </ ike htHVX*. mt »f ike nU 
(ogu, ami out nftke firidM, tkty galhntd tkfm toyelktr 
npuH krafu, ffrM And j^tv tu U«vi* in likv manner 
r<oafuH>dly In sfaovcl up tbew wrniin, now dead in 

9. Vinu ftme forth the Beni^lictiae». <>r Made 
monk*, no railed fimm B. BeiiMlirl. or Bcni< aa 
Italian, fint fittbcr and roundi>r of that nrdiv '; Ao- 
futine the tntmk flm bnm^it thrm otit into En|F> 

' Mattk ruu. an. Dum tMtkui ww u ttwpibfJ (• ito 

I ijr P <m B*ltU>k »ni>U t^nm* ^kltf 

i Kob Ukiuri/i. ablut ••T (ma tU rab «# Si. WwilhU 
Wrlluw. [Vv Wlmr. f. ii 6 

^ KMod. Wii. 1 3, 1 4- loM ia ■•• «m« ain 

< [U tlN fwr 514 Th« Thb niW Im Wm f 

f«bitf8(.BMMNliaMMttif« H*yMi in W Af] 

to kkvc bsMi lattttdMiwd wb> KmIhiv, fL 1 , 

&HbMJ by at IhuMtoB. <B tW bm >■ ki* ApoUnlM. 1 

■. ••"• * 'riB^5. Un.Amt|>.77. Am liar 

■I OOBiti tl^«ai«a*. |i 13.] 

I EngUiitd. 


land, and these black birds first nested in Canter- 
bury, whence they have flown info all the parts of 
the kingdom. For aa one rightly observeth"', all 
the abbeys in England before the time of king 
William the Conqueror (and some whiles after) were 
filled with this order. Yea, all the abbeys in Eng- 
land of the first magnitude which had imrliamentary 
barons (abate only the prior of the hospitallers of 
S. John's in London) were of this order ; and though 
the Augustinians were their seniors in Eurojie, they 
were their juniors in England. Now as mercers, 
when their old stuffs begin to tire in sale, refresh 
them with new names to make them more vendible, 
so when the Benedictines waxed stale in the world, 
the same order waa set forth in a new edition, cor- 
rected and amended under the names : first of 

Clcniacs: these were Benedictines sifted through 
a finer search, with some additional invented and 
imposed upon them by Odo, abbot of Cluny in 
Burgundy, who lived anno Domini 913. But these 
Cluniacs appeared not in England till after the 
Nornmn conquest, and had their richest convents at 
Barnstable in Devonshire, Pontefract and Meaux in 
Yorkshire, &c." 

■" Clem. Reyner De Anli<i. 
OnliniB S, Benedict, [p. i8. 
Though tomewhat deficient in 
judgment, this i« an excellent 
work. The real author, whose 
name was David, (which he 
afterward changed to Augus- 
tine.) Baker, had access to sir 
Robert Cotton's library, and 
to the various depositories of 
records relating to the order of 
the Benedictines both in Eng- 
land and iibroad. A large coU 


lection of liis papers, and tran- 
scrijits of charters nnd chro- 
nicW. which he bad ciillected 
for the history of his order, 
(generally supposed tu have 
been lost,) are still preserved in 
Jestis College, Oxford. He was 
the last of his order in Enf[- 
land. See an account of his life 
in Wood's Athens. I. p. t ] 

" [Their origin in Europe 
is d3t«d as far Imck as the year 
890 by an nncient French 

1tS8 Tht I/utary t^Abbe^t »*w« vi. 

9. ClirrEaaANS, m ralloil fmiu onv Ititbort", Vmofi 
in ('bti-'rriant, in BufhuikIt af'>ivMii<l; \w tin- «t>r<ond 
time n'iinnl i\w <ln>MV IVnetlu-titii-^, ami \Valt«r 
Eiipco HntL (^MaliiifJictl tbcir l>rotbi<rlinntl in KiifcUmL 
»t Kivmilx in Ynrkobiiv ; Ijostdut whirb tfat*T hail 
mniiy other pUiMuit nud I'li'ntirtil ttiibiutitm<t, at 
WnnlMU and Wirbiini in liedronMiln'. HitrkUiid 
ani) FnnI in Ih-voiifibin', Biiijtiii in I>>»i«ot(ibin-, &r. 
Tlie Ilcmanlin*' intinkB iri-iv of a Toungpr tmuair, nr 
undcrbnuicli of ihu Ci«t**rriaiii»f. 

difmidrr, aoolKl ui Dogdalv, 
p. Ai ■ ; UM. •ccurdtii{t to tW 
mmr %viht», Uwir Am Mm* 
WM Hrwin. ta mAtamk WilKan, 
dukr of AqaiUiiMS wtlh llie 
(MBMBI irf ChwiM lb* NtmpW, 
malol CImbt in Uutnnilr. 
Il» WH MwuMed lij IMm, wIm> 
IM ta 937. TMr HMHt tncini 
fcudMiMi (accdnUnit b> Dm- 

dilc) WM M W«Bl«fc ta tftfl^ 

■Urr, tHtm tlMn had beea a 
■■MiM to wUeh MObcfSR. 
ata« oT WotahMa, Ui« oT 
H«Nta. mmM iMr daj^ Bttt 
tha plaea kavtag bacome da< 
wrtad. Ragar, aarl of Mont' 
gamttrj, pra k to a emnpHty 
of Claatac bhmiIu. 1. p. 6ij. 
Am abo B»j»fr. ApoatoL B*- 
MdkttaOTvn. App. p. 58. 
Aooordinii to Uiii anthor. Um 
nnniaa wwn fnt tamdoead 
Intu tliia ( 

Ihil Itaii riiliiiiiMa(riH— ■ J 
ta tlw Uiucvae of CUIum, was 

■alTT ta 1077 by 

at walk* tha On. 
^narar. Aa ikuf fnUiHrad tha 
rata ml fk. BaaMMt lo dntta- 
gmUk %km» tram tba Baavdta. 
lin^ propirrlr ta «alltd. tbvj 
wm (tjlMl Mooadu aigri ra- 

- [Abtail -f MfOrMw. At 

BMiidti waa efliFcted ta logB. 
See DticdAlr. 1. p. fx;j. Thav 
•K edW br Ita* tumm nlO^ 
MTvantB (^ t^nrfa ati i FW— 
ria), or Gfvy frtan, ffon Ikair 

P [AMordtair ta tba aaiMk 
of PalarboRM^ qaotad by 
Dugitata. (Moaaalkoft, I. pi. 
703.). tba Ctatamana tmm 
«var tato BnghiMt ta iitS. 
■nd w*ra aenird ai WbvvIot 
bf WniiaB OVhri. bfabop ar 
Wiiiifciitir. SaaataaAaHln 
\VamktmHaitaaa.ils8| aatl 
Um) foandaiian cfaaitoi ta Dag* 
d>Ja, ib. p. 717. Tb* MM* la 
■talad b7 RaTBar, p 160, wba^ 
ha«nrt«r. oaataa a jwaaiff ftaai 
Prtar ol NoK atuAalS^ ito 
tauvdaeliaa af tbia ordv M 
Wall* Smm a gialliBM ^ 
■obta btaai aad pinil toSto- 
pbMi Manli^ IW Maad mi 
adrtMT i/ Rabm da Uttamaa. 
Ila inA bttOl Iba ■iiMilaj aT 
Kirkban ta loi fat tbta ■». 
da ; aad r*c«»*tag fnaa ika 
ntabntad St. ItanMd MtanI 
hntbrM fmn ITaimnli, aba 

t E<iglamt 


3. Of Gkandmont, whicb observed S.Benet'n nile, 
were Itrought into England anno 1233, and wen- 
principally fixed at Abberbury in Shropshirei. 

The femily of these Benedietines, t.nkon at large, 
vrixh their children and grandchildren, of iinder- 
orders springing from them, were so numerous and 
so richly endowed, that in their revenues they did 
match all the other orders in England, especially if 
the foundations of Benedictine nuns lie joined in the 
same reckoning; I doubt not but since, these Bene- 
dictines have had their crudities deconcocted, and 
have been dmwn out into more slender threads of 
subdivisions. For commonly once in a hundred 
years starts up some pragmatical person in an order, 
who out of novelty alters their old rules, (there is as 
much variety and vanity in monks' cowls as in 
courtiers' cloaks,) and out of his fancy adds some 
observances thereunto. To cr}' quits with whom, 
after the same distance of time, ariseth another, and 
under some new name reformeth his refonnation, 
and then his late new (now old) onler is looked on 
as an almanac out of date, wanting the perfection of 
new and necessary alterations. 

3. A scandal hath lately been raised', much in scandainm 

came into England in I) 12, 
he built for them, in 1131. 
near the rivtr Rye, the mo- 
nastery aftefn-ards namt-Ml Rie- 
vaiilx. See also Dugdale, ib. 
p. 717. Weever. p. 136.] 

fl [This onlcr was fotindeil liy 
Stephen of Auve^ne ; who died 
in tne year 1 1 14, at the age of 
eighty, after a life spent iu the 
most rigid abstinence, and self- 
inflicted cruelties. After hid 
ilenth hiH disciples retnnveil to 

Grammont, where Henrj' I. of 
England built them a coUe^ 
ill 1114, which was endowed 
by his son Henry II. Itivias. 
p. 1 70, VoT the fbundution of 
Abberbury, see Dugdale. I. p. 


■■ [By Antonius Gallunius, a 
priest of the congr^ation of 
the oratory, iu his Ajiolwio 
ad versus Constantinum Belo' 
tum. published at Rome in 


didbonour uf Ihew Rc-milictiiw*, vU. that all the 
ancient English tiioDkii tx-fore tbt> Contjunt wm 
only of Ihi- onlpr of S. K<)iiitiiui Some higfair coti- 
ccmeil t«i n-futo tliix n-|>ort wnitm «it«t to our uili- 
quiiriot in RnftbuKl for tWir judfrment* herein, fram 
wbnm tliej- nvtnvod tliU following oniwer: 

** Quoniam bac nwtni wtatf! exorta pat cootfo- 
** Tenia tie miHmrhatn (irvgfiril magiii vt At^uKinl 
** Cautuariensb, worioniniqur ejiut qu«M (in-gnritM ta 
" Angliam do tmo niunvtorio pnrdiratidi enngelU 
" ouiM dcstituune legitiir; quibitwUm ip«cM ontiai 
** Benedirtioo addicimtihiu. quihuadam veni id ■ntilir 
** pen^Botibus, el i|HHi« onliui 8. Rquitii nve alieol 
" alii aarribmitibun ; nm qui multttm tem p orii I 
" rebiM YetUKtw turn civililKm turn ^ 
** im|irimis qiur wA Uritaiiiiiam niMtiain potifl 
** spoctant, impenditniM, nigati ut tc«tinioaiuin prr- 
" bibonrmiM veritatj. cum neuiriiu partiii pivjiuliriia 
** iiimtu obnmcU ; dieimoa e( affinnamu% nut dno 
** wlum moiiadionini seneim io (irimif Saxooica 
" apud mi^oraa WMtraa iseclcsbr tcmpuribua : nntiMi 
" eonim qui ^grpUetNiiaro room Mxnili in bae in- 
** fiula florebaut, ante adTentum Augiutini : altvram 
** eorum qui Bcnedictini Aogustino itiiirm erani 
** eoniitea. IUdc tnulitium<a a (mtribiiH ad Altai 
" dcrivatam ewe Uirfamur. atqoo iu derivalaiiif at 
** noQ IcribitA inniutur (abulia, aot ratbJtioaii par- 
" tiom coq}(''^un''> M**'" ****** ipnm Tetuata aignafae 
** IkM exhibent apud noa monnnMOta. Ab AngB^ 
" tlno iitMtpcr ad Iltiiricua oe to T iM i perpctno in 
" bac Lnmla viguit BcnrdtcUfla iiwtittttio: oeo An- 
" gtwUno ivoentiotrm cjiuvr origiiMBi, orifininv 
** nwiiUori* fsatigium ulhhi romperiniM. llHrtnB 
** abaat Equiiiaiuun aliqumn in bae iiwub fUM» or. 

) E'igiand. 


*' dinem ; ut nulla omnino liujuemodi ne(iue ordiiiis 
" ncque nominis mentio in vetustis, quibua vereamur, 
" tabulariis, habeatur. Sane aliorum fere ntnnium 
" in hac insula engines ita observavimus, ut unius- 
" cujuaque etiam minimi ingressum sue anno cnn- 
" siguatum babeamue : eolius Benedictini ordinis 
'* originem ante Augustini sieculum non inveninius ; 
" ipsius SJBculo floruisse aperte reperimus. Unde 
" esploratissimum nobis esse profitemur, non alterius 
" ordinis fuisso ipsum sociosque ejus quam Bene- 
" dictini ; qui ideo proeuldubio tam altas radices in 
" Attglia egerit, quoniani prinii illi monachi a Gre- 
" gorio in iusulam destinati, regular Benedictina: 
" professores extiterunt." 

Robertus Cotton, Henricus Spelman. 

Johannes f^eldenus. Gulieinius Camdenus*. 

England may see four hundred years, yet not 
behold four such antiquaries her natives at once, the 
four wheels of the triumphant chariot of truth for 
our British history. This quaternion of subscribers 
have sticken the point dead with me, that all 
ancient English monks were Benedictines. Which 
order, lasting above one thousand years in this land, 
hath produced about two hundred and fifty WTiters 
of name and note, as Pitseus' accounteth them, 

4. What this S. Equitius was, (pretended founder Uubb. 

Sure he could not be that Equitius, of whom the 
African bishops complained in the council of Car- 
thage; that by indirect courses he had invaded the 

* Extnnt in Clcnt. Rejaer, ' Catult^e, p. 966, [sub- 
tle Apoatnlatu Betiedtctinorain joined hi his work " De Script, 
ill Anglin, I. p. loi. '' Anglitc."] 


Itrii'SthootI : tltwriiiff by thoir U*f!iit«M*. (wlKim tbry 
M-nt to tht' (>ni|HTor.) that lie iiiipbt bt- pxpcllcd UmU 
uHint-. Yet he, in ilvliniire of their codMn 
went otmiit to iluturb the fwAcv of tbr 
Mure [tiviliable it U, bo wil'« either Gquititu, ■ d 
Iri the Apomenti church. Hmimhiiig in the i 
century, atifl faniuw* Tor hiif fuith uhI ivnvuej fai 
tvlifrioii ill OMtstiii}; Marvellup, hiUiop therpof, In 
tleiuuli»h the teui{>U' of Jupiter**, ur ulae his coo- 
tem|M>mry Iv<|uitiu>>, cotutul ni Uoaie with (imtiaa, 
•XH. 37A. or Mwnt' other unktuiwa unto ub. Ihit br 
he wliu he hinueir or wijr other pleaeetb. (brother if 
they will lu S. (itMirjife on hoi«e)iark, ) hi- vm» uvyvr 
father ftanj moiilcH in Kn^land. 
•- i. 1 intendiHl to {ireoent the rvn<ler with the 
KM habitu of DouedietineA, ami all other onli3«. for ike 
*" favhioii, nutter, iind <>«)|(iur then-of. But iijwlar> 
ntamlin^ the in<]Dii(ri<»iM work mlled Alonaitleon ia 
coming forth, (which liath xh*- «»)N>e«l of ih» my hook 
for ■ term or imi.) when-in that ^abject ia bandle«l 
at btjfci, I thnufflit better to fftrtM-ar. I'artly liecoiMV 
I prManie martvr |>odBWorth (an (•mtnoni imttro- 
ment in that OMtful wnrk) bettt'r ac<]iuiinteil than I 
nni with their tiuhir^i : [«rtly berauH- my wanlrobt^ 
uf their clothe* (cominfr >o Umfr after hix) will lir 
beheld but ao from the M>c<tc»l-liand, fetchM fraiu 
Lnn(r4niu% ktid hfai nnw, bought out of thi* ilts|«r'a 


6. TIh> At'ocvroiuii vaoeSu MicMml, jvnaipBt 
thui the lleiietlietiaoa {n EoglMid. tlmifrh »ltl<v ^ 
EufD|x>. For 8. Ai^wltee of Hf|)fo <•« wbon 

• Ada Cnaol, | 

1 £»ffltmd. 


these monks wonid willingly recover Ibcmselves) 
was 8. Beiiet's senior by sixty years", 1 cannot 
lielieve that they came over into Kngland (what some 
affirm) precise omio 636, (others 6-tO,) wlien Birinus 
was bishop of Dorchester)', or that 1059 they were 
Heated iu London', being rather inclined to bi-lieve 
that Eudo, the dapit'er (sewer if you please) to king 
Henry the First, first brought them into England 
atiiin 1105, and that S. John's at Colchester was the 
[irime place of their residence^. FFowcver. I find 
that Waltham-abbey (for Benedictines at the first'') 

* [" Aliam feruiit hujusc« 
" coll^ii originemi multi enim, 
" ut itiunt, mortoles Augustiiii 
" adliuc in humaiiiH ogeiilis 
" siuictitatem aiugularemque 
" iloctriiiiuii secuti, onuiibus 
" neglectis quae possederant in 
" eivmum coDcesscre, unde est 
" eremitanorum nomen ileduc- 
" tuin. Atque ista Aiigusli- 
" niaiia fiiuiilia prima est ex 
■' monacbJK niendiciuitibus.'' Inventione, VII. 
c. 3. The Augustiniaiis came 
over into England (according 
to Reyner, a very competent 
authority) nuxt after the CIu- 
niaca. generally called Black 
cauoDS, or merely Canons of 
St. Augustine. This order was 
settled here by the iuHuence 
of Adelwaldua, or Athelwulfus, 
confessor to Henry I.; who 
erected a priory for them in 
NostcU in Yorkshire, dedi- 
ciited to St. Oswald, and was 
the first prior. He engaged 
the king to erect Carlisle into 
a bishopric, and to give the 
power of electing tho Iriahop to 

the canons of this order; himself 
being the lirst bishnp. Apostol. 
Benedict. 158, The prior? of 
the holy IVinity belonged to 
this order, the luperior of 
which was, cr officio, oue of 
the twenty-four aldennen of 
the city of London, and wore 
his alderman's habit over the 
habit of his order in the city 
processions. Canons properly 
lire those who lived secundum 
canon ft prietcrijiloi.'] 

T [As to what Bale slates, 
tliat canon regulars wen.' set- 
tled nt Dorchester by Birinus 
in 636, this is manifestly false, 
snys Reyner, tipoa the very 
authority of Cupgruve, whom 
he quotes in support of liis 
opiniiin. Apost. Benedictin. 

p. 158.] 

* Jusephua Pamphilusi in his 
Cronicon Augustin. [p. J76. 
ed. .581.] 

' [Prime place, that is. thu 
Hrst, founded in 1105. Ret'ner, 
p. 158] 

*> [Canons secular, according 
to Reyner, p. I59O 

S 4 

an* TV //JJtoy ^JbAfyt woi vi. 

had Hi copy •Itered by kiog Haay the Seooad, ami 
boitowed on Angmtlniani. 

7. Thue AofiutUuuii in?ra abo eaOiMl caaoa* 
reguUr, wbctv, by tbo way, I nicvt with ntch a nie» 
diitiiicUon, whioh disbeartciu dio fnHU pnKcniling to 
exaotDMi ia rvekoaing op theae ordeit. For thia 1 
find in our EnglUi Eniuiia': 

And all mcb otbor eooatarfUbian 

It flocRu Iho if ban Binoiuit«Ui to a k 
efTevtuol a« to diicniiunatv ehammu from 
(thougb botb eanoHici in Latin.) but what Kboald bo 
tbe diSttnmm* bi-twixt tbetn I dare not iRttipoae nj 
cm^fortnn!. I havo done witti tbrsv Augi 
wlii-n I have f)lMfiTc>l, (hat th» unler ia 
aflbrdi-fl (hrt-c-acorv oiid ton cDiin«tit writOT«', 
one in (M>nnat>y worth thrm all in cfTrct, I i 
Martin i^itlii.-r. vrtid hy liio writtngx ^rc a i 
wound tft all thL**- order*, yea, and to the root a 
Botniah religion. 
> 8. GiutEansB monki may be the third, a mongrel 
onkfT, ohaenring Kune adcrt niUii )iartly of 8. Bmm, 
pwtly of S. Augustine*. Sn nnnxtl rn>m i iilb*^ 
(•on to Joetdino a knight.) loni of Scmprinfrham in 
Llnpolmhirai vfano 1148 flnt they were planted. 
Whereapoa tbia ordar may boaat, iliat it alone in a 
nadn) and mdigata, (w^Mffaaa Bci)e«lirtine* arp by 
original ItaUana; AagnrtinlaM. African; Cartba- 

' CIranr b Uw 

■'• tab. [r. jDot.] 

ik p. 974- 

I Ellwand. 


sians, French; Dominicans, Spanish, &c.) pure Eng- 
lish by the extraction thereof. This Gilbert, un- 
handsome, but not unlearned, erected this order, 
(contrary to .fustiniaii's constitution, who forbad 
double monasteries,) wherein men and women lived 
together (though secluded) under one roof. He 
survived to see thirteen houses of this his own order, 
and in them seventeen hundred Gilbertine brothers 
and sisters'- Yet I find no writer of this order, 
conceiving them so well busied with their company 
in their convent, they had little leisure for the 
writing of books. 

9. Carthusiak monks make up a mess, much c«rthu«i«i. 
famed for their mortified lives, and abstinence from 
all flesh ; one Bruno first founded them in the Dol- 
phinate in France, anno 1180s, and some sixty years 

' [If I understand R^jTier 
aright, who is somewhat con- 
fiigeil in this portion of h.\n 
work, the nuns of tliis order 
were to follow the rule of 
the Cistercians ; and the 
monks were to be of the or- 
der of Aueustinians, or White 
canons, coUed FrgcmonstrBtene, 
which had shortly before this 
been introduced into Engbnd. 
The same writer says that Gil- 
bert, before he died, lived to 
sec ten houses erected of this 
order, and their numbers then 
umouiited to fifteen hundred 
nuns, and seven hundred ca- 
nons. Aixrat. Benedict in. p. 

K [" Quidam enim singnluri 
" doctrinn nomine Bruno, homo 
" Coloniensis, cum Lutetiv 
" Parisiorum philosophiam pro- 
" fiteretnr, contigit ut omicum 

" quendam bonis moribus prs* 
" ditum, et vita jam defunctum 
" prius quaui ad sepulturam 
" daretur audire visas sit cla- 
" Diontem, jufto Dei judiciu 
'' damnalus mm : et ea re motus 
" e veatigio cum sex sociis, 
" pari miraculi eventn territis, 
■■ eremi deserta quEcritans, per- 
'■ venerit in dinvesini Gratia- 
" nopolitanom [Grenoble], (eat 
" Celiicffi civitas) ibiciue locum 
" optaverit, cui hodie Car- 
'' tusiie nomen est. quem ei 
" assignendum curavit Hugo 
" tinitianopolitanus e|>iscopuB, 
" qui stntim post se ad earn fa- 
" miliam adjunxit. Eu igitur 
" loci Bruno divinis intentus 
" primum oEnobium fundavit, 
'' cum his rigidie ribe institu. 
" tia : intima enim ve«te utun- 
" tur ciltcinn, aumma ptillio 
" nigro. aubter Candida toga. 

Tf>,- t/ittoTjf of A^y* KHM n. 

arier llivy wMv biuujctu otlt into Eofcbuid. 1 
witinler men fiutiiif; wt much «h(iul<l liavt.> twt li^rti 
itpiritN uu onltT Ntaitdin;r morr rtmilljr un their pri- 
rtlcgvs ; inaomuoh wbfni tim m(«n4 nt nil coiiTantt 
were vmlu«<l in Un> n-ijrn of kinjr Ht-niy the EiffhtliS 
a INvuluu" rUuM* was aiMlhI tu the jmU'iit of tlw 
cummiiMioncni, tim[H>wt>ritift theiit iwrtirularijr to ibIb 
Cliutvr-hooM? iu Ijomlon. Ilnwrrtr. tbeir book* 
(Uiera beiaK elirven lenmp<l nultmni nf Knuliiib C«r> 
ifaumiu') coataiu niurli tmiilin^to iiiortifinttlon, and 
oat of thum Putiiin the Jcvuil bath calli!rt(><l a ft«Kid 
inwt of hi* ntmhitioiw. 
i' 10. Sa mui*)i of mooks; eamo wv now to frian, 
r, auil it M vuxetmn to iiremiau wliat vt-aa tlu* difr 
tinctkm betwixt thorn. For tbouffh *amv will My 
the matt«r is not much If monlu and frfaura i 
ccmfuundii) tO)p}lber, yet the dUtin^ishin^ of I 
eotHluccth much to the cleorioi^ of btMory. 
make monks the gvnn*. aiit) fHan bnt thp « 
that all friara were monks ; but. rrm/ra, all I 
wen DOC Man. (Hben. that monks wnv c 
to tbelr dobtvni whilst more liberty waa allowall 


"4m. HttlMkwMlMMMt 

" MUa yhriiMw habdMMibi 

" MoMMt, b caUoaib ow » dcwK f»r mwd mI lIliilBiM 

- trndmHtM.' PuL Vlmfl. 4l 

UvMt. ik. TU« m^ mm 

I praa. im m«iM a Witlm ia LW 

■ ftm Mfa»Um bf IImtt II.. mA 

ifaiMw tkir fnt pri<ir -«• iW 
irpwrfirtM bratod Hi. linco. '^ 

" Ian ad amMk iKi aansAi, |h t6i 


" o—liiil 


> Pita. A. p. 97.1- 

BOOK VI. in England, 267 

friars to go about and preach in neighbouring 
parishes. Others, that monks were in those convents 
who had a bishop over them, as Canterbury, Nor- 
wich, Durham, &c., but never any friars in such 
places where the bishop was the supreme, and they in 
some sort had the power of his election. I see it is 
very hard just to hit the joint so as to cleave them 
asunder at an hair's breadth, authors being so divided 
in their opinions. But the most essential difference, 
whereon we most confide is this, monks had nothing 
in propriety, but all in common ; friars had nothing 
in propriety, nor in common, but, being mendicants, 
begged all their subsistence from the charity of 
others. True it is, they had cells or houses to dwell, 
or rather hide themselves in, (so thefoa^es have holes^ 
and the birds of tlie air have nestSy) but all this went 
for nothing, seeing they had no means belonging 
thereunto. Yea, it hath borne a tough debate 
betwixt them, Whether a friar may be said to be 
owner of the clothes he weareth ? and it hath been 
for the most part overruled in the negative. 

11. It will be objected, that many convents of Objection 
friars had large and ample revenues, (as will appear distinction, 
by perusing the catalogue in Speed's tables,) amount- 
ing to some hundreds (though never thousands) by 
the year, some friar's bams well-nigh as wealthy as 
some monks', (rather every pretended Lazarus a 
Dives,) holding, though not severally to themselves, 
jointly amongst themselves, most rich endowments. 
Here also it will be in vain to fly to the distinction 
of ctesis and chresisy of using and owning, seeing the 
monks will lay a claim to that distinction, and chal- 
lonpe as great an interest therein as the friars them- 



18. I have nntbtng to return lit uwwer hnvtrntfl^ 
nvo oriljr thnt. o/t'm rrr» ntm fuii «iV, " from Um 
" bfjrinnin^ (nf the iruititutinn of frian) it wn Dot 
" so;" tlivM.' vldilions of latidii untn thpni are uf btar 
date, and, belti^Tc it, not »r their M-ekiag. but their 
boDefiKtofB* caatiDff upon tbem. 
W*a IS. HowoTcr, nathfaig more common i!uui to maka 
Jli M monks and fHan both HTnoajma'i niid rtviprord. and 
^^" for mjr own part, I p«k» not if in thin oiy butoi^ I 
bavo comtnittofi the mxav, and hrrraftt^r <duUl b» 
guilty nf ynvAter miftakoft. KnrvsttriB laugfaid ■! tlie 
ifpionuicL- of that j;cntlcrruui who made this dUfafMMV 
betwixt a fttajr and a hart, that tho one «w % n^ 
the other a fmllow deer, heiDg both of a 1 
diflbrent bi age, and aonw olbcr rin 
Tetter^. I mar nuke tho like sport to mmc | 
reader, (and murh ]i*>od l«*t it do him.) in i 
some onkra which an* tho samo, and idei 
other orders wbidi are distinct, bat the i 
no dangenma ooncerameot. tfa; we be bnt c 
to ordlfr omr eamrvraoHoiu ari^t, Uial God s 
*w kis ati/ratifM^, and it matters not much ff we 
otnnmit ermr«, and dbroTn- igmtranee in ordciing 
Man not in their exact numbrr and wtiinrity. 
llMae pr e mh eJ, we begin with tht-ir four Hfuivntal 

W^ 14. WieUllb eoostandf inTeigfaoth againU friars 

wSikft under the name of Oiim. Had it been Cain. I •bonld 

'^^ have mapectud Us alhurioD to the word* uf the 

npcwtlc, TA*y kmee fime im Uu; itatf o^ Cain}, Sot 

DOW am at a losa, and had so coatinued, had I nni 


nuUng hexastie of an oncharitabla 

■ 1. ty 

BOOK VI. inEuglaiul. 209 

rbythmer, (a base fellow may shew an honest man 
the way,) who thus letteth fly at them : 

Per docies binos Sathanas capiat Jocobinoe, 
Propter ct errores Jesu conrundo Mini»re8, 
Augustionees, pater inclyto. aterne per enses, 
Et Carmelitas tiinquam falsos Heromitae 
Sunt confessttrea Domitiorum, scu Dominarutn 
Et eeductorofl ipsorum sunt animaniiu'". 

C Carmelites, A. Angustlnians, /. Jacobius or 
Dominicans, Af. Minorites or Franciscans, friars. 

And thus at last we have the groat mystery un- 
folded, whom Wicliffe therein did intend. 

13. Of these, Dominicans were the first 
which came over into England anno 1221, being but "*" 
twelve, (an apostolical number,) with Gilbert de 
Fraxineto their prior, first landed at Canterbiuy, 
fixed at Oxford, but richly endowed at London ; 
they were commouly called Black friars, Preaching 
friare", and Jacobin friars". They took their name 

>n [These lines are quoted 
in Weev-er's FuuenJ Alonu- 
menta. from a MS. of Bale's, 
p. 140.] 

" [They were called Fralret 
Prmdicaloren from a very 
strange circum stance, narrated 
by Thomas CantiprHtanus in 
Ilia hook " De Proprietate A- 
" puin ;" who 6uurislied be- 
tween 1152 and 1263. Thus 
it 18 ; Conrad, abbot of V""!!!!- 
ria, believed to be a saint, was 
sent by the pope as his legate 
into Germany, his native coun- 
try. On his way he came to 
Paris, and seeing the brfthren 
of die order of St, Dominic, 
who hiid lately come thiiher. 

he associated with them. Hav- 
ing some doubts in Lis heart 
concerning them, he prayed to 
the Lord that he would vouch- 
safe to shew him for what pur. 
pose that order had come to 
Pariii. At the moment an o|)en 
book was put into his hands, 
containing this answer to hia 
thoughts, and the purpose for 
which that order had sprung 
up, couched in these words: 
" To praise, to bless, and to 
" Y>^s^eh,"(laudare,henedicere, 
et pradicurt.) The holy abbot 
immediately bursting forth into 
the praises of the Lord, ex- 
claimed before them nil : 
•■ Though I be of the habit of 

The Hithtry nfAhbryt MXM 

from 8. Domitiir, horn at Cumkiga in 8p«bi: wmA 
llulM?rt tie Hur^n, vnrX or Kcnc, was Iheir prinv 
jiatmn, bostoving hi» ittUcp in the mbiirfaa t4 
Uincliiu upon tbetnP. vhirb nftmrards tbcy aoU to 
t)i<!> afvhbi»tiofNk (if York, redtliiiff thttvin, till hj 
Mmif imrtNttction-i )>c>twixt king Wvnty th« fQ^tb 
lunl oAnlioAl Wtilwv it Invaiik* ihc ro^ co«rt» m»w 
known br tlic nooio of \Vbit(>halli. AftenrmnK tqr 


kv, yd w{U I 
" b« fovr h rolhtc m long u I 
" lifw." Pnm tlui aeaMJaa r >i<lid bf bmw 
tlMtvbnilwHGdMtkfCMs chi«Hcl«n: '" 
IVwrfiMtorMN. For wbn k 
WHtorraJv* ili canfinMiioa 
fton Um pop*. liH fcal i a— 
a?* order* to Uh aoUfj, UmI 
\a Um d«Krip6o« of tW arte 
he alMMild UM th* ivriM /*!«• 
f rrj PrMfmmtat, wba, tnAliH 
lb* IrUer of taaSmaaikm, bw2 
tkr wMih Frmlrta Pnnliem' 
IWTM rigktlf MMM^ TIm 
pvp* bavioc i M fwmJ tW lrt> 
Urr mhI tn Uw M(wr. •• Whr 
■' iBd 7«a But IM, M I IdU 
** fom, tW «wda Fmtm Pr^ 
' mA Frmtm 

Mriht npiM Willi ■ bed ad 

WW iftWWdi IMMnBT MBpa* 

•d. lb•IUH«.^49<>J 

• [Do alU »ca> IW IM 
bniK i> Pak. »liU mtm la 
t^ Mnvt al fit. Jmm (Mmrfi' 


t [Tto aninl «m1 iiw p lliw 
•4 d» <aibr iflW Ifa_W<ra* 
w Ki^Uad b tima dmiiM 
bf Ni«. Trim. MM mT Ifcnr 

, IB «M nm w rt pvo- 
I aJn ilir |iid>- 

" art. cmw rttUi ites. 

~ dn alifarajatiiB. Ma 

' fanav. PramdMMM Ml^ 
' fnMTt* dt CWalnvk. *•■•• 
- mat LiiwdoMhi la KhIa S. 

* LaanwUli at aluviM CH*. 

• rImi (■ iHla AMMapdMt* 

I Etigliuiil. 


the bounty of Gregory Rockaley, lord major of 
Lomloti, aiul Robert Kilwarby, arcIibiBhoji of Cjiii- 
terbury. they were more conveniently lodged in two 
lanes on the bauk of Thames, in a jdaee enjoying 
great privileges, and still retaining the name of 
Blaek Friars. No fewer than fourscore fiimoiis 
English WTiters are accounted of this order'. At this 
day, as beyond the sca-s they are much conclemnc<l 
for being the solo active managers of the cruel 
Spanish inquisition, so they deserve due commen- 
dation for their orthodox judgments in maintaining 
some controversies hi divinity of importance against 
the Jesuits. 

1 6. Francibcans follow, commonly called Grey f™i 
friars and Muiorites, either in allusion to Jacob's 
words, sum minor omnihvs houjinis fuvs*. or from 
some other humble expressions in the New Testa- 
ment. Tliey received their name from 8. Francis, 
born in the duchy of S]Kjletum in Italy. Canonized 
by pope Gregory the Ninth, about two years after 
whose death the Franciscans came over into Eng- 
land, and one Diggs, ancestor of sir Dudley Diggs, 
bought for them their first seat in Canterbury, who 
afterwards were diffused all over England. For 
skill in school divinity they beat all other orders 
quite out of distance, and had a curious library in 
London, (built by Richard Whittington,) in that age 

" honoremoratariumeonstrux- 
" eruiit: et habebniit kcIioIos 
" illoB quic nunc S. Edwarili 
*' diciintur, in cujus pnrochia 
" locum occpperant, in quo 
" tempore aliquo morabantur. 
" Sed eum non csset nppnrtu- 
•' nitas locum siifficienti-T dila- 

idi transtuk-runt sc ail lo- 

M n r^e eis coneessuiii 

nnc boIiitaDt (?itra mu- 

ro«." I. p. 176, Reyner, tb. 

1 6a.] 

'PiW. ib. p. 981. 

» Gen. xxxii. 10. 

tn Tht History of Abbeys 

ooitlng Bre handred and fiftr |x»uidB, which qvleUf 
might bo mndf up, if, afi it i* reftorted, an bmiisi 
mariu werei oxpondi-d iit tmtucribiDg the CoaoDM^ 
tuice of Lyni*. 

17. We most not Torget that one Bernard of 
rranf*." Sicnua about tho year 1400 rpfinnl iho Friniitf 
*""' into Oliwrvants. no diatinet ntotal fnnn iho fv 
but diQert-'iit from thMn u rteel from inm. 
Etlwanl tliP Fourth fiivt broogbt them into I 
wbcru tht'T hail mx funoiu eloiiten: i 
time there have beun a dcw ord<<r of Mi 
bejoad the hmw. Coureivinfr tbo com 
Uinor too high, thcj have donccudcd to &fi 
■oeonUng to onr Saviour's own wnnla, Ut i 
(a iiiukim; or) the leatt amomy yiw, tie mm» a 
j nu l t tt : and I ranch ndniuv that nooe I 
begun an ordor of Minnr-Minimo'it: tbormthvr. 1 
eaute of the ^KwtleV wnnls of himavlf. irAo am i 
UlMm Uu least of all faimtt. 'E^oi r^ cXaj^ivi 
vwTw TMv ayimr, aa 1 may i«r, a subtor ■ubtetlaCiv* 
in hii huniiitly. Ai for other diminutivn of Fntt- 
daeana or &linorite* lieTiiad the mwi, Itccolleeti^ 
Peuitvotiaries. Capurhiiw. &c^ ftowxf^ they had tboir 
riac dncc the lall of abbt>T« in England, th( 
not to our |>n<«mt inquiry. Sufficctb It 
ordur, durinjBT ttie rxtrnt of our fftory, 
England a huwlrvd and ten li«med writon. 
C ttmikm IB. CAHMKLmcB, or While frian. oome i 
i^^hMUuned fmm m<»unt Carmel in Hyria, bnmgfat i 

iuti) Kngbuid iti the tvif;a of l(in|t KiHiard the First 
by Italph Fn-ohum. and plarcd at Atnwirk in 
NfKthumticrtand in a wildemeM^ {tie tmmii uM rata/iM,) 

' IUtmt ia j^iiiililiiii BiaiillilliiiBB. L ^ i6i. 


in England, 


most like unto Carmel in Syria ^. Whose convent, 
at their dissolution in the reign of king Henry the 
Eighth, was at low rates in that cheap county valued 
at one hundred ninety-four pounds and seven shil- 
lings per annum ^, to justify our former observation, 
that even mendicant friars had houses endowed with 

19. Tliis soundeth something to the commendation a great 
of the English Carmelites, that their order lost not English 
the vigour thereof by being poured into cisterns, 
(mediately derived from other countries,) but as our 
author telleth us*. Hi cum primis monachis Britonum 
et Scotm'um ex jEgypto et Pakestina in Britannicas 
insiilas monachatutn inttderunt, *•' that monkery and 
" Carmelite friary came out of Egypt and Palestine 
^* into Britain." Thus they will allow us to have 

^ [After the death of John, 
king of Jerusalem, when all 
Judaea fell again into the hands 
of the Saracens, the Carmelites 
were obliged to seek refuge in 
Europe, about the year 1238. 
This was the first occasion of 
their coming over into Eng- 
land. Trithem. de Laudibus 
Carmel. in Alegre's Paradisus 
Carmel., p. 663. At first they 
wore a white robe, intended as 
symbolical of purity of heart ; 
but after the Saracens had ob- 
tained possession of the Holy 
Land, they were compelled to 
adopt a grey habit, white being 
confined among the infidels to 
noble persons. When however 
this order came into Europe, 
they resumed their white ha- 
bits, wearing them over their 
grey ones. lb. p. 662. 







Bale, in his MS. history of 
the Carmelites (Harl. 1819.), 
gives the following memoranda 
of the introduction of this or- 
der into England, p. 198. *'The 
Carmelites entered this king- 
dom, according to some, in 
1220, in the vigil of the 
Nativity, and in the year 
1 230 died lady Lucy Greye, 
*' the first foundress of the 
** convent of Aylesford in 
** Kent. The friars preachers 
** entered England in 1221 ; 
"the Minorites in 1224, in 
** the feast of the E-xaltation of 
'• the Holy Cross." But in his 
fourth century, as quoted by 
Reyner, he fixes the foundation 
of this order in Endand to the 
year 1240.] 

w Speed, Catalog, p. 795. 
X Reynerus, ibid. p. 164. 

874 Tk€ Hittary rfJUr^ m 

BU|<cr«tition imiiieiliaU>l5 (honco wjtboot Uf < 
from Rome. )>ut an- liifflilr oflbniU'd, uwl i 
miuiii}' to the contrary, tliat wo vtiould fetch I 
relifpon tbcncL*, with tlio ondLnil obscn'mtton of 
EuIct; (>ut tliia fuiwHith wc must mx-irp tx. the 
weond haii'l from Koiiic, and bo ordend i 
to bcr dircctitinx Ih4>n'iii, 
AM^fim 80. AnntbiT lliiiifT aIm) i« allejp^ in Ibe [ 
imdmuj. our Can]iclit4>K, tlint tht*T wvrv nin*t 

kc>eping the rv^o^tN of tboir unk*r, that thv Ust I 
lo«t of thp nftiPtlirtiiit^ iKtminirans. he. («TO 1 
or therv a bnikfu link or two,) Cannvlitva have | 
■LTvwi the mont-wiTe tvnv* of their {m>vtiiriali. Ijit 
thciu thank John Uolo lii'mii. onov one of ibcwi, 
(thi>U];h they be pleased to jeer him h forwkinj: it 
for Uio lore of bia dear Doruthyf,) who in hb yuatll 
> tbo eatalogue out of love to bin opjer. Mid is 
hb qM ago pnwTTcd it tmt of hb grneral i 
to antiquity, and it will not be taam bera to i 


I itir una 

I BMdet 

T [R«riiFr'a t%\tntmimi in " anil I 

ki> Apnat Hrnnlieliii. I. n. " yrie»wl at ■ a 

i6i, (K Hair. W*w*» UtM ■■ u U «lk lu^ h4 I 

•|ivalu ill kte FunenJ Unan- " nvailieaHl, wks 

aMwU. cjonlinf owie Iums frnm " ar«lin« tmA coap* 

him pooH " D» Anli^niuir Fra- " rinUntt mHkm ■ 

" inuH CwmrUtai urn:'— - lip - ukI oUmt of iW i 
" HMnka ■neb m ilw ktxMMir 
I nligiMM «v4cr. of 

" wUcb W WU ■ MMibfV i 

■' iW WMMtefTaf tlM CanaM 

■* wMiIb iIw cut of NorvKh, 


Began.Ruied. Liet butiedin\ 

Ralph Krehurne. 

mo 1 

14 [ Alnwick. 

Ilenn,' de lluina. 


17 'Stanford. 




■ 4: 


WfllEam llaml-erv. 



3 I«ndon. 

ST, '?":■""'""• 


18 ' Sta(.ford.] 



S Stanford. 

\rill. NV«pnhiim. 



1 Cambridge. 

Kioh. Welwrii. 



4 1 Hulchin. 

M'iUiuin rsjtiiam. 



3 .tIetli,uiIreUnd. 

Jiihn Itark enisled. 


7 1 London. 

Hi.']iar.l Bhtaii. 



6 1 LiDocdn. 

John H'alMnghsm. 
John Bamnlfiori.. 



3 ! Avinion. 



4 i London. 

John Ulexam. 



J , Oiford. 

John Polenhed. 



7 York. 

John FnlshRtn. 



6 Norwich. 

Waller Kelfaam. 



1.15 J 


[Widter Kflhani («.). 



5 AlverMoii.] 

Joh„ CoUMton. 



,1 l«ndon. 

Thomas Brown. 


? London. 

Rol*rt Yvorie. 


.1 London. 

John KininKhum. 



5 York. 

i>U-uU. rstrintlun. 



15 London. 

Thomas M-atdi-n. 



<r, Rouen. 

Jo. Kpiiinizhall. 


'430 j 

13 Norwich. 



•1 London. 

Jo. Milverwn. 


i*if> 1 

11 Undon. 

John Saturn. 


[John .^lilverton (bit). 



„ London.] 

Jo. ^'inde. 

St. Botolph'.. 


14 BoHon. 

Rol>. Lovp. 



7 Norwich. 

Uirhard Ferria. 



.t Oxford. 

.!ohn Bird. 

Coventry ? 

■ S16 

Ilol«rt l^esbury. 


3 Ch«er. 

[John Bini («.). 


(. Chc«er.»] 

This order was vertical, and in the highest ex- 
altation thereof, in the reign of king Edward the 
Fourth ; under Nicholas Kenton, their twenty-fifth 
provincial, they reckoned no fewer than fifteen hun- 
dred of their order'. But when John Milverton, 

2 [This oit.iUigue Fuller has Centuries.] 
topieil from Reyner, p. 165, ■ [Hta. de Script p. 658.] 
nho collected it from Bale's 

T 2 

976 7%< Hillary «tfAbbaf* boo* vi. 

hi« BuceeMor, b^tD (in fiirour of Maty) ruriamly to 
enf^ffc a^nst bishoiw aod the McnUr cIcrffT. the 
Carniflitc*' gocNl niMt«n and dsniMi bcgmii tu fonako 
thi'in. iiikI tliPT novcr reooTpml tlirir rmlit till tlwjr 
wpro utterij <liiiiHitTn)\ John Bird, the one and 
tbirticUi (Mfnic say la^t) (irunnrial n( tblf < 
ic>iUoii.«1t itnpufpiod tit*.* ]M){)i''fl |irimacT ia hi* | 
tnotiA, for wliirh \w was mtdo tht> tint I 
Chester, and wm tweeted that wc in the rdga «f ' 
c)uccii Mary beeaiuc bo wm tiiani«d'. 
TWM^ SI. Wo must not forget bow tb(» C'annelitaa 
SMh. boact very much of oiw Himon Stock of their oftler. 
a Kentish man. or rather Kentish bojr. wbkb 1 
bot twvlre jcan of tge, went out into tbo i 
and then* fi-'d on roots and wild fruit, Unng 1 
trunk of an hollow tnw. whence ht> got tbe i 
of Stock', having a nrrelation. That mmhi after 4 
■bould eomo out of Syria and coufirto hk i 
which ouno to paM when tho Camwlitei c 
He afterwmrda became masterfennal of tlMlrv 
(to wfaiim the revpoctive proThieiab are a 
and if mid to be fanKnu (ur hia minKlet. Let Sjifel 

k Idrn, n. A74. [Bdc. in " 
tba UtdioUMMt prriird Ui hla Aaolkn- nana w«j VUm as. 

Iratii (.'cDtnrT, lUt** that il«f kriit ap its miaUli— Waa 

MTMMM U> Urn lwJ«hip nf ftoo) Uin, tiMl Bo a»« WM 1^ 

Joha MUrarhn. tbv fanwl. mittnl (idAK*vitaM)Ua4a> 

llaa WW* tW WMt Inracd nrii- pw in dtvinttr wiowpl thaa, 

■imM hodv ia Kadm^. Lr- aalw ba had ma praafcaf 

had. Ua ScripL llrit.. hm Ua )mrnii« b« maa ^M 

■niaaw rail J man Ihaa nat haa- pahUcatiaa. Of th* f^frf 

4r«4 aad Ifty writwa af tUa llaa. Ma aln Pits. p. 976.] 

• Ootfwia ia iW BfaLfa «r 

MMtr. p. 77«. [ItcyaOT, ». 

" i nn aai tfm gaa w ia nria- 164. mm wImm vom* 1b 

■ I W 1 

■* vlnaa taU 

laMfaaUb- la Ite cfconb af RMa.] 

■ WMtntWh ' " 

« Rafa*. iUd. p. 164. 

BOOK VI. in England. fPTJ 

then boast no longer of the sanctity of their Simon 
Stulites, (so called, it seems, because constantly living 
about a stone pillar,) our Simon Stock® may mate 
their Simon Stone in all particulars of holiness, 
though, under the rose be it spoken, Mr. Richard 
Stock, the painful minister of St. AUhallows, Bread- 
street, in London, for thirty-two years did advance 
God's glory more than both of them ^ 

22. AUGUSTINIAN EREMFTES lag last, of fer later Augusitin- 

date than Augustinian monks, as who first entered mu^ 
England an7io 1252, and had, if not their first, their 
fairest habitation at St. Peter's the Poor, London, 
thence probably taking the denomination of poverty, 
(otherwise at this day one of the richest parishes in 
the city,) because the said Augustinian eremites 
went under the notion of begging friars s. Mean- 
time, what a mockery was this, that these should 
pretend to be eremites, who, instead of a wide wil- 
derness, lived in Broad-street, London, where their 
church at this day belongeth to the Dutch congre- 
gation ^ ! To give these Augustine friars their due, 
they were good disputants ; on which account they 
are remembered still in Oxford by an act performed 
by candidates for mastership, called keeping of Au- 

23. So much for the four principal sort of friara. Trinitarian 
The following orders being but additional descants ""^ 
upon them, with some variations of their founders : 

^ [He died above the age of 9 [Their first settlement was 

a hundred. A detailed account at Woodhouse in Wales^ be- 

of his life and miracles will be longing to the family of the 

found in Alegre's Paradisus Tankervilles.] 
Carnieliticu8, p. 261.] ^ [Given them by Hum- 

' Stows Survey of London^ phrey de Bohun in 1253. Rey- 

p. 821. [See his Life in ner, p. 165.] 
Clarke's Martyrology.] 


27H Tht HUtory t^AUtgf 

iun<>ng«i whimi wuro tbc TrinitaiteM*. for ' 
KnUrt llokciHlcT built first a houie at Uottfa^dH 
in K<>iit^; tticy wcro callud also {tobcrtlom. and ^ 
fMftttptifme atptivorum, whoae wttric wm to bey 
DioaoT (if well-dt^MMvd peof^ for tbo nunaming of 
Chrutiiuw in ra[)tiTit_r with the pagnns. A chariubl* 
emplo^iiMit. and <io>l liiniactf in aome aort mtcf 
■eem aovpmgn of their order, who loottik the fri- 
Mmer, and thrir niyhing eoaittk b^on iim'. Uj 
aathor* udlcth me tliat he coDoafrvCh them mp- 
[irpMod in RngUnd before the genetBl lUaolatiaa «f 
[iriorii-N though conjecturing at no crnnao thomC 
Sure I am it was nut becatMO niUite tmmtm MKtar 
rjfniHs, picutj of Chriatiao eaptivn then and iine« 
rcmatning amongit the pagaoa; nor will I he m> on* 
charitable aa to soqwct aonw faiilirect dealing in 
their iiiiita|i|ilnng eontributkiiu, bat leave (he reana 
to the ioqiiify of dthetw. 

84. Tbo BoNUioMEs. or ^nod men. cuceerd t 
being alia eremite* brnuglit over into England <l 

' [" V«ran al Imofmtil »• " |«ctio 

-M M wwMitiCTw Trial. 
" tuk ■! TOMBt anfo id tcm> 
-»ri» «nrt» [ilflo]: «pU. 
■ dun MiJHi Jawaw Kuia M 

PoJjd. \'irpL *W larwM. VU. 

lalhlliM.Ee(i. VIII, «.•>.] 
* [Abmi 1475. Hm ■•;. 

Mr, p. 16s.] 
' Fmlm iKzim. M. aadeUvi. 



BOOK VI. in England. 279 

Ricliard earl of Cornwall, in the reign of king Henry 
the Third, his brother". So styled, not exclusively 
of other orders, but eminently because of their signal 
goodness. Otherwise the conceit of the epigram- 
mist*', admiring that amongst so many popes there 
should be but five pious, lies as strongly here, that 
amongst so many orders of friars there should be but 
one of good men. But indeed the apostle himself 
makes a good man a degree above a righteous man : 
for scarcely foi' a righteous man will one die^ yet 
perndventure foi' a good mail some looidd even dare to 

25. These Bonehomes, though begging friars (theTheir rich 
poorest of orders) and eremites (the most seques- 
tered of begging friars), had two (and I believe no 
more) convents in England, absolutely the richest in 
all the land, monks only excepted ; the one in Ashe- 
ridge in Buckinghamshire, now the mansion of the 
truly honourable earl of Bridgewater, where I am 
infonned more of a monastery is visible this day 
than in any other house of England. It was valued 
at the dissolution yearly at four hundred forty-seven 
])ounds, eight shillings, halfpenny^. The other at 
Edington in Wiltshire, now known for the hospi- 
tality of the lady Beauchamp dwelling therein r 
valued, when dissolved, at five hundred twenty-one 
pounds, twelve shillings, halfpenny. It seems that 
these friars (though pretending to have nothing nee 

" [About the year 1257. to England until 1290. An- 

Tlie monastery near Berk- tiq. Benedict, p. 165.] 
hanipstead was built for them ^ John Owen. 
bv Ktlinund, the son of this p Rom. v. 7. 
earl. Pol. Virgil. VII. c. 4. q [In Dodsworth these houses 

But according to Reyner, a are respectively valued at 

better authority, they came not 4i6Li6s,4^d. ana 44 2/. 99.7^1/.] 

T 4 


7%r l/i*ioty tfAbhfjt* 

in ftmprto, mm- in commuHi) woald not CMt tbiir 
rat* (I bIiouM mr tbc-ir ruwls) at rich io<raiB«s» If 
bCDtowcHl ii|Hm them, bat rotitcntcdlr. not to tKf 
choorfullv, cniltrMv the imtne. 

SG. 1 nm afniil I ttavp wroitgrd tbo Ooodked 
rrinm in Ihrir M-ninrilr. whn aboat tbc tmntt tin^ if 
not Itpforv tb*^* IloiR'houu'S vix. 1344, oune over into 
Kn^'IniKl with tlit- poi>i>'N autbeittic. and tliii umwoal 
priTili-^p^-, Tli&t noiK- Hhoiiltl n<]imTo tlunr enter, or 
upbmid them. <ir rotiiiiiarMl thum, andvr |«in of 
cxconimuiiiratioii. Thcv earned a cruoi, #unio tmy 
on their iitavn^ otbrnt, on tbi^ir back*, calleil bi 
Kn-nrb a mmcA ; and juotlv tnij^t tltojr br Uigiy, if 
their iiniperaCM n-on.' deliimil into ilefnrmitT oo the 
HUiu) mt»tako uhenxfn Kdmund C'murhbork. Invtber 
to king Ivlwani the FirM. one of tbf romeliest mm 
aliTc', tH misn.'|irvaentcd to pott^rity fur cronknl- 
backed, men'l,T for aBauniiuft the rrow on bini in tlw 
boir war. The {>lare of Cruurbed-rrian in l^ondoa 
•till n>taim>th their luuue*. 

97. Soon alter, one Tear, via. \t$T, productsd tWjB 
0t9w ordi-n : •<> that I know itut bow to marahal t 
priority, eict^rt to avoid eont<-(rt« they will be f 
fliarn'li-ly to une the i>x|MMlient l^^wixl the e 
of men'liant taitcim and »ktnni>ni in lymdon, to t 
ttteir imiTtHtonrT yearly by tuma. IVith of I 
wm* fixed in (.'ambrid({r : the finrt. tb« bnthratt^ 
fmtilmtM Jesu, ritbf*rwi« hrptbrvn of the 
wboio cell ainee b tunH.<d into Pct«T<lHiaK. 
othiT Bechlcmitea, dwelling «Hni<wbi*ro in TVob- 

• lor iiu> wibr M* R«]r- m. 

BOOK VI. in England. S81 

pington-streetS and wearing a star with five rays on 
their backs. But their star proved but a comet, 
quickly fading away, and no more mention found of 
them in English authors. 

28. I will conclude with the Robertines, con-FnarsRo- 
founded by some^ distinguished by others^, from 

friars Trinitarians. These owe their original to one 
Robert Flower, son of Took Flower, who had been 
twice major of York, (the name lately remaining in 
that city,) who, forsaking the fair lands left him by 
his father, betook himself to a solitary life about the 
rocks in Nithsdale in Yorkshire, and it seems at 
Knaresborough the first and last house was erected 
for his order. Matthew Paris'^ reports, that his 
tomb abundantly cast forth a medicinal oil, which 
possibly might be the dissolving of some gums used 
about his body, and other natural causes may be 
assigned thereof. 

29. For mine own eyes have beheld in the fair Swctting 


church of Ilminster in Somersetshire the beautiful out of 
tomb of Nicholas Wadham of Myrefield, esq., andmiradcT 
Dorothy his wife, founders of the uniform college of 
Wadham in Oxford, out of which in sununer sweats 
forth an unctions moisture with a fragrant smell, 
(which possibly an active fancy might make sove- 
reign for some uses,) being nothing else than some 
bituminous matter (as by the colour and scent doth 
appear) used by the marbler in joining the chinks of 
the stones, issuing out chiefly thereabouts. 

30. So much of monks and friars, as great being Why » 

rarioui ih9 

the variety amongst historians about their number, number or 


^ Mat. Paris, in anno 1157. ^ Reyn. de Ben. Apost. p. 

^ Weever's Funeral Monu- 166. 
ments, p. 143. > In his Hist, in anno 1239. 


T^ JIulorjf ofA66eft MiM n. 

w among«t critics in nvkoning up t)a' ori^tial b^ 
goage*. aiitl the (lifrennKc almiwt ]>n>or<^kHh oo lbs 
ammo accttuni ; for m thr nii^counting nf iltoJi-cto Ar 
litn^K-* ciuiH'loMly multi|ilu>tli the namlMT of tboav 
l&iijfungi'M, M> nwii^, inlMakiiif; Kmdiut for ifficofinl 
ftiffeivticw siDODgM ordora, havr almaat douUvnl tMr 
true ntunbcr on tfakt ukprUnn. Maiter Knx, in Um 
Tvlfn of king Heni7 tlio Third, rwkoniKb up no 
f(>W(>r thnn mi liundn^ and two nialc »rdm <if 
monks and rri)in>, (no nuns being cast iiiln tW 
arrtiuiit,) but tht.ivin ho cotifinirtti not hinwlf to 
nicli u> only wen* exUmt in Eof^nl, Kul Uikrtli in 
tho wluili.' cunipoM of Cliristandoni ttienin to nwke 
up hm raulogtio'. We have work rnoogli u|iaii our 
lianda lu inaiit apoa such ojrdon w kmad fboUag 1m 
OUT land, apeciallT tlie tnoM priadfMl of Umh. 
For otlicT inferior ordoni I purjKMiidj omit, (b*> 
lido* tho ifnuid ones of TetnpUra and lln^iaUfli^ 
Imguiw larg^ bsodlvd in my Holy war,) u the 
order of tlio PleMed Mary of n>niinl. whioti Mr. 
Luobert confoand* vith tbr ('mii<'tif«l and Trini- 
tarian firian, for wliich my antlior falU fnul with lik 
mwiKiry, affinning ihttw to Ix' tbm.< dintiiK-t ordom, 
Mitm,Jtiui, t4 nmttitutmmihui*. Dbtinctioiu i 
of all couoienoo to divpfHry them, and th ffa w 
gruatvr tlic wonder that Mr. Lomliert't pvn i 
loap 0T«r thb troblv ditrh. to conftMutd tbcm into 

SI. Tho aicNTNud author abn rhargeih him, a* If 
, ht> made hit |>i*fanitiQlaliun alNiat Kent, a* iWoa 
lucndy out of »pit«fu] dcoigu to disgrace the I 


1 Ami and MtM. p. 160. ■ Krpt.A»AfaA. 
[L 3)6. la Ri*ima apwuik is Aag. p. i6j. 
nf 1 71 u«bn ■!* fwiMlid.J 

BOOK VI. in Kiigland. 283 

religion, never mentioning any convent without 
mocking at them ; adding moreover, that his book 
contains yJ//>//7fiw ineptas^ et crassa mendacia\ Mean- 
time he advances John Stow to the skies, (though 
confessing him far inferior to Mr. Lambert in learn- 
ing) for his sedulous distinguishing of those orders, 
and concludeth that Stow's Antiquities of London, 
for the worth and truth thereof, have often passed 
the press, whilst the other his Description of Kent 
underv^^ent the hand of the printer no more than 
once. Nor stops he here, but useth so slovenly an 
expression, (it is well it is in Latin,) calling his book 
charta cacata^ which, saving reverence to the 
reader, may be returned on the foul mouth of him 
who first uttered it. 

32. Now I conceive not only queen Elizabeth's Jiwtiydis- 
poor people at Greenwich (so are the almsmen there ^^"^ 
termed in a fair house, which this Mr. Lambert 
charitably founded for them**) engaged to assert 
their good patron, but also that all ingenious Eng- 
lishmen are obliged in his just vindication from this 
unjust aspersion. Indeed, his book is a rare piece of 
learning, and he in age and industry the true suc- 
cessor to Leland in the studies of English antiquity, 
and the height thereof above conmion capacity, the 
sole cause that his book (as also his worthy work on 
the Saxon laws) hath no oftener passed the im- 
pression. His labours are feasts for scholars, not, 
like Stow's works, daily fare for common people. 
Thus the draper may sooner sell forty ells of frieze 
and coarse cloth, than the mercer four yards of cloth 
of gold, as only for the wearing of persons of prime 
([uality. Nor doth the slow selling of a book argue 

» Idem. ^ Camd. Brit, in Kent, [p. 232.] 


The t/ittory ofAbheyi 

it to bo tt drug, wwiting n«l worth In itavlt, m iiliig 

thifi nllinj; ReincriuK hin own book. (notwitfaitoiidiBy 

till* imtDjKms titlt> tht'T%xtt.ApotlolatHs HntfJiciinormm 

in Au^ia,) thonph printcil niix' ami twviitT remn 

liiici*, viz. 16S6, bnlli not (on my Wm Inquirr) m jrcc 

i»ccn honooml with a )»promI cilition *. 

A-ttfMkr S3. Itcfoiv W(* lako our fan-well of friars, koow 

ttitnmA then* was n dmilly antii«lhT Wlwixt thorn and 

P)^ pttrisb |>ric4its: for the fomicr Kli^HitvH the latter, ■> 

good niono to take titli(>s anil, like harknrr pait< 

hnm-ft, only to run tlio «tiigo in lbi> mam boolu 

unmrlum H$um S<trvm, ignorant and aiinblo to p 

Wht-n-forr thi' rriani. when inradiiig the 

wniiltl not WT to the paivon, Kt yotir leave, lit, bat 

|ir»udl_T pn-Muming on thfir )Ht|NU pririlcgea, ■hiibm4 

it to tbcnuelvM. *» forfeilitl to th<>iii. for the yKt- 

■on'a want of ikill or will lo nmkf um> of it. But 

dieae raltarm bail tho (]uickL'«t night and went 

■boot eorpt, floektog Awtevt to men of fashion wboi 

Ijinif on tbeir tlMth-bodi, wfaaae laat ronfwioaa 

were more iwofitable to thr frian than half I 

glebe huid ibst TPar to the priest of the parii^ 

la ibw. !I4. 'rim plainly a|>|K-an>th out of Eraaintw Ib' 

y^ Ml ■Hi dfaUoguea. who, though (wrrhonce therein be \ 

Larian it tofi much, yt^ tniih may be diaeoTCred 
under the vmmUb of hi* ■rofltng wit He, (n him 
diaJ<igue intitled Fmmmt. telU ttfl how iff iivotfutt 
the rich knight, being formerly ronfeMed to th» 
frten, the porodttal puior nftued to tmry Ua 


w ito^aw WBintf 4fvf^w vvVv 

rml rkliM Hbm'a wrh ia hi tnm wfcai fWOvr aa4 al 

•faun an otlwr of iW tnw ; w q iwat aailMn h 

hni it ow fiMUoMUr is Kvl- tli^ kwwlnUt bTiW MMH 

\um. Ik «nlm ia EivkaJ.) 

BOOK VI. in England. 985 

because be could not give an account to God of tbis 
bis sbeep, as unacquainted witb bis final estate ; and 
tins case commonly bappened in England, tbe occa- 
sion of mucb beart-buming betwixt tbem. 

35. Monks also bated friars at tbeir bearts, Monks why 
because tbeir activity and pragmaticalness msAef^^ 
monks be beld as idle and useless, yea, as mere 
cipbers, wbilst tbemselves were tbe only figures of 
reckoning and account in tbe cburcb. 

36. Mattbew Paris, a Benedictine monk of St. Al- 
ban's, was a back friend to fiiars, and on all occa- 
sions batb a good word in store for tbem, tbus 
speaking of tbe coming in of tbe Bretbren of tbe 
Sack, as also of tbe order of Betblemites, be wel- 
comes tbem witb tbis compliment, " Tbat now tbere 
" were so many orders in England, tbat of tbem 
" tbere was an inordinate confusion^." 

37. Indeed, tbe pope at last grew sensible tbat tbeFnan 
world began to groan, as weary witb tbe weigbt offourowierfc 
friars. Wbo, if multiplying proportionably in after- 
ages, would so increase, tbere would be more moutbs 

to bog alms tban bands to relieve tbem ; and tbere- 
fore tbey were stinted to tbe aforesaid four cardinal 
orders, of Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and 
Augustinian eremites. Tbese boasted tbemselves to 
be like tbe four Evangelists% tbougb (tbe number 
alone excepted) no conformity betwixt tbem. And 
tbey more like unto God's four sore judgments^ 
wbercwitb be usetb to afilict a sinful nation. 

38. Come we now to nuns, almost as numerous in The nume- 
England as monks and friars, as baving (tbougb not Ji^lJ^ 
so many orders) more of tbe same order. The 

<l Hist. Angl. in Hen. III. ^ Erasmus' Dialogues in Fun. 
p. 949. ' Ezek. xiv. 2 1 . 


ri,r tliiUanf of Albfyt 

wittkor OCX bath ovi?r pqunllml men in their devo> 
tinii ; iift«>n exrtHiIeil them in miiiemiUon. M in tlw 
otio iiiotoiKt' Hr(iilU*rlitif« may ttiiiK-ar. Thc«e w«v 
on horniaiilinxlite onter. n.i ii« afon>8>u<). wImiUiiiK 
Imtli mm aiid womi--n untlt*r tlie Munc niaC mW 
tluriii); the lift' of (iilbert tlirir firot founikT fur w WB 
luimln^t brctlin-n, IIutl' •ttvTV Hrvoti hutidml URtMS 
L-titt'ivtl into thnt onirr'. Nnno can he no t^xsrt ia 
rerkimirij^ up t\w nuns u (hr frinn, hccnaw that m*x 
nfTortlwl no wnt4.>n to otqiuitit iw with ih^.' rrftiruaw 
nf thf>ir ohfwnnuiceiL 

39. We will itwbtt onl^r on three ports: I. T1m> 

anei(<nti.>«t ; fi. tlio ponnitt ; 9. thu hituvt hum in 

""^ Kiiglaiid. Of ihi- finrt »ort wt? urcoutit the *!» Bnxs 

dtrtinvN, commonly ralh-d blnrk nun«. hut I uamv 

yon, {(t-nny white, Mog- most richly ondowML The 

{uMiR-rt follow, being the ftriirt onler of S. Cluvw a 

laily lirinj; in the Nuno time, and born in the wane 

town with S. Franrift; and licr nun« did mtmx a Ulto 

habit ill <Hi|<)ur with the FmnctifnuM. I atn rli»> 

rita)>ly iiirUnMl to iM'licvu thiU tbeae w«n> the IcMt 

bod nmnnffBt all the pmrnaiians of vfrgiiiity. 

tiri««M> 40. Thr Brifritmn anns were the latat in Eng- 

.niwrf land, tint ti-ttlnl hcrv in the «rr>tttd y»«r of kinn 

■""■ Ht-nry thf Kiftli, anuo Ikm. UI5, dmoWcd with 

the rewt of all nnlfn, a»»o 1A38. so ttint thi>y couti- 

nned hirri' only nnu Imndntl thm' and twenty yean; 

an onUf to Iw lovt-^J on thi» arroimt, tliat it waa 

tb« lait in Knj^Uuid. Bridgvt. t|ni<en of Hwvdm, 

ftnre tlieiii their name and InMitiition^: men and 

Knnrtal Mmii. 


BOOK VI. m England. 287 

women living under the same roof, the women 
above, the men beneath, and one church common to 
both. By their order their house was to be endowed 
plentifully at the first, whereon they might live • 
without wanting or begging, as well in dear as cheap 
years, and after their first foundation they were un- 
capable of any fixture benefactions : si postea tottis 
mundus possessiones et p)'{Bdia eis offei^ety quicqiiam 
omnino recipere non licereV: " if aftem'ards the whole 
" world should proffer them farms and possessions, it 
was utterly unlawful for them to accept any thing 
thereof:" as indeed, additions to such who had 
plenty before, is rather a burden than a benefit. 

41. The mysterious number of Brigetteans might The my»ti- 
not exceed the number of eighty-five, w hich forsooth ^bh"***^ 
was the number of Christ's apostles and disciples put »e«te»^ 
together, and thus they were precisely to be qua- 
lified: 1. Sisters, sixty; 2. Priests, thirteen; 3. Dea- 
cons, four ; 4. Lay-brethren, eight ; in all, eighty- 
five. Where, by the way, know we must reckon 
seventy-two disciples, which the evangelist makes 
but just seventy^, and also put in St. Paul for the 
thirteenth apostle, or else it will not make up the 
sum aforesaid ; but it is all even with discrete per- 
sons, be it over or above it. This order constantly 
kept their audit on All Saints' eve, October 31 ; and 
tlu' (lay after All Souls being the third of November, 
tliey gave away to the poor all that was left of their 
annual revenue, conceiving otherw ise it would putrefy 
and corru})t if treasured up, and be as heinous an 
offence as the Jews' when preserving manna longer 

1 Tho. Walsinghuin in Hen. V., in anno 14 14. [p. 387.] 
^ Luke X. I. 

288 The HiMtary ^Jbbry* Moa n. 

tliaii the- rontiiiuaneo of one ttnr. Tbcso BriftvCtcaas 
hail but ont' cotiTpnt in Knj^land, nt Sjou in Middl»- 
sex, built \ty kitif; llonrr the Fifth, Ixit no i 
that it was TiilntMl yparly worth at tJio i 
one thouBuiid uiiiL> htiiHlred lurtT-four poimdi. « 
shilling eight ppn<-o farthinff'. 

4S. No convL'iitA of nuns in England more car^ 
fullj' kept their records than the prinr^ of Cl u riMi^. 
well, to whcMc credit it is registered, that wr baw % 
{terfect catalogue of their prkiwc^ from their 
fountlation tn their dtasohitJon, (defeoCiTe in all otWr 
housea.) according to the order feUowing, via.* 

1. CliriAianL 13. Joan LvtAraor. 

8. Ermcgud. H. Joan Falhaai, 

S. lUwina. IS. Katharins Brajrbralta. 

4. Eloooora. 16. Lom AUawood. 

5. Aleda. 17. Jou V{«m. 

6. OMiUa. 18. HattuaC BOwdL 
I 7. Uai|H7 WiMtnle. 19. Ubdl W«ol* 
L8.I«b«IL »a Maivan» BaL 
[.Bi AEatt OxMMjr. 81. Agaca Cliftird. 

una MaKjr. SS. Kathariiw OtMaa,] 

^1. Dmjra Braa. S3. ImIhA HoHigr. 

I It. Margo; Vtvj. S«. l«boU Sackvfla-. 

Hod the like care rantimwd In other roarenti^ H 
hail contributed mncfa lo the deamrai of nnlraii 
liral hintorv. 

4S. Sir Thomas Chalkner, tutor, as I take it. Ut 
prince IleniT, not bmg ago Imilt a ■[«rioa> hooM 
within the eloM of that jmory. ii)>on the fronti^ifeee 

> Tk. Wahiagliim, at |wtw. • [Vmtt Wrcrwa FatnJ 

■SMvd'«rHi«((irBrilaiBt] Mmoomicm^ f. 4>9.wh«tn«. 

C^uL wt RaflftoM Hmm», p. wrOinl iWa fro* • M9. ia 

79i. tW C«(lMi LOnrj.] 

BOOK VI. in England. 289 

whereof these verses were inscribed, not unworthy 
of remembrance : 

Casta fides superost, velatae tecta Sorores 

Ista relogatae deseruore licet : 
Nam venerandus Hymen hie vota jugalia servat, 

Vcstalemque focum mente fovere studet**. 

Chaste faith still stays behind, though hence be flown 

Those veiled nuns, who here before did nest : 
For reverend marriage wedlock vows doth own, 

And sacred flames keeps here in loyal breast. 

I hope and believe the same may truly be affirmed 
of many other mmneries in England, which now 
have altered their property on the same conditions. 

44. So much for the several dates of monks and Exactnesa 

f * 1 ••/• 1 ^'ii^ • A^ in (uit68 not 

rriars ; wherem if we have failed a few years in the to be ex- 
exactness thereof, the matter is not much. I was^**'****' 
glad to find so ingenuous a passage in Pitseus, so 
zealous a papist, with whom in this point I wholly 
concur : he speaking of the different eras of the 
coming in of the Augustinians into England, thus 
concludeth : I?i tanta sententiarum varietate verU 
tatem invenire nee facile est, nee multum refert^. The 
best is, though I cannot tell the exact time wherein 
every counter was severally laid down on the table, 
I know certainly the year wherein they were all 
tlirown together and put up in the bag, I mean the 
accurate date of their general dissolution, viz. anno . 
one thousand five hundred thirty and eight, on the 
same sign that Saunders observeth a grand provi- 
dence therein, that Jesuits began beyond the seas at 

o [Extracted from Weever's tally obliterated.] 
F\ineral ^lonuments, p. 430, p Pits, de Script, in Indice, 

before the publication of whose p. 974. 
book the lines had become to- 


flSD Tkt iTutery ^JUt^ 

the very mac linw: wo will not hxg^ vMi M 
fnuik a rhnptnan fnr r few munths under or aw. 
but taking liis chrouult^ herein d^ 6emt a$», ooe 
word or the nune nf tbat order, finC 
plcsMiit atoiy. 

43. A roantrrmBii. who bad lived 

man; jou* fe 

the Ilircinuu) wuocb in Gi'nui 

Into a poimlonii citj. domnndin^r of the 

" What Gn«l tht-y did wonbipT It wm 
him, "Ther wowhipped Jenia ChitaL" 
Wlnnapon the wild wocKJtnan n«kcd the nantM ei 
the nerml ohorcbM in the city, which w«se all 
oUIed hj the nuidfy wutitu to whom tbey wen 
aMTatn). " It is nnmj^'," said ho, ** that 70a 
" wnnliiji JesiH Christ, and he not han ooe 
" in all T<iur city dcdicat4>d unto him." Bnt it 
Ifnatios Loyola, fbandor of this new order, finding all 
other orden coniigned to sumo Mint or other, 

whciire tlmy take their denomination, intvwled at 

hut peciitiArly to n|t|impriate otto to Joaua: that •■ 
at that hoijf name eray knee tkotM foip, n all olber 

Olden ■hoald do homage, and eubmit to thk hia 

now ooe of Jenilta. 
n- 56. Here, had not better eyoi than mine owa 
""made the diiooTcry, (being bcbi^den to M.Ch— 

oitiua tbereini,) 1 had iierer noted the nlet At 

fimee betwixt Jetnata and JcMiita,ao nnr in tmma, 

Ibongb not in time; but it Kema in oatnro dlMin. 

gnisbod. The former began at Sieoa in 

yeor 1366, of whom thua SabelUcttl. 

tnih'o domesticatim, nmplid M iirn aaiicA*, 

<tD— iHmJimI II fiw iifw i ifitfcp. I. wA. isH-l 

BOOK vr. 

in England, 




quceritantes.'^'-^^Apostolici ab initio clerici nuncio 
patiy hi neque sacris initiantur^ neque celebrant missor- 
rum solemnia^ tantum orationi vacant, Jesuati ab eo 
dicti quod Jesu regis summi /requens sit nomen in 
illorum (wr, SfcJ " Men of much innocence and 
" piety were gathered in the beginning from house 
to house, clothed in poor habit, and seeking their 
own livelihood with labour and pains, called from 
" the beginning apostolical clerks. These neither 
" were entered into orders, neither did celebrate the 
" solemnity of masses, but only bestowed themselves 
" in prayer, therefore called Jesuats, because the 
" name of Jesus was so frequent in their mouths.'* 
But it seems these Jesuats sunk down in silence 
when the Jesuits appeared in the world, the former 
counting it ill manners in likeness of name to sit so 
near to those who were so far their betters". 

*• [Ennead IX. 9. p. 822. ed. 
Basil. 1560. Compare with 
this passage the remarks of Sa- 
bellicus in his treatise, De Situ 
Venetae, lib. i. p. 254, same 

^ [** Quinto ejusdem Urbani 
[V.] anno qui fuit salutis 
humanse mccclxviii. Jesu- 
atorum secta Senis orta est : 
coUigebantur ab initio do- 
mesticatim, simplici habitu 
amicti, multa innocentia, et 
pietate viri, sibi victum la- 
l)ore et opera quaeritantes. 
1 1 OS Urbanus quia jam sus- 
pecti ut malefica aliqua su- 
perstitione imbuti haberi in- 
cipiebant, ad se Romam vo- 
" catos de cseremoniis et vit« 
instituto interrogavit, cogno- 
vitque to tarn rem et probavit. 



f ( 











*' deditque ut alba tunica ute- 
" rentur, et capitio quadrato a 
" cervice ad humeros dejecto. 
" Cinguntur scortea zona, nu- 
" dos pedes ligneis soleis in 
'* inferiore parte muniunt : 
" datum inde est ut canusinum 
" pallium tunic® superjectum 
" ferrent. Apostolici a prin- 
" cipio viri nuncupati sunt, 
" sacris non initiantur, tantum 
•' precibus vacant, et Jesuati 
'' ab eo dicti sunt, quod Jesu 
" nomen frequens sit in illorum 
** ore. Fuit rei autor Joannes 
" Columbinus, homo Senensis." 
Pol. Virgil, de Inventione,VII. 
c. 4. This order never extended 
beyond the Alps. According 
to one writer, who received his 
information ^m a brother of 
the order, they are called in 

U 2 

7%w HtMtary ofAbbryt mm vi. 

■ ff7. All unlen may bo Mud eminenU; extant Id 
the Juiiuit« to ukI abore tho kJoil. tbe degxva 
thorenf; uid indeed ther ramc ncMnnably to M^ 
port tbe tiitlL-rinp ehun-h of K^tmo : Tor wbcQ tbe 
pn>t«»tjuitii, odvoiitAj^l with Ipttrninjc luid languigv^ 
bnnigbt ia tlio tvfonnatioit, monki and fmn wm* 
either so ignorant on iiwy (-ould not, wa Idle M they 
wDutd not, or 00 cowanltr tliat thcr dum not taakm 
eflectual oppowtiou, as little Bkilled in btbm» Im* 
in acriptiire, awl not at all Tcraed io Icarnni bn- 
gMgoa. As for the FrancincBiHi, I tnav nv or tbook 
tfaojr fren> the best and wont scholan of all fiian*. 
Hie bett, as nio«t mibliroe in aebool dirinitj ; wont, 
teft if bofore their eotnuiev into that order ikmj 
knew not leuniog. tbey were onjoined not to tkady 
U. Beeidfls, tnonki and frian woru m clogged with 
the nbwmneee of their orden, that it eoaflaat 
them to tbejr eella. and reDdered tbctn uadca hi ■ 
fimetical way. ^\*hefefbre, to halann' tbe pro- 
teatant^ the Jemila ware act on fnoi, oblige] t«i 
tboee itadiea, (oot of fiwhkm with monks aud fttan^) 
whereto they quickir attaJiivd a grmt eminenoy, ■• 
thotr verjr advorsarioi miut oonrcH. And at their 
beada wen bettor ftimbbod than other orden^ a« 
their bandf were left at mora liberty, (not tM 
behbid their baebi to a Ux^ poatnie of ranonhal 
idlencw.) whence tbejr arr boeomo the moat aethr* 
and prnj^natira] iindi-rtakif* in all Cbrtftcodom. 

ft8. 1 nnnot bat connend one imliey in the J^ 
■nitiw which oondneeth mnefa to their credit, 
namely, whereaa other orden of monlu ud tSan 

lull, rrmin WriT «(f M. frUM KMw. Ubc Uo^MiM.B.Sa.1 
tWir •ttnitiM in dutiUinit • Sh Cmi. XIV. haJk It. 

BOOK VI. in England. 293 

were after their first institution sifted, as I may say, 
thorough many other searches, still taking new names 
according to their sub-de-re-reformations; the Je- 
suits since their first foundation have admitted of no 
new denomination, but continue constant to their 
primitive constitution ; chiefly because sensible that 
such after-refinings fix an aspersion of (at leastwise a 
comparative) impurity on their first institution, and 
render their first founders cheaper in the world's 
valuation; whilst the Jesuits still keep themselves 
to their foimdation, as begun and perfected at once, 
and are oXoKXrjpoi, all of a lump, all of a piece ; 
which unity amongst themselves maketh them the 
more considerable in their impressions on any other 

59. They had two most ancient and flourishing in Enf. 
convents beyond the seas, Nola in Italy, as I take it, astroiogen 
where their house it seems gives a bow for their "* *^*'™®' 
arms, and La Fletcha in France, where they have an 
arrow for their device; whereupon a satirical wit 
thus guirded at them : and I hope I shall not be 
condemned as accessary to his virulency, if only 
plainly translating the same. 

Arcum Nola dedit, dedit his La Fletcha sagittam, 
Illis, quia nervum, quem meruere, dabit^? 

Nola to them did give a bow, 

La Fletch an arrow bring. 
But who upon them will bestow, 

Wliat they deserve, a string f 

I have done with these Jesuits, who may well be 
compared unto the astrologers in Rome, of whom 
tlie historian doth complain, Ge7itis est hominum 

V [See Howell's Letters, p. 120, ed. loth.] 

u 3 


Tkt JfUUtry frfJhbtjfM m BrnglvU. BOM vi. 

qHod in civibUe nottra ei trtaiitmr tewiper «f rwtim^ 
bitar': " Tlicfe is ■ kind of men tn our cttj wito «iU 
** alwari) bo forbiddea, and yet atwKrn be retained 
** thcn'iii." Ko. though many Kiren> ImWft hsTn beMi 
made lunuiiat tlieni, ypt citlicr web their buldiiMa faft 
adifiituring, or our iitato-mildiwai in oxeeoti 
aututw l^tmtlMlt them, that alwajm thejr tn i 
bonrt', aitd alwaj* tboy stay bere, to the | 
tarbonra of oiu* ami adnmoeBKnt of Aeir 
60. WvTv I iHjriMMuly omit the bonaea for I 
I people, ttioiifch indeed thcjr deiwnr«l more cfaarity 
than all tlii.< n-st ; and I may ny. thb only wm am 
order of God's makiu^, wbea he waa phiaacd to 1^ 
hi* afiUoting liand on jKicir pvople in that loathaaoM 
dkcaae. 1 take Burton-Ljuam in LMrortmhtn to 
be the beat eiulawod botuw for that purpuou. Bat 
aa that dtaoaae came into Kajflaod by the Holy War. 
■o, M wo have daewfaere obaerved*, it ended witih 
the and tbevEof. And God of bis foodiiMB hath 
taken a«^ the leproaj of leproiy in F-"y*y*d 

• TMh. IliM. lib. I. 

• In mj Ualy War. [V. p. 15.] 






It was enacted hy a law made in the twenty-seventh year of 
the reign of king Henry the Eighth, that " whosoever re- 

a [Arms. Sadler. A lion 
rampant, party per fesse, azure 
and gules, armed and langued, 
argent. Arms. Coke. Per pale, 
azure and gules, three eagles 
displayed argent. (See Bloom- 
field's History of Norfolk, V. 
1041.) Sir Ralph Sadleir 
was son of sir Thomas Sad- 
leir, knight, sheriff of Hert- 
fordshire in the twenty-ninth 
and thirty-fifth years of Eliza- 
beth, and grandson of the cele- 
brated sir Ralph Sadleir, the 
keeper of Mary queen of Scots. 
He married Anne, the eldest 
daughter of sir Edward Coke, 
lord chief justice of the king's 
bench, at the early age of fif- 
teen : " He delighted much," 
says Mr. Clutterbuck, quoting 

from sir Henry Chauncy, " in 
'^ hawking and hunting, and 
" the pleasures of a country 
*' life, was fieunous for his noble 
" table, his great hospitality to 
'^ his neighbours, and his abun- 
" dant charity to the poor." 
And he is thus spoken of by 
Isaac Walton in his Complete 
Angler, as being attached to 
the diversion of hunting: "To- 
morrow morning we shall 
meet a pack of otter dogs of 
'^ noble Mr. Sadler's, upon 
** Am well-hill, who will be 
'' there so early, that they in- 
" tend to prevent the sun- 
** rising." (p. 3, ed. Major.) 
He died without issue some 
time after his wife, Feb. 12, 
1660, and his estates descended 

U 4 



a&B Th* Bitturjf cfAbbtjf mob vt. 

» taimt aUtf-tmkb afim tim tmoMtm fmtd m*i iLm 
"Jinmt flU erwem, ikimU imp a Mi m i m y immi, w Jm ^r- 
" fint ntry wttmA twmlf mMm, nnwmmii U frim tttm m 
" amy court ^tteant." 

TViM it it, lci»g Jomm wm yracimufy fimati m lib li<m 
Jlni^hit rtiym to nftat tkit aH mmd hmm IAm rW.jW 
mJuA MMjr imdm' tit Uuk (■«(» wiO mti fmy) tNB am 
thmh to iii mmmry. Bml imfftm fUt /mmI iMMto d0 
iii/Ww, jwM w^ il^y off wyWMinyir «iqr WpMiifr II9 
M^ ^ afumi fomfir tit mmt. 

tmdt^ ym af0 fomtmd 9f&t Jmr tamtmi ^ W^^kmif im 
Q hmtH t wnkirt, amd liUf m <u immtntU hrwta «* m^ 
Utmi» im SaylaiiJ 1/ that no/vrv orw trnjapd, UalttmJ ■• 
fmt jpnnu^iiAUr, Mr Batpk SaJUir, iy hmy Ilmrj Ik 
' iUm faAtr, jmrt^ m mMwrmymma fa wtUf 1« wi^ 

\ ^ 99 kit tknt MUrm, to «B wMe4 A« wm ^i ' i j w 

F<4 M rfr wj ir of pmmlty M jmi, trlMf Amh* if i hw wi <■ it 
liU «mAv ^ kt^fitotily, tritmtt mm «U«tt flbwMn f iw («arf 
liby iM« aMW t» tkal Umam) miyU barm H hvf » Im^ 
lifwi laiU, wbw off «fv M W w*rf ; liW rteA far w rth ^ 
mIm fiUir aecoMMM Iniy lim .- ri# fmtftr rhanty^ witm 
Aiy ir i m y flUir otwi w iwM to /wi» <y jwr iati W i W 

/aWM, UU i— i*MW» »f Umdm yim frr A$ ■>««• ^ lb 
■nM ^timr ttmfamf, I wm • ttnngvr, umI y« Inoh ■■ 
k. Atf Mi^ Mr ^^•'Mr oUq^ HtoadM iwA «4* 4W 
m»lmtt,t<^ gim mdtrlmiimml $» t tr mm y m t .mun y nf trfg 
«r* (if Mrab f /J wIfa to y mmUf mmd wdtr mif, wimrn 
iami it mti* imm y mtral to aO pttr /w y f <, ttol tA« "HH^ 

Mffaian, A« will im dm tim* nnim ym t^ iatt tit Immt, 
wktrtim Amm it maay m mrn t J amt ^mtHmtim y Ittfjimtm. 

•In nwiM air tUlr^'i Mtot p. iiS.] 

II«rtft«^kirr, II. 

HOOK VI. iM England. 297 


|HE specious pretences of piety andAbiK)c», 
contempt of the world, abbots andi^XJ 
monks, were notoriously covetous, even*"*""^ 
to the injury of others : witness their 
renting and stocking of farms, keeping 
of tan-honses and brewhouses in their own hands. 
For though the monks themselves were too fine- 
nosed to dabble in ton-fats, yet they kept others 
(bred in that trade) to follow their work. These 
convents having bark of their own woods, hides of 
the cattle of their own breeding and killing, and, 
which was the main, a large stock of money to buy 
at the best band, and to allow such chapmen they 
sold to a long day of payment, easily eat out such 
who were bred up in that vocation. Whereupon, in 
tlio one and twentieth of king Henry the Eighth a 
statute was made. That no priest, either regular or 
secular, should on heavy penalties hereafter meddle 
with sucli mechanic employments. 

2. Secondly, they impoverished parish priests, by *i*^n* 
decrying their performances, and magnifying their can by ^ 
own merits. Alas ! what was the single devotion of SJ^JJ/" 
a silly priest in comparison of a corporation of 
prayers (twisted cables to draw down blessings on 
their patrons' heads) from a whole monastery? And, 
su])]K)»;e (which was seldom done) the parson in the 
pariiih preaching to his people, yet sermons in a 
church once constituted were needless, as ministering 
matter of schisms and disputes, and at the best only 
l>rofiting the present, whilst prayers benefited as well 
the absent as the present, dead as living. Bnt 

Tht HUlary tfJbbi^ 

wpocuUlj prayers of monasteries ooi 

plnfwd with the hnljr Tu^eaee of m tuuiy 

mijrbty iietiiioiiere. B; thow tnd ochor 

Xhey uridennintHl oil priut* hi the afbetioM tt' 

omi people, and procurpi] from pope 

t)mt mnnT rlmrrhcs pnwintativc, vltli their 

Rixl titlifn, wort' npjimprintnl to their 

leavin;; but n poor pitUuiw lo the parkb 

thou^i the pofN.' (u fftyltnx hinueir bat a 

ought to luivo hwa more wiuible of tbt^ nd ee&- 

*yj** » S. Dcridei ^ipnpriatton of soeh rhim4i«i, ibbajw 

mm^imm alio wroii]^ puish [oiesti bjpiocnriiijf (rom tiw pop* 

*^'***pMchtI the Second, SMfM Amu. 1100, in the 

of Mcntx, tlmt their demomcu. (kmu, uid 

(anciontly paying tHhM like the lutdi^ of otbar 

Bni) dwald hereafter be free tmm the Munv. 

tU> exemption waa aftenmnls bj )w>[ie Adfiao 

Pnarth, iilrout the yrnr 1150. jiistlj limitofl awl 

ntitraini*H ; n'lipouH orHen* iM-ing onjoitiiHl the paT- 

metit of tithe* of wlintMM'^-er inrmuv tbiT had Id 

their owu oeeupotion. (wte of itcw impmrenenta by 

cnttare of parture of their rattle.) and of garden 

fniiu''. Only three orden, namely, the Cbtareiaai^ 

TcmpUtrv. and Knlghta boipitallen, (otberwiie caDei 

of S. JohnV of Jenmlem.) weiv exempted fran tlM 

general pnyrocnt of all tithet whataoerer. 

rn«*M 4. And why Cisterdans rather than any oAar 

I^b7 order? Give me leave to eoi^jcotore thnw rratma 

■'^* thcrvof: 

I Adrian the Foorth. ovtx own* eoaatryBian. w«a at 

*■ Vid. Alffi. i* 8ntw 

• Nmm. la tfaa «%. 

BOOK VI. in England. 299 

first a Benedictine monk of S. Alban's, and these 
Cistercians were only Benedictines refined. 

ii. They were the Benjamins, one of the youngest 
remarkable orders of that age, and therefore made 
darlings (not to say wantons) by the holy father the 

iii. It is suspicious, that by bribery in the court of 
Rome they might obtain this privilege, so beneficial 
unto them. For I find that king Richard the First 
disposed his daughter Avarice to be married to the 
Cistercian order, as the most grasping and griping of 
all others. 

I leave it others to render reasons why Tem- 
plars and Hospitallers, being mere laymen, and 
divers times of late adjudged in the court of Aides 
in Paris *^, no part of the clergy should have this 
privilege to be exempted from tithes. But we re- 
member they were swordmen, and that aweth all 
into obedience. 

5. However, the Lateran council, holden anno Confined to 
1215, ordered. That this privilege of tithe-freedom before aT* 
to the aforesaid three orders should not extend toj^^^ 
postnates, (as I may term them,) to convents erected 
since the Lateran council, nor to lands since be- 
stowed on the aforesaid Orders, though their convents 
were erected before that council. Therefore when 
the covetous Cistercians (contrary to the canons of 
that council) purchased bulls frt>m the pope to dis- 
charge their lands from tithes, Henry the Fourth, 
pitying the plea of the poor parish priest, by statute 

c C. le Bret [Recueil d'aucuDs playd. en la cour des Aydes. 
PI. 27. ed. 1609.] 

nailed nich Inills ■*. and nxluml thoir bndi into UmC 
■talo wIitTt-in they wen- btfufv. 

6. Oncu it wu ill mr niiiid to oK dovn a tat^ 
luguo (ca«T to ilu, and tuefiil wben done) of M>eh 
hootus or Cistercians, Tompbn. uid ll(MpitaU«B 
whifli were fuundttl pituM! tlie Latcmn 
(foing utnlcr the gc-iicnl notion of titbts^^ 
pvat iryiiry of the chiirrJi. But mnce, « 
Umughia 1 cocwdvod It better to lot It akt 
tun- on tiuch diicovery of any bleviiy fti 
miniKti'm which Hbotdd i^o, bat rcrtahi 
runeii fn>ni iturh Ijirnien who should loao tl 

7. Now when king llenrr the Eighth 
monaftterieH, there wwt put into his hand ai 
tuiuty and advantnf^' to ingratiate liinunlf 
mrmoiy for ever; namely, b}- rvstoring Utbca 
priatod to abbeys to tboir rmitortiTe |«ri<tbt'a. B«l 
whether be wanted mind, nr mittding, or both. Go4 
would not do him so much hrttiour. that be ibaaM 
do n much honour to Go<l and tiia cfanrcb : being 
now past liiie laT4«>ni with the n-«t of the a b h a y - 
land, to the frreat impairing of the jnit naiotannat 
of mir>i»tent. 

8. Lastly, one grand miaeliier <to omit nnf 
otben) doiw bj Bonailariaa was hy the priTilegaa «f 
■anctaarieii whereby their houses became the sink 
and eeotre of sjnnen, to the gnat dtahocMmr ef Ood 
and ohstruotion of jnstiee. 

9. And hero I commend tbe mcmafy of TnrkalflU 
Morr a]>bot t,( Cmwtatkd, being e wi Me n t thaA As 
reader silt join with me in hb 

<« Amm I Hra. Um Fmrtb. r 

BOOK vr. in England. 301 

vast immunities were bestowed on that convent by 
Wichtlaf, king of Mercia, that if any officer did 
follow an offender, of what nature soever, to fetch 
him out of that liberty, he was to have his right foot 
cut off®. Strange exchange! when a legal prose- 
cutor is made a malefactor, and the malefactor an 
innocent ; such the converting power of a monkish 
asylum. But in process of time, and depredation of 
the Danes, this privilege was lost, and proffered 
afterwards by some Saxon kings to be restored, 
which Turketill would never consent unto : and take 
it in the authors own words ^; Antiquam vero loci 
impunitateni vel immunitatem nulla modo consensit 
acqxdrere^ ne sceleratis et impiis refugium a publicis 
legibns videretur in aliquo prcebere^ et cum hujusmodi 
maleficis compellei^etur, vel in aliquo contra conscien- 
tinm suarn cohabitare^ sen consentire. This privilege 
other churches of S. Alban's, Beverly, Westminster, 
did accept. Such sanctuaries were grievances con- 
stantly complained of in parliaments till Richard the 
Second first began ; Henry the Fourth and Seventh 
proceeded to regulate them as abused and usurping, 
and Henry the Eighth utterly abolished them as use- 
less and unlawful. 



The officers in abbeys were either supreme, as the The abbot, 
abbot, or, to use a canonical term, obediential fi^, as 
all others under him. The abbot had lodgings by 

« Ingulphi Histor. p. 856 = 8f [Mat. Paris,] in vitis vi- 
8, ed. Gale. ginti trium abbatum S. Albani, 

f Idem, p. 879 = 40. p. 1 70. 

903 Ti» Hittory tfJibegt mms ti. 

hinuelf, witli k11 ofllocft thon>mito bt4oiifiiift. 1^ 
reitt loi.k [irerrtU'nritui nrrnrrlinjr t« the tojiicsl «*• 
tuimi uf tbi-'ir cniivt_-iiu. but for the genenlitj | 
tliiu niay be numballed. 

3. Kiret, thu prior, wbo, Uko tho prMMenkt 
the tnwAer) in our ruUcj{t>« in Cauibrwlge^ v 
to the ttbliuU Nol4.- bj tbo w»T, that in t 
vetilA, which tuul no nbUit^. tliu prior ww 
u the imwdimt iu «ouc Ozroitl rounihuioa*^; asA 
beinft iiMtmlled prion, mme votvd u baroti* in i«fw 
Uuncnt, wheruof roimcriy.aft the prior of Cutterliaij 
and Coventry. But when the abbot waa wpvciiH 
tentUot, then the pemou tenned prior waa bja aoba^ 
diiHU«, wbo in bin alMenre, in mitred ab) 
ooartOTjr wh mluted tliv tun] prior. 

3. Secoodlj, tbu aub-ftrkMr, (aa Hugo I 
prior of Ely, founder of PetwJiaain.) ({tiery % 
anjr eompliinont doteanded ao ktw aa to lord t 
prior in the absence of thu prior and abbot, 
the third prior and fourth prior, for lueh d 
■ppMU-, they como not within the i 
innoh favour'. 

• 4. Thirdly, tiie ■eowttry. who waa tba rcfbui^ 
aoditor, and cbaoecUar of the oonTent, H befag 
proper to Ua pbee to write and retnra letten, and 
nanago tbo moat laamod onployiiKBta in tbe ■»- 

*■ 5. With him the mmermriut, or rhambcrlain. mtj 

Trbnlr, Mid 8t. JoImV 

Ckrirti. Iba Mcrwl rap vA i 

' la ib» nhcriptkai cl' lb* 

■ raiwih.irw 

Cfcma. of lb* A>mMtiakmt af aada of tbt w en f ry w m. 

Ui dki -I •" Tiiil^ 

w Aal^. fl ^■^ l ■l ■ Af^^a^fc^ 

in £ttffland. 


seem to contest for precedency, aa keeping the keys 
of the treasury, issuing out and receiving in all con- 
siderable sums of money'; in which notion the cham- 
herlain of London holdetli his name. 

6. Fifthly, the cetlartus, or celierarius, a place of The « 
more power and profit than the name may seem to 
imjiart. He was the bursar, who bought in all pro- 
visions, and appointed the pittances for the several 
monks; and in some houses he was "'secundus pntei- 
in raonasterio, as in the abbey of Bury", where a 

' [Providing all portions of 
dress, bcils, rasors, towels, and 
suchlike for the use of the mo- 
nastery. Lnn franc's Decreta, 

t. Tii.] 

™ [" Pater totiiia congr^a- 
" toiiis debet esse." Lanfranc's 
Deeretfl, c, ix.] 

" Joceline Brakelonde. [MS. 
in the Cotton Library. See 
llie Hist, of Cambridge, p. i6. 
This ollice is thus described in 
the Decreta of Lanfranc, e, is. 
To the office of the celerer 
it belnngetb to provide every 
thing which in meiit or drink, 
or food of any kind uiay be 
necessary for the brethren. 
All the vessels for the cellar, 
kitchen, and refectory, and 
furniture for each. Of his 
iDi[K>rtauce. the foLowing de- 
cree in behalf of the soul of 
Aduin, the huniar nr cetlarius 
of St. Alban's, furnishes no bad 
proof, " J>ecree for the soul 
" of Adam the Bursar ;" " It 
" is decreed by the abbot 
" Warren (Gwnrinus), and the 
" whole convent, that on the 
" day in which the anniversary 
" of Adam the bursar of this 
" church shall be declared ( who 
" for his excellent services hath 

obtained the distinction of 
being buried in the chapter), 
that it shall be kept as a 
feast by all every year, as is 
uitually done mth greater 
honour and solemnity at the 
anniversaries of our abbots ; 
to wit, with psalms and 
' masses, and feasting the poor. 
For this annivefHiry the clerk 
' of the kitchen (celierarius 
' coquinB monachoium) shall 

provide whatever may 
necessary, that 


' cient and apleadid banquet 
' for the convent in the re- 
' fectory. Theidmoneron that 
' dny shall feed a hundred poor 
' people for his soul ; and the 
' like nundier the celierarius 
■ of the kitchen. Aloreovcr 
' tlie church of Southbury hiid 
' been appointed by the said 
' brother Adam the bursar, fur 
' the celebration of this anni- 
' versary. and also for that 
' which is celebrated on the 
' sixteenth of January for the 
' souls of his father and nio- 
' ther, and of all the parents 
' of the monks of this church; 
* because that church was ac 
' quired hy him : inasmuch as 
' he improved his foresaid ser- 

Mi TAt Hittitry i^Abbfyi Moc *i 

Iivge imrt of tlio buiMin^ wu wsignod for hia r*^ 
denn>, iin<l X&wU fnr liL-> iniuntetHUiiw. llwH) ccU 
loivn wen* linivo blodi'fl, much ftflttcthi|r wfcvAu gal- 
buitiy. For I find it iximplaiiipH uf^ ttut thcj tacvl 
to gwagjtCT with tlieir iiworIo bj tbrir riilea like kj 

7- Tbt> n-'mftining cifBd-i-rB aif l>o«t rvrknnrd np by 
the rarmniral rmitns (wi I may term them) in ■■ 
RbbeT. e«cb jiving ileiiomiiiatiuo to bira who 
tbe iovpcction thcroor. I lK>jrin with the gmte-heot^ 
■nd its n>lal)Tc the porter ; an oflice, I 
•ome tnut in an Bbbey, to know what gui 
when, cqiecially nt tbc [MWtt'm, art* to bo 

8. Hio next room U the rfftetnrium, and 
rt'iu the contnillcr tbcnNif^. It was the hall 
the mooka dinod together, and aometiffltv the abbot 
on great •olemnitiea graced tbem with his [>rc*eao«. 
when he had vatleffum, that is, not coDunoi 
but TAHtel breads, or nmnels for his diet'. 

9- At^oiniug to it waa the hcntitnum^ or 

" ric» (otwdiantii) ; to wh, tka Mving 1^ •^'^ " f^* ^ 

- UuhvH of Uw mumIu. hf kirn nmptad tnm the dMM wt 

" vn troMbfo ud car*, whh iIm Intdwo. to wkM all «iitwi 

" MMMMJiacawMofoaaluuk* wtr* cUifpd to •olwiit wtMrw. 

** drarfpoMndiiMltluMaMfln, 8m alao iha nilr of S. Fra*. 

" w rt aa fti a H wa J HH W." Sw Mouh. can. «i. tk» Upmvh «f 

Mil Puk b VU. AUtfa UaftMe. ap. ». |pnM«« ia 

8. Albaai, p.^ TImm wtn Hnwr, Dt Aat^. BmnA^ 

Mkr wUmril bnUM lUi ^ 1 1?.] 

•Smt, wfco !• « nibd W WW • ttuchud. d> oAw Ife. 

•f 4Maclioai H cdmriw B«i«fi «. OidH b OOfaMTa 

nd r^^^H 



Mam. >id lk> lika. or IW Twnjn) P- »«•■ 

inia or lb <riknri_. tW < CUu- "h) >• Vkk. p. 

mdv OMT MMsh tW rob oT 141. 

> HllilM. op. i»«l. ■«< a|». 'S»alaai>TO 

«»i».hywfca*»di ci «i>h»i l ii « i. mt, [^ v.] 


in England. 


because there leave was given for the monks to dis- 
course, who were enjoined silence elsewhere. Thus 
we read how Paul, the fourteenth abbot of S. Al- 
ban's, made it penal for any to talk in the cloister, 
church, refectory, or dormitory. 

10. Oriolium^ or the oriol, was the next room". The orioi. 
Why so called, some of the namesake college in 
Oxford are best able to satisfy. Sure I am, that 
small excursion out of gentlemen's halls in Dorset- 
shire (respect it east or west) is commonly called an 
orial. The use hereof is known for monks, who 

were in latitudine morbi^ rather distempered than 
diseased, to dine therein, it being cruelty to thrust 
such into the infirmary, where they might have died 
with the conceit of the sickness of others. 

11. Dorrnitorium, the dormitory, where they allThedormi. 
slept together, it being ordered in the council of ^^'^^ 
Aquisgrane, Nisi in dormitorio cum c^steris absque 
causa inevitabilif nemo dormire prcssumpseritK 

8 In Vitis, p. loo. [Speak- 
ing of the same abbot Matthew 
Paris says : '* Hie quoque 
** priino pennisit aliquibus fra- 
" tribus in quibus per maciem 
*' et pallorem, debiGtatem per- 
'' penderat manifeatam (quibus 
** videbatur inconveniens esse 
'* et conscientise Isesionem in- 
" trare intirmariam, quia quam- 
" vismacilentiessentvelpallidi, 
" vel etiani debiles non sibi in- 
** tirmi videbantur) ut seorsum 
** scilicet in oriolo camem co- 
** mederent." But in another 
part of his work (p. 142) he thus 
explains the meaning of this 
term: "Adjacet atrium nobilis- 
*' simuminintroitu^quodporti- 
'* cus vel oriolum appellatur."] 


^ Sub Ludov. Imp. au. 816. 
cap. 134. [In the statutes of 
the provincial chapter held in 
the year 1444 the following 
provision is made : *' Statuimus 
** etiam quod omnes tam offi- 
" ciarii, quam claustrales, ae^ 
" cundum dispositionem dicti 
'' sui Prsepositi singuli singula 
'* lectistemia seu cellas pro 
" modoeonversationisaccipiant, 
" ita quod omnes et singuli in 
*' uno loco, et sub nno tecto, 
** tam obedientiarii, quam alii, 
" si commode fieri poterit dor- 
" miant ; lumen vero in dor- 
" mitorio de nocte jugiter ar- 
" deat. Monachi vero in suis 
" cellis, ubi solent dormire. 
*' lectistemia desuper aut per 


Tk« Hiatoty ofAhbejft 


1 M- 

IS. LarahpriHm wirccoda, genmlly mHcoI 
bniwlry, when> t)icir plotbea wen WMlkMl. H^l] 
WM also tliL> plow (tiurb hi the vmt ncte i>f W< 
miiutin- clc^flten) whore all the mnnki at thr 
waHluil tlieir haiiiU, there licinj^ a» mncb ptoA 
lowflhip in wadiinjt ax vtXm^ Xopyrhor. 

IS. Scriptorittm rvmtiUtf^ a room wht'R^ the 
tulanoff WIS burned in writirifi, c«iw>rially em] 
In tbf tnuiMTittiiig of tht^> biMikfl: Iheb* 

i. IPnliitatt, rniiljiinin); the nilmc of their 
uid <liriTtr>rT of tlieir pfVod* id *ervice. 

ii. CfmmetHJinoU, pmenllng the anrient nmaum 
of tboir coDTcntii. 

ili. Trf>fiarir». 

It. C*Mrcianf$, wherein the eccteitMtkml eMIer te 
were Mrlr writt*-!!". 

14. Next thin the librarr, which moM frrrat ak 
be;* bad exartlr fumhhed with rarietv of eboiee 

*■ Iccti cbcuUirai imn habraat 
" nU lie tSba vcl A» nigm 
" UHUw rd lb Ivww cum ^1- 
" libiH ifnini* albi* rel mi- 
" gri>-~ Aa4 ■■ •onthi^r held 
la i_U? 't <•» nrdainnl. Tlul 
■II kiniU nf niftaiiu tlioulil be 
rcmiTeil from the becU, *u m 
that tW BHiok* isif^ b« cMi' 
liMHQy amim tke ere of Umm 
•miMvd 10 HpMkl»«4 tbe 
dotBrilary. day ud aij^t. 8m 
th(« !■ Kafaer, Da ApnL 
BvBMlkt. Aff. iU. p. Ill ami 

(H tU bnk« (1*M to & AJ- 

■' nUr(i«ru«.tW.* Vita AtA 
tmn. fct- p. 51. 
Tha iroparia 

tW Uraak aMriMa, A«« »U<h 


in England, 


parts in the 

15. All is marred if the kitchen be omitted, so The 
essential a requisite in an abbey, with the larder and ^^*"* 
pantry the necessary suburbs thereof. 

16. Come we now to their abbey church, were weTheteTerai 
first meet their 

i. Cloistei's^ consecrated ground, as appears by 
their solemn sepultures therein. 

ii. Navis e€clesi<B, or body of the church. 

iii. Gradatorium, a distance containing the ascent 
out of the former into the quire. 

iv. Presbyterium^ or the quire, on the right side 
whereof was the stall of the abbot and his ; on the 
left side the prior and his moiety of monks, who 
alternately chaunted the responsals in the serviced 

V. Vestiarium^ the vestiary, where their copes and 
clothes were deposited. 

vi. Avoltay a vault, being an arched room over 
I)art of the church, which in some abbeys (as S. Al- 
ban's) was used to enlarge their dormitory, where 
the monks had twelve beds for their repose y. 

vii. Coficameratio^ being an arched room betwixt 
the east end of the church and the high altar z, so 
that in procession they might surround the same, 
founding their fancy on David's expression, — and 
so will I compass thine altar ^ Lord\ 

As for the other rooms of the church ; cerarium^ 

X [In Radulphus de Diceto 
this word seems to be used to 
express the chancel ; for we 
find when Tracy and others 
proceeded to the murder of 
Thomas a Becket, the arch- 
bishop descended down the 
steps of the presbyterium to 
meet them. It was so called, 
according to Somner, because 

originally none but the pres- 
byters sat in this part of the 
church. Olossar. s. v. Preslqr- 

y In Vitis, p. 125. 

« In Vitis, p. 5a. [We 
find the same in the church of 
Jerusalem, and in all the ear* 
liest churches.] 

A Psal. xxvi. 6. 

X 2 

90B lU Biatmy t^ AhUyM «mm «i. 

when tbcir wax ouMlIm were kept : eampamtttt tJieir 
■teaplp; ^M((rajf(/rt'>//ii, (lit- churrlinmj, anH tKUntrtiaw 
Um dianifl-lii>UM>, )l>1 oiirh In* ruiuulUil with wImi 
bare written larf^ (nliiines on thb nilijfct, who will 
alM) iiifonii tht'tii uf the rii^iitkii ami tlutUa of Um 
pnxMOitor, Mcrwt, vab-aurat, capelhuie, aitiar7. vea- 
tkiy. emofenuy. &cc. beloagiog thenninht. TW 
nmainiog roonu of an abbojr Mood a dntancv froa 
tfw oiaia ■tmotaiv tbenwf. To begin with tbti bial 
flnt : efawaryarfg, or tb« almor^, being a buibtt^r 
Boar or within the> abbev, wbnvin poor and tmpolaat 
penoQs dill ltTL> maintainod liv tbcir clumty. 

17- StMNindtv, MtKt»aritnn,vT the n'titury. wbnnia 
dcbton taktnjic refu^ fnini llivir rn-diton, male- 
Ibeton from the judge, liTra) (tiM' more the pitr) in 
all aocuritv. 

18. Thinlly, inJiTmarium, or the finnocy. (th* 
eiumtor wbcrt-of tnjirwiariuM,) wbvmin penoH 
light «irk (tniuldi' to othiTN and tmaUed bjr 
if loitgiiig in tin* diirtnitoiT) had the benHb af 
pb^ic, and attoiidiuuv privato to themtplTea^. No 
l«Dt or fiuting-day* caniv ovt-r the thrrdiold of llria 
ivoin ; akknea Ixring a dtHpi^matinn for the 
of flcah. It wan imninhable fur atijr to < 
exrcpt wilniiiilv d*'«i^ifd for the plarv. 

19. At diidancv irtwMl tlie vtattlc^ wbefe ll 
hrimi, or mwixr of the liom', did rumi 
ttndcr him the procfndariiu^, wh<s as bl» 
impoft^ provided provender for the hocwa. 

k [!■ tW kmr kMMillM t« ^riakk aU llw ta^ •>«* 
Urmarimm M hi tm^fm»m dn aflH- ihi CMuMBttr. wM 
hJtf mttr. %> iW fV< 

■^Mior «r Um Mmarr «m "In Vhk. *« 

BOOK VI. ui England, 309 

were divided into four ranks, and it would puzzle all 
the jockies in Smithfield to understand the meaning 
of their names. 

i. MannU being geldings for the saddle of the 
larger size. 

ii. Runcini^ runts, small pad-nags ; like those of 
Galloway or Goonehely**. 

iii. Summariij sumpter horses. 

iv. Averiiy cart or plough-horses. 

This was the quadripartite division of the horses 
of William, the two and twentieth abbot of S. Al- 
ban's, on the token that he lost an himdred horses in 
one year. 

20. One room remains, last named, because least The jaU. 
loved, even a prison for the punishment of incor- 
rigible monks, who otherwise would not be ordered 

into obedience. It was a grand penance imposed on 
the delinquents% " to carry about the lanthom,** 
(though light, an heavy burden,) but such contuma- 
cious monks as would not be amended therewith, the 
abbot had tetrnm et fortem carcerem^ a strong and 
hideous prison, where their obstinacy was corrected 
into reformation. 

21. We omit other rooms, as vaccisteriunij the The 
cow-house; porcarium, the swine-sty; as having *^'*°^* 
nothing peculiar therein, but concurrent with those 
offices in other houses. As for granges, being farms 

at distance, kept and stocked by the abbey, and so 
called, as it seemeth, a grana gerendOj (the overseer 
whereof was commonly called the prior of the 
grange,) because sometimes many miles from the 
monaster>% they come not within the reach of our 

*1 Wats in Glossar. at the « In Vitis, p. 52. 
end of ^lat. Paris. 

X 3 

810 Thr History »fAIAnf 

pKwnt diieaunK. Oal; 1 add in frmale 
tiona of DonneriM there ww a «in«*pondet»cj of 
the Min« tncmtibl offictis and office*. 
SS. Kx|*crt not of mi- a list of thaw 
' in tht< alilH'V, whiMo cniplnymoDt wai not to 
M their nuntt liarbaroiM, aod of Engliah 
Bach werv. 

1. Collonuiiu, rutler. 
S. CuptiariRH. 

3. Pota^riuL 

4. 8eal«lUriufl Auhr. 

5. BdMrioM. 
fl. pDrtariun. 

7. Ciuwtaria^ tCarter] CVlIenuii. 
H. Pel)ipariu<i. |«rcUmL-iit provider. 
9- BrMimiriu^ [nnd nnwiator.] maltxtcr. 

All IhflM appean-d at tbi- Imli-inutu or liolv court 
of the odfauvr ; ainl it i» the dcgnJii^ the aoal of 
a acbolar (boat picsacd in a pnign!aai*e mothio to 
attain ck>ganrjr) to itoop to tlie andentandiiif af 
■uch haw and luilfaruud etjmokigiea. 

SS. Note that the oKce* aforeaaid In the onaDar 
abboyi wrre hut om* lair entire mom. which in 
gmUer mofuuttTint were n distinct itructurv, with 
all under-olBev* attendant themi|KHi. Hitu the 
flrnioT^', in the iirinrr of Canterbuir had a rvfectocy 
thfnrtii tM.*lon)(injr, a kitcb<-ii. ■ dortour '. diitribitted 
into ■evcnil rhauibfn tliat one might 
another, and a private rbapd for th« davol 
the dlHMed. Tlieir almury alw waa aeeoniB 
with all the afnmaid apporteoaneea. and htAt 

' [Tbat H, dw Awwifavj ) 

BOOK VI. in Mtigland. 811 

distinct manors consigned only to their mainte- 

24. It were alien from our present purpose toThevmot 
speak of cells, which were aut pars^ aut proles of 

all great abbeys, sometime so far off, that the 
mother-abbey was in England the child-cell beyond 
the seas, and so reciprocally. Some of these were 
richly endowed, as that of Windham in Norfolk, 
which, though but a cell annexed to St. Alban's, 
yet was able at the dissolution to expend of its own 
revenues seventy-two pounds per annum. These 
were colonies into which the abbeys discharged 
their superfluous numbers, and whither the rest 
retired when infections were feared at home. 

25. Thus have we run through the main rooms The Ho- 

, ncNin in 

in all great abbeys, though besides the same, par- Canterbury 
ticular abbeys had particular houses, known to those ™^' 
of their own convent by peculiar denominations. 
It were endless for one to instance in all these, and 
inii)ossible to render a reason of their names, except 
he were privy to the fancies of the founders. Thus 
we meet with a pile of building in the priory of 
Canterbury called the Honours ; but why so termed, 
my good friend and great antiquary Cf is fJain to 
confess his own ignorance. 

Some general Co?iformities observed in all Convents. 

Sundry orders were bound to observe several Rui« cai- 
canonical constitutions. However, the rule of the the Bene. 
ancient Benedictines, with some small variations ac-^^^ 
cording to time and place, hold true thorough most""^*^^ 


^ Mr. William Somner, in his Antiquities of Canterbury/ 
p. 196. 


7^ Uutory ^JIAry» 

noDBiteriot ; wme geaeni heads wbocof (th« «bA» 
bnuebcs being infinite) wq will faera iinnt ; it briHg 
bard, if unongit mocb dram mme ffold be not taami 
to repair the painti of thi- ruader. We will eoaCrim 
ihem into ranuni^ coUiX!t«l uut of nolbun befnc* mr 
In the dafB »( Uututmit K 

i. Let monks (aAor the example of DavM ') 
pniae God seven Itmet a day. 

Sttm fuMi.] Somo diAreooa in nekaoiog tliwn vp, 1^ 
tiw fbDowiag «oDi|Mitati(Mi [ 

1. Al axi'tromm^. Bmoom tho PnlniM wiUi. Al 
midni^ iBiU Jfraif lit Lord^ ; aod mMt «■- 
flftv* tbat Clout RMo bom tiw daad aboot Iktf 


S. JtfdMiMfi. At th« Snt hour, or ata of tli* ala^ 

when ths JvmA aiondng Moriftoe «a« oKbtmi ; 

uad at what ttiM OhiMt'a naumrtMO waa Ij 

tbe ai«(4i fart ootifiMl to th« woawtL 
8. At tba thini hoar, or nioa of tha duk bafcia 

aooD. wboa, a eeor di ag to St. Uarit, Clvirt ■■■ 

ooodaouMd and aooarfid bjr f ^lata. 
4u Al tha aiitb boar, or twalw of tba dnek at Ugh 

Boon, wbca Chriat waa enicdUd, and iaikamm 

o««r all the oartb. 
fi. At tba niBth hiiur, or thrao of tbe dooh ta iha 

aftmiooa, whvn (-lirwt gan ap ibn (boat, aat 

wbieb WEM an biwir at poUio pcajar ia 1km 

b [Iibmbabb lint b tba oTSl.Bc 

cwljr pafiad* vT wnMiric bk- tkaw, of 

Unt. tba ralai aad m it n at aipacUd. 
UAmU fc aai aad 

BcoMbet. Mifhiiwk. 
' ba 

Moa. Aftn. bat iMMrallr aU aiUt b» 
tftrntnllyS. Mi|»«lMiM aai« Um Ma 

ofSi. BmU. ibaMWr (WruW * 

BOOK VI. in England. 813 

temple ^ and privately in his closet with Cor- 
nelius ^. 

6. Vespers. At the twelfth hour, or six o'^clock in the 

afternoon, when the evening sacrifice was offered 
in the temple, and when Christ is supposed taken 
down from the cross. 

7. At seven of the clock at night, (or the first hour 

beginning the nocturnal twelve,) when Chrisf's 
agony in the garden was conceived began. 

The first of these was performed at two of the 
clock in the morning ", when the monks (who went 
to bed at eight at night) had slept six hours, which 
were judged suflScient for nature. It was no fault, 
for the greater haste, to come without shoes, or with 
unwashen hands, provided sprinkled at their entrance 
Avith holy water, to this night's service ; and I find 
no express to the contrary, but that they might go 
to bed again ; but a flat prohibition after matutinesy 
when to return to bed was accounted a petty 

ii. Let all, at the sign given, leave off their work, 

and repair presently to prayers ®. 

Sign.] This in England (commonly called the ringing 
inland) was done with tolling a bell, but in other countries 
with loud strokes, as noblemens'* cooks knock to the dresser, 
at which time none might continue their work ; yea, the 
canon was so strict, that it provided scriptares literam non 
int^nrent : that writers, (a great trade in monasteries,) 
having begun to frame and flourish a text-letter, were not 
to finish it, but to break off in the middle thereof. 

1 Acts iii. ] . nse Abbatis. Ed. Hugo Me- 

m Acts X. 30. nardus, 1638. 

n This whole chapter is the ^ QSee R^ula S. Benedict!. 

abridgment of the Concordia c. xliii.] 
Rceularum 8. Benedicti Ania- 


TV HiMwy ^Ahtryi 

Ui. Let thiwe who M« abwnt in public employ 
moot be n^fiuted prownt in pnjrcre >*. 

Aiiml.) Henev it m* Uiftt uiacatl;. ^ thm mi ti 
ptmytn, then «a« a pwtwulu' oonuneaantioa B*d» «f 
tboD, knd lliey bjr imidp iwioi niiwn Aii l lo drnav p**- 

It. Let no monk gn alone, but aIwbjb r«* 

7W.] That M) thojr mifbt nntualljr have bwtli tt^am 
LmmMit and iMwitonM pitlatit. Aw) Uii* «•• doa* m 
MNM initatioo of ChriM'* maHitg h» diH»|ik» to pwah, 
httmiidhtn h^n Aw/kmi. that m> tiwy m%fat ahnt—ldy 
•Ma eoo aanUiar. 

T. From EubT to Wliitcamlftj l«t tbctn dimm 
tXynj* at twvlrf, and imp at rix of the dodi. 

/>uw.] TliP primitJvt- rharah forboik' fiurting tar tksM 
fifty dajr*, that Chrurtiaiu miflit bv chevrfld far th> 
mmorjrof CtuHfaramrffcliaQ. ** /aanniMSf [^gM^JI) 
fl Af Pmdut in P m tvn mlm mtfm ^miAmnm,' and IhM^bv* 
mora raoil«ni is the nutom of bating oa AaoLiuiaii Bv*. 

vi. Lt't tliem at other tjiiie« b«t on Wcdneailiyv 
and Fridajt till threo oVIoek In t^ 

flmr tf lit ttatt.] So makiiif bat ean «ieil a 
IPMNr tbat tlw tmlw dap in Christaa* wtn in 

▼IL Let tliun fiwt erefj dar in Li-ut till nx of 
Uw clock at night *. 

Sim •*tUeL] Stamfiti^ k charartw oT ■ 
on that thna : ror thavffit all a ma«li*« life m^ ta W • ' 
Lant, yM tfait tnoit w |Mci ally, wbomn tbcy merv to ahstv 

P [Sh- B«fal> a BMcJieti. ' TfrtnlUMi ik C uraM Mt- 
& L UrM.] Ihu. t. s. 

BOOK VI. in England. 315 

of their wonted sleep and diet, and add to their daily devo- 
tion : yet so, that they might not lessen their daily fare 
without leave from the abbot, all things done without 
whose consent will be accounted presumption, and not 
redound to reward ; so that, in such cases, obedience to 
their superiors was better than the sacrifice of their own 
free abstinence. 

viii. Let no monk speak a word in the refectory, 

when they are at their meals *. 

Speak a word.] Whilst their mouths are open to eat, 
their lips must be looked to speak : for proof whereof they 
corruptly cite the apostle^s words, to ecU their own bread 
with silence " ; whereas indeed it is, work toith quietness^ 
and therein a contented mind enjoined. Such might also 
remember Solomon'*s rule. Eat thy bread with joy. 

ix. Let them listen to the lecturer reading scrip- 
ture to them, whilst they feed themselves. 

Listen.] This was St. Austine'*s rule, Ne solce /auees 
sumant cibum^ sed et aures percipiant Dei verbum\ 

X. Let the septimanarians dine by themselves 

after the rest y. 

Septimanarians.'] These were weekly officers, (not as the 
abbot, porter, &c. for term of life,) as the lecturer, servitors 
at the table, cook, who could not be present at the public 
refection ; as the bible-clerks in Queen'^s College in Cam- 
bridge (waiting on the fellows at dinner) have a table by 
themselves, their stomachs being set to go an hour after 
all the rest. 

xi. Let such who are absent about business ob* 
serve the same hours of prayer *. 

Absent.] Be it by sea or land, on ship, in house, or field, 
they were to fall down on their knees, and though at dis- 

t [viii. ix. See Regula S. J [Regula S. Benedict], c. 
Benedicti, c. xxxviii.] xxxv.] 

" 2 ThcsS. iii. 12. « [Ib.c.l.] 

* 111 regula, capite v. 

8M The HiMtory of A Uryi 

taooe, wmI m^ linoAy, yot in rano aort ta keep I 
tuna with the conrvnt in their devotiocM. 

xii. !<<<( nono, hoin^ fmro liomo about 
and tiopin/t to rettiru at night, premunpyoru 
dicart, tii cat abroad '. 

£W oAraoJ.] This mioa ma aftcrwanla 
with by the aMwt,oa mvctbI ooeudocu, thai It i 
tral« in oflbet, wbm monlw bMaow cMnaum 

xiiL Lot the Completory be Mlemnly tang i 
iBTen o'clock at night. 

Otmfiatmy.'\ BccauM* it oocnplotod ths dotan of llw 
da;. Thia aomoii was ^onchdod with that Tit<iJ> af 
the pabniM, MM a waled. J>n^ &yWw ay awafll. aarf 

xiv. Let none Kpvok a word after the Completory 
ended, but lutftcn to their bods '. 

Sfiok m tnnL] For Ihojr aught rapKM ihnMthaa tgr 
apu, and n iBiDe caaea whtaiMr, bot m> aufU; that a ihM 
Might not cnrvrfaov it. TUa Hkooe w«« 
flbaanad bjr mnim, thai ihajr waaU do* ifMk t 
■■Mwltiil with thiavaa. to naha Saetmaj fai f ' 

XV. Let the mouki riecft tn bodi linglj hf 4 
Klvea, but all, if punible, fai ooe twmt*. 

Himfy if a tMu i wm.] To pianat that m of i 

i^ae. 0am rmm.\ For tlw eonliavt of thdr I 

xvi. Let them altN^ in tbeir clothca. girt tvHh 

> [RMtnkBMM 
k fW.ciIi.j. 


* I«T— »nfi. lb. «, mU.] 

BOOK VI. m England. SI 7 

their girdles, but not having their knives by their 
sides, for fear of hurting themselves in their sleeps. 

In their clothes,'] Is slovenness any advantage to sanc- 
tity? This was the way, not to make the monks to lie 
alone, but to carry much company about them. 

xvii. Let not the youth lie by themselves, but 

mingled with their seniors. 

Seniors,'] That their gravity may awe them into good 
behaviour : thus husbandmen couple young colts with 
staid horses, that both together may draw the better. 

xviii. Let not the candle in the dormitory go out 

all the night. 

Candle.] In case some should fall suddenly sick; and 
that this standing candle might be a stock of light, to 
recruit the rest on occasion. 

• xix. Let infants, incapable of excommunication, 

be corrected with rods ®. 

Infants.] Such all wore accounted under the age of 
fifteen years, (of whom many in monasteries,) whoso mino- 
rities were beneath the censures of the church. 

XX. Let the offenders in small faults (whereof the 

abbot is sole judge) be only sequestered from the 

table ^. 

Small faults,] As coming after grace to dinner ; breaking, 
though casually, the earthen ewer wherein they wash their 
hands; being out of tune in setting the psalm; taking 
any by the hand, (as a preface, forsooth, to wantonness ;) 
receiving letters from or talking with a friend, without 
leave from the abbot, &c. From the table.'] Such were to 
eat by themselves, and three hours after the rest, until 
they had made satisfaction. 

c [ *' Aut jejuniis nimiis dicti, c. xxx.] 
" affligantur, aut acribus ver- ^ [See Regula 8. Benedicti» 

" beribus coerceantur, ut sa- c. xxiv.] 
•* nentur." Regula S. Bene- 

xxi. Lpt th^ oAiitleni in gntXtt balu be ia». 
ppndiNl frmii tatitu and pnjrcn '. 

t pmahiea ll 

xxii. Im imno onnvonR! with any 
cfttcd, iinder the pain 4if exmrnmuniratioD V 

A'mw.] Yet borrin tm keefier (tlepulcd bgr tl 
ma axeeptad. CmMrM.] Ehhar Ui wmt iv apaak 

Ho nighl not m noeh u hiom Um, or bia BMal 

hj htm i jwt, to atoM msimU. bo migirt riiv ii|i, lin^^T 
barv hit h«*d to Uiis, in omo Uie uUmr did int with aOad 
gMtu« ■klnla hhn. 

zxHL Lut IneorrigiUu o&oden be Mpelled dw 
montitory *. 

/Mvrnj^vU*.] Wbon no e u cw yti i w wiUt wonH Mr 
aotTMtion with blom, dot oenaura of •uam u m M imAm 
WNdd HMod. Abdiioa la tbo enl; phatar for Mill ■■ 

xxir. Lei wi i-x|n'II(h1 brothor, hfinf 
on pimnlae of bli niiK'nduiont. Im* net lart in onW^. 

Latl.] II« wa« to bwo Ua fotmBr aMUority, and bmia at 
Uw tiottora. Know, that w bu a wnar wiUfai^j iiuittad tka 
aw n an t thrice, cr wm thrieo aul out far hia wimitma^ 
Mnii mlpit not Mijr norv bv rwMVM. 

xzT. Let DTctfy nook bavF two ootu utd iwn 
oowla, &e.* 

■aitwwaarii: oaairfaiUchw 
aap aad uxtvtai. far whiMrf 
a Uiaan.flr ■ t bw aJ b aw aaaw 


f r[l««. Bmiad. c ur.] 

k (lb. c nri.J 

' [lb. e. iiTNt.] 

•> lib. c. aui.j 

' [nT. xsri. savfi. lb. e. Iv. ihvf w«ta la bar* a i^falar. 
TVrfr ibrtiM waa la ba wf ■ ibaM aa4,Mada«|p tpifalM 
teaJ by tba Aaala. la gea*. at calig*).] 
lal 1^ van aOawad m* evwfa 

BOOK VI. in England. S19 

Two,'] Not to wear at once, except in winter, but for 
exchange, whilst one was washed ; and when new clothes 
were delivered them, their old ones were given to the 

xxvi. Let every monk have his table-book, knife, 
needle, and handkerchief. 

NeedhJ] To mend his own clothes when torn. Hand- 
kerchu"/.] Which they wore on their left side, to wipe 
away rheum, or, as we may charitably believe, tears from 
their eyes. 

xxvii. Let the bed of every monk have a mat, 
blanket, rug *", and pillow. 

Mai,] In Latin matta, the liers whereon are termed by 
St. Austine mattarii ". A blanket,] Lama^ in Latin qtuisi 
de lana^ saith Varro, made of thick wool^. No down, 
feathers, nor flocks used by them ; yea, no Unen worn on 
their bodies. The abbot also, every Saturday, was to visit 
their beds, to see if they had not shuffled in some softer 
matter, or purloined some prog for themselves. 

xxviii. Let the abbot be chosen by the merits of 
his life and learning p. 

Merits,] Though he were the last in degree, and though 
he had the fewest voices, the better were to carry it from 
the greater number; but in after ages, to avoid schism 
upon a parity of deserts, the senior was generally chosen 
by plurality of votes. 

xxix. Let him never dine alone ; and when guests 
are wanting, call some brethren unto his table ^. 

Alo)w,] Such as were relieved by his hospitality are, by 
canonical critics, sorted into four ranks : 

™ Sagum, properly the lower [p. 33. ed. 1581.] 
coat of a soldier. P f Regula S. Benedict!, c. 

n Contra Faustum v. 5. hi v.] 
" Dc Lingua Latina, lib. 4, ^ [lb. c. Ivi.] 

Th€ HiMtory ^Jbiieyi 

. C«mtm, guaata, thring ia or umr I 

eit; «ib(n Om> oumnt itood ; 
Jt. ffofpitm, ttnttgen oouuitf( tnm dir 

tant [tlsMM, jwt mUU of Uia 

CnUDtiJ : 
fl. Ptn^mi, pSf^rimi offtitoUMr oaUoii, ■ ^^ 

•od genanOI; tnratBi^ Cor d»-j"^*'' 

4. SfmJidf boggus, who nomad tfaairabM witlHHt 

ol the gate. 

XXX. Let the opllirer bo a ducreeC mu. to gh« 
mil ttkeir nwat in due teaaoa '. 

/KMrMf.] Ho neoded to be ■ good n 
p«g«i of mm'a boUna, not alowiofr sU faod aBo^ kit ' 
proportioaing it tn tbrir Mnwal ^pn, Uraor, (for aHi^ 
ommIu dM worit.) k^etitM, &o. For tUo tliojr aMtft Ite 
piinitin pnotieo, wbea all good* kofit in oanaHS wmm 
dhidMl, lluRigh aiiMinlly, for tlw mna cqaaOy. a* i» tiMr 
pOTMoal M«MiiliM. Aad Utf fmrtiJ Oam t» aB mm^m \ 
Rwrr Moa A«rf aW'. 

xxxi. Lot it»no )m> cxcuaod friMD tks olBoe ai t 
cuok, but laki! hti turn in hb weiJc *. 

Am«.] TIm abbot b «»optcd, aad dM odl 
aontfau t but buiw thii waa only aocitiitljr ■ 
tin poor aionaatwwa, our EnglMi aUM^a I 
vaida nmka and undar-cooka of tay-pocaoo* abia ta f 
the palate o( Apwiiw UntMlT. 

uudL Let the oook each Saturday, wbea be | 
out of hb ofBe«, leave the Uumi and veaela dan ■■4-1 
•ound to Ilia fluoooBon. 

Cfaaa mmd JMM^] Seren OM oanon wbidi t ( 


' [Bigak B. Biai dlrt l. c 
' Ad* iii. 4S' 

» (lU«uk «. 


BOOK VI. in England, 8S1 

is, to receive twenty-five claps on the hand for every default 
on this kind " 4 and still more harsh what another rule 
enjoineth, that the cook might not taste what he dressed 
for others, not permitted to lick his own fingers ^. Under- 
stand it thus : though he might eat his own pittance, or 
dimensum^ yet he must meddle with no more, lest the tast- 
ing should tempt him to gluttony and excess. 

xxxiii. Let the porter be a grave person, to dis- 
charge his trust with discretion ^. 

Grave.] Whose age might make him resident in his 
place. Discharffe.] In listening to no secular news, and, if 
casually hearing it, not to report it again ; in carrying the 
keys every night to the abbot, and letting none in or out 
without his permission. 

We leave this porter in the peaceable possession 
of his lodge, and by his leave are let out of this 
tedious discourse ; only I will add, as the proverb 
saith, " The lion is not so fierce as he is painted." 
So monastical discipline was not so terrible in the 
practice as in the precepts thereof. And as it is 
generally observed in families that the eldest chil- 
dren are most hardly used, who, as yet being but 
few, and their parents in full strength, are taught^ 
and tutored, and nurtured with much chiding and 
correction ; whilst more liberty is allowed to the 
younger brood, age abating their parents' austerity, 
and sometimes turning their harshness into fondness 
unto them : so those fatherly rules fell most heavily 
on the monks of the first foundation, their rigour 
being remitted to such who succeeded them ; inso- 

^ ''XXV. palmar um percus- ^ Reguia S. Pachomii, art. 
sionibus emendetur." Reguia ai. 

magis, cap. 15* sect. 10. (?) ' [R^ala S« Benedict!, e. 



328 Tha ffiatary ofjibfyi 

mncli tliBt, in proceM of time, monki 
wantons thronf^i buinoiw ami lozmT. m 
(Goil williu^) dhalt aiipear. 

Oftueh AiioU teho atfaitied to he 

• The highest dril hnoonr thv l-jigluh abboc* 
arriTcd at w, that somo vcro wli-rttil to bo k 

"'in parliament, aiit) railed) tn bo tusbtjuit* to t 
in his grcmt oounril. To bc^n at tbu reign « 
Henry tbc Tliinl, (Wfuro wbouc time the foe 
of Boleran munntons to pariiamcnt are almoit i 
out.) in hiii time all abbots and jmon of ijualitf i 
gmnmoned tbitbor. Ahu ! this king tired i 
tfane DO abbcyv, (tbe patron M bjr hli i 
tbe most of bis maintenance lamUng oat 
pnnM of priorioft. ft was but fitting 
tbey riloald bo cnnralted vilh, who wvre to amcfe 
MiDfcnied in all pablir parments. In the ferty^ 
ninth of hi* Tvigtt no loM than tixtj-foar abbol> 
and thlrtr-fiix prion, (a J0II5 number!) with tW 
master of tlio Tpmplc, werr niluotaiy Mm m mam H it 
nut of tbe king's free will and pltmure, (no right 
that tbejr cooltl claim themselTM.) am nm oped ft* 
partianient t. 

w- s. But in after-|Mu1iaments the number of abbot* 

t nnmnoned tfaltber was fltictnating and nnrrrtain: 
•ometiroM forty, aa the twontr-*fvetitb of Kdward 
the Pint; aoowtJne* sentitv^flvt', as tbe twmtr- 
eigbth of tbe same king: 6ftt-Mz in the fint of 
t^iward tiK' Hecond, and vet tnil fifteen in the 
KC<Nid of his reign. Indeed, when pariiainmta 

TCh«.49H«>.lll.m. lid. [^A 
i. 449, Btw c4.1 

BOOK Ti. in England. 3S8 

proved frequent, some priories far from the place 
where they were summoned, the way long, the 
weather (especially in winter) tedious, travelling on 
the way costly, living at London chargeable ; some 
priors were so poor they could not, more so covetous 
they would not, put themselves to needless ex- 
penses ; all so lazy, and loving their ease, that they 
were loath to take long journeys, which made them 
afterwards desire to be eased of their honourable 
but troublesome attendance in parliament. 

3. At last king Edward the Third resolved to fix Their 

, number 

on a set number of abbots and priors, not so many contracted 
as with their numerousness might be burdensome tol^"^^^' 
his council ; yet not so few but that they should be 
a sufficient representation of all orders therein con- 
cerned, which, being twenty-eix in number, are 
generally thus reckoned up : 

1. St. Alban's. 15. Shrewsbury. 

2. Glastonbury. 16. Gloucester. 

3. St. Austin's, Cant. 17. Bardney. 

4. Westminster. 18. Bennet in the Holme. 

5. Edmundsbury. 19. Thomey. 

6. Peterborough. 20. Ramsey. 

7. Colchester. 21. Hyde. 

8. Evesham. 22. Malmesbury. 

9. Winchelcombe. 23. Cirencester. 

10. Crowland. 24. St. Mary's, York. 

11. Battle. 25. Selby. 

12. Reading. 26. With the prior of St. 

13. Abingdon. John's of Jerusalem, 

14. Waltham. first and chief baron 

of England '. 

2 [Re} ner asserts that only in parliament, omitting from 
twenty-four abbots had seats the list here given by Fuller, 

Y 2 

None of tbe«e lield of mnui lords by fnnk-tiimetmga^ 
bot all or the king in capilr ptr barfmiam, ha.y\ttg tm 
entire bamnj, to wliich thirtacD knigbta* fees al ImM 
did bekmg. 

4. Yot even after tliU fixatioa of | 

— p abbot* ia a wt number, tbe aame ' 

'^ joet to varietT. The prior of Coventfy pbyed tt la 
and out, and declined his appearance there ; ta M 
the abbot nf LtrinwtiT. who maj weem tA kave warn 
but hair n mitre on bin bead ; mi also the abbot of 
St. Janiea, bv N'ortttaniplon, mar btr mXA to dt bat 
on one hip in {Miriiaincnt. ho ajtpear* *o in tk* 
twilight betwixt m hamn and no hamn in tb« mob- 
rooDs thervuntn. Iliit aftorwards tbe ftni at ikmm 
three w» ronfirmed in bia plaee : the two laat* oa 
their eametit n'<iiu<«t, obtained a Aiehatge, faMf 
beewiae thejr were lumtnoned onty inierpalalis pits* 
htu, and not ranRtantly ; partir became llker waJa It 

BnrwK (R«r. 1. 51A) tMkn 
Ikm nriMT-alaa !■ all. »ii- 
Ih to lU m»lm Kl«n ^ 
Kbr. ComMrv. IVTiaioai. 
od TWvfcabarxi ud ia iB 
Hm Vin. tU aUot uT Bnr- 
li«-Bpai>TTv«t Ml ra p>rii»- 
»rvt, b«t C4>»MitrT ami Bar. 
bM w«r» krU iW tU mtum 
pfw— . Sw CMMlrn'i BrttB*. 
p. ti3i .•Wd»'« Trtl» of 
Hmmmtr. Api>. p. 715. TImm 
mfaliaM fai ibfftnnt vriwn 

iKia kOM- claM thcrr wm« i^ 
■mi : tW aUntoof Mt. PM«rV 
at AUwlahtfT. hi Dw 

Cnnr. Dunvtahirr : St. PmotX 
(Iwrtapj. IB HonvT. Si.ManV 
EMiMm. Cnft«dahira ■ M. ^ 
riunr'*. Fa'mban. Kr«t 1 «L 

BOOK VI. in England. 82S 

to appear that they held not of the king a whole 
barony in chief. 

5. To these twenty-six regular barons king Henry a thon. 
the Eighth added one more for a easting voice, viz. ronry made" 
the abbot of Tavistock in Devonshire, on this token, ^'enry^tbe 
that being created in the eighth of his reign be^'fif^'*^ 
enjoyed not his barony full twenty years, and acted 
so short a part on the stage of jiarlianient, that, with 
Cato, he might seem only ingredi ut eanreU to come 
in that he might go out. And because some may 
be curious to know the manner of his creation, take 
here the form thereof: 

" Henricus, &c. Sciatis quod certis considera- 
" tionibus nos specialiter moventibus et ob specia- 
" lem devotionem, quam ad beatam Virginem Mariam 
matrem Christi, Sanctumque Rumonum in quorum 
honore Abbatia de Tavistock, quae de furidation^ ^ 

nobilium progenitorum nostroruni, quondam Re- 
gain Anglian et nostro patronatu dedicata existit, 
'* gerimus et habemus, hinc est quod de gratia nostra 
" speciali, ac ex certa scientia, et mere motu nostris, 
'' volumus eandem Abbatiam, sive monasterium nos- 
" trum gaudere honore, privilegio, ac libertatibus 
" spiritualium Dominorum Parliamenti nostri, hsere- 
" dum, et successorum nostrorum, ideo concessimus, 
" et per pncsentes concedimus pro nobis hseredibus, 
" et successoribus nostris quantum in nobis est, 
" (lilecto nobis in Christi, Richardo Banham Abbati 
" de Tavistock pradicto et successoribus suis, ut 
" corum quilibet qui pro tempore ibidem fuerit 
" Abbas, sit et erit unus de spiritualibus, et religiosis 
" (lominis Parliamenti nostri, Hseredum, et successo- 
" rum nostrorum, gaudendo honore, privilegio ac 
" libertatibus ejusdem ; et insuper, de uberiori gratia 




396 The Otiorf t^ AUry soos vt. 

" Rofilm, ft(rM*Uui«lo iiiltitBtmt dfcti noMjf mimf 
" U'rii, roiiftiilenimtn ejus tlistjuitum, itm tjaoA ri MB- 
" titij^t nliqucm A1ibnU>m qui pni Uinpon fberit, 
- fope Tv\ erne Bbaeiitem prwptOf pnrdieti 
" iililitstcm. in non Toniemlo ad Pariuuneatam 
" dirtum. hn-mlam. vel racceHonn 
" qiinni (|iii<)(>m abtentlam eidem Abbati perdaoMBBi 
" per immeiitM ; lU UlD«l qnod tone ■olret ptv 
" bt^ocmodi abtientia cttjiulibi-t I*nrUiunf>nti tntcfri 
" in noatro Scaeeario, mum per stiomnlum qainq— 
** inaiva* nobis bcrodibo* sivo nicn'Muribaa MMtrK 
** totie« quotin, bne tn fatamm coatifieift. !■ 
" ct^ofl. &r. Te«t«. &«. ViceaiBio tertio As J». 
•* niuu^i. Ar. •■* 

Wbomui tbU t'hsrtor nffimietb Taviitork 
by king IltTinr's nobli- |fn>)tpnitor«. WMne will 
Uiefest ; and tbp ratbor bpcanac Ordalpb. the aoa 
of Ordftarp. enrl o( iVvoitshirr, fa notoriotulf kmm 
Tor the ftnimlcT of thin monaBtery befcie the C eB 
qacft, and tm Kngliab Irinff appauvth iiinhnBtly s 
benefaetor thrreuuto * ; yvt bMiaaae the En^A 
kinj^ ■•Pcvwlvfly confirmefl the chartofa tbenoC 
tbrjr wen> in a lovnl rf>ni)>linH-nt aoknowlvdged aa 
tfao intoqirvtnliTO foumk-n nf that abbcT. And w 
little rblMnm wh'nc (larcnta dccmip in tbrir inRuic]r 
iiiniMvnil^ own iliftr (atbcn and motlH'r«-in-law Co* 
tfa^^'ir nntural parmtjs to nunv m'Ttnirtorica. 
fint fouiidiTH WL-n- in a manni-r ftirvtitten a 
oot nf niinil, applied thcnis?lvci> to tin* pnwwt 
(thoujrh )nit tbe favourm) aa to the fimmlera oT 
their cor^torstinna. 

t P>|.jIIn>VIIL[«rt. 

fc (.'wan'. Br I 

BOOK VI. in England. 887 

6. Know that besides these abbots there wereAbbeweiiio 
four abbesses, viz. of Shaftesbury, Barking in Essex, though 
St. Mary's in Winchester, and Wilton, who heldb^nlL 
from the king an entire barony, yet never were 
summoned as baronesses to parliament; because 

that honour, frequent in lay-persons, was never con- 
ferred on any ecclesiastical female. Yet were they, 
and almost all other abbesses of any quality, saluted 
ladies, as earls' daughters are by the courtesy of 
England ; which custom hath made such a right, 
that they are beheld not only as unmannerly, but 
unjust, who in common discourse deny the same. 
However, the aforesaid four abbesses, though not 
called to parliament, were solemnly summoned by 
special writs ad habendum sertDitium suum^ that is, 
to have their full number of knights in time of war, 
where the ladies' personal presence was not expected, 
but their effectual appearance, by their proxies or 
their j)urses, to supply the king's occasions ^. 

7. Of all these the prior of St. John's in Jem- prior of 
salem took the precedency, being generally of noble chief baron, 
extraction and a military person. Yea, not content 

to take place of all regular barons, " Primus Anglic 
liaro haberi roluitr saitb my author**, he would 
be counted simply and absolutely the first and chief 
baron in England ; though the expression speaks 
rather his affectation than peaceable possession of 
such priority. 

8. Next him the abbot of St. Albau's took place Next the 
above all of his order, to the no small grief andsLAibui*!. 

t' Pat. 5. Ed. I. m. 11. d. Foedera, ib. II. 539, new edi- 
l^)t. Scutamil ejusd. an. m. 7. tion.] 
[See the summons in Rjrmer's ^ Camd. Brit. p. 123. 

Y 4 

an The HlUaey ^AU^i •earn n. 

gfndge of Olutonbory. sedng Joaeph of ArinMOba 
WM two bandivd jemn wolor to St. Alban't. Boc 
who ■lull deny ttie pstriuch Jwob tlio priiihg a <f : 
onNung his own handi to pfofier the joaagm I 

the elder'! The Mine 

bnt on what i 

let ntben inqniir. the pope unnneth to 1 
vherri]^ Adrian tbo Fourth, odto • monk of 8L 
Anim'i, gKn that convent the precedency. 

9. Alt for tho remtfnhig mbbotA. we may ofaaan* 
a kind of a rarolcM order obamrfd m thrir eoHK 
twiuin^ Uj, and conseqtMtntly their ntting in, par- 
lUunent. Now, wcing it will not cnttT inta • 
mtionml belief that their niethodtilnfr waa menif 
managed by the will of the elerk of the writ^ IC 
mnvt deacend on ihc diH)>o«d of the kinjr, callii^ 
them in what onlcr he plvaceth. 

10. Sun.' I am these ahbota were not wmnHNHd 
according to tlii-ir petaonnl aeuioiitiea of their Kvctil 
inatolmenta. nor aecordinff to the antiquity < 
mpeetiTP fouiuUlious; fm- Wnlihatn abbiM I 
mHi^-ftemtUiimiu, aa but fnumlmt by king Hot 
eommonly foBiteentb nr fift^t-nth in the i 
Battle Abbey, which in this lio«Iy of abl 
he bencnth the ancle, (aa hut of all. aav 
ranmonly abont the hraaat, the eighth or'nintk fa 

* 11. Nor ate they nuik<-d arrordinff to the rick> 
neai of their annual rpTpnut** ; for tbcD. according to 
their raluatloiw at the Hbwolution, thtT' •honU h« 

• 0«a. «l*fii. 14. takni frtm Um « 

• [Tbi tMi* of WdliMM hhI Kif«l tM dH . 
— » —<■ « ptf ii i M iWtwy WiM or black anWM. 
la M 77. wImb tkk boMs WM I JQ.] 

BOOK VI. in England. 829 

marshalled according to the method here ensuing, 
when first I have premised a note concerning the 
abbey of Tewksbury, in Gloucestershire. 

12. This abbot appeareth parliamentary neither Tcwks- 
in any summons exhibited by Master Selden, most added to 
curious in this point ff, nor yet in the catalogue of {Jj^*^ 
them presented by Master Camden ^ ; and reverence 
to these worthy authors hath prevailed with me so 
much, that I durst not insert him. However, since 
I am convinced in my judgment, he must be entered 
in the list ; partly moved by the greatness of reve- 
nues, partly because I find him registered by bishop 
Godwin \ no less critical than the former in histo- 
rical matters. Yet, to please all parties, we will 
only add him in the margin, and not enter him in 
the body of the catalogue ^. 

1 . St. Peter's, Westminster . 

2. Glastonbury, Somersetshire 

3. St. Alban's, Hertfordshire . 

4. St. John's of Jerusalem, 

Middlesex . 

5. St. Edmundsbury, Suffolk . 

6. Reading, Berkshire . 

7. St. Mary's, nigh York 

8. Abingdon, Berkshire . 

9. Ramsey, Huntingdonshire . 
10. Peterborough, Northamp- 

* Tewkesbury, valued at 

K Titles of Honour, p» 728. ^ [He is cited among the 

h Brit. p. 123. parliamentary abbots by Bur- 

i In his Annals of king Hen. net, Ref. i. p* 537. I have 

Vni., anno 1 539. placed it in the list with a star.] 



d. ob. q. 



4 11 



4 11 











9 I 



5 11 



8 1 1 



3 1 









U. OknoMtir . . 


11. St. Aiutin't, Cutorbtir; 


13. ETgshara. WorMwU-nbiro 


14. C'rowtuiil, liiucoliuhire 



IS. WaJtliuiLtiacx 



• 1031 

17. IlatUc. Sin«!i . 


11 1 1 


19. Hydo, iii^h Winebntat 


go. .Sclliy. YorlBblie 


81. .\l11lrnnlm17. \Mlubini 



SS. WivflsMituW. GlfrticMtor- 

nUin? . 



83. Mi(UlK'U>ii. Dorr^'tMliire 


H. St. ikiim-c Holm. Norfolk 


U. Sbnnrabarjr 



S7. BU1I1K7, Lincalndiire 


llie Ttlutioiu of CoTmtry ud CoIcImsUt I 

find : and in all theme tunu wo ba.To traited llwf 

) All iWm nhulMaa an 
takM ami uf SoM^a Catalon* 
■r lUliciMM \UmmK p. 7«7 

ill n^gU^t Mmm&mw • 
M«t«M nhuiaa i* gmn of 
lltMv iMNiMa 1 Uw napwtifw 
nmt ot ih* lint us an. 
tto»Lj:tid.. ty*il. lu. U. 
For ao gnaai a diacTvpancr lar- 

man of llMiran la «^Ih» 
ti«iwitktUda>rh«MM. Ba 

rW bv lU yw* . p. ai 1. 

I'a funaboa wm labia 
fton u MCitwt MS. h IW 
CottMilJfam;. TWaMwraT 
Sl JuIid'*, CoMM>««r. h nek. 
■mad tt^ DaipUlr M 513/. 17* 
ir wv ailM lo tUa tU nilBiaaM 
of fit. Botolph'a pioqr. cIbh^ 
btkioclait ta iW «Mw M^W. 
I t.i/. I u. M.. a«4 tint •# «ka 
U^jCoM. 7/.;*. UL,llM «Wb 
■■Manl wiU be 64^. lya-^A 
8L M^'*. Covwrtn, b ■« 
* ia tkia Ikt.) 

BOOK VI. in England, 331 

field and Speed, both subject to many mistakes; 
those standing on slippery ground, who in point of 
computation tread only on figures, and not on num- 
bers at length. The auditors in these accounts pre- 
tend to much exactness, descending to the fractions 
of halfpence and farthings ; though much partiality 
was used therein, many of the raters at the dissolu- 
tion being ranters for the present, proved purchasers 
for the fiiture, of the lands. The abbey of Ramsey, 
commonly called the rich *", is here but the ninth in 
number, according to the wealth thereof; whereby 
it plainly appears that much favour was used in the 
undervaluing of that foundation. 

13. We must know there were other abbeys, who, Some ab- 
though not so high in dignity, were richer in endow- baroM? 
ments than many of these parliamentary barons, 3^^^ 

1. Fountains, Richmondshire 

2. Lewes, Sussex 

3. St. Werburgh's, Cheshire 

4. Leicester 

5. Morton, Surrey 

6. Fumes, Richmondshire 

These had more lands, at best were more highly 
valued, though not so honourable a tenure, as hold- 
ing of mean landlords in frank-almonage ; and pro- 
bably the parliamentary barons had more old rents, 
though these (as later foundations) greater incomes 
by improved demeans. 

in Sir Robert Cotton, (under Description of Iluntingdon- 
the name of S|)eed,) in the bhire. 



d. ob. q. 

. 1173 

7 10 

. 1691 


6 1 

. 1073 


7 10 

. 1062 

4 11 

. 1039 






TIm Hulory of Jblifyi nos n. 

14. Hicre abo wpre nantieriM oorrinl in reraaMi 
with porlianitftitary ablic)-«, wbewwf Shaftaubwy, ik* 
cbicfcst. valued at ISS9/. iU. M.; m that tW 
coanti; p>>o)ilt- hail a jirurL'rb, that if ibi* abbi«t of 
Glutoubury Diiffbt nuim- the abbew of ShafU^faafj. 
tlieir hviT wuiil<] have moiv laud tbon the klMf of 
Eofrland. Barkinjt in Mrnvx. aud Hion in UkMI^ 
Bex. Tl-II not mtich Bhort of ShoArabury. bdof fln»- 
mlly endowfd with above 1000/. [wr annam. 

15. or all coDntii>8 in Kiiftland. (ilooceatenUl* 
«H uoM peatvrrO with muulu. ba%'in(( four 
ftbfMyi^ bolide St. A ufpHFlincV in Bristol, (who 
timei jiummI for a baruu.) within the 
thenxif; vis. Ghiticcnter, Ti'wkoborT', 
and NNivotitrumbe : licnctt tho topiral wicki 
rcrb, dcacrving to bti baiiiiiht'd uut of that 
being tho profane rhild of niperstitloiui parvnU : " A* 
** mro M God i^ In OlounwtfnJiin: ;" a* if au maaij 
eonvenu had certainly batened his picioaa fnm m Ba 
to that place. 

16. At Glonnstatahire wm tho foUoat «C m 
WeatnioreUiid U>o frvcst from nKkoaatcric*. It 
aecmeth the monka did not much can? for thst 
cold runntrr. nevttinjf thi'miflToa but in oua phe^ 
railed Stiarjs which th<^j' found bo amweriay IW 
nanio, that Hwr Kouglit wannrr place* doovkanL 
Aa fur the iNia^tlng of the men of the Ide mt 
Wight, that ih^y nevi-r had tioudeil monks thofvia"; 
wcrv it ao, (their aoil btHng m> fnillful and plea«a^ 
it would merit more wonder than that Ireland halik 
no venommu rn-atum tben-in. Uut ibi^ 
hath more of mirth than truth in it. 

L Brit, in iW U« of Wi^fct. [p 19S.] 

BOOK Ti. in England, 838 

priory at Carisbrook and nunnery at Quarre evidence 
them sufficiently stocked with such cattle. 

17. I have done with this subject of mitred Q"«re 

what meant 

abbeys when we have observed that they were by four 
called Abbots-General, alias Abbots-Sovereign ^'j as Jecuiiariy 
acknowledging in a sort no superior, because ex-**^^*' 
empted from the jurisdiction of any diocesan, having 
episcopal power in themselves. And here I would 
be thankful to any who would inform me, that 
seeing all these abbots were thus privileged, how it 
came to pass that four of them were especially 
termed Abbots Exempti, viz. Bury, Waltham, St. 
Alban's, and Evesham p. I say, seeing these were so 
called KQT e^o'xijVf (exempt, as it were, out of the 
exempted,) I would willingly be satisfied what extra- 
ordinary privileges these enjoyed by themselves 
above others of their own order. 


So much ttf the greatness, somewhat of the good- owe ab- 
ness of abbeys, if possibly it may be done without SSfc 
prejudice to truth. Surely some pretences, plausible 
at least, did ingratiate them with the politicians of 
that age, otherwise prince and people in those days 
(though blinded with ignorant «eal, yet worldly wise) 
would never have been gulled into so long a tolera- 
tion, yea, veneration, of them. 

2. They were an easy and cheap outlet for the They con- 
nobility and gentry of the land therein to dispose dbjww*^ 
their younger children. That younger son who had J^^JS? in 

o Sir II. Spelman in Glos- p Titles of Honour, p. 727. 
sario v. Abbas. 

884 Th* His*»n,«^AU^i m« «, 

Dot meUlo tnoagfa lo taaiiMgo « urnrd miftfat 1m«» 
meokiKW to became m cowl ; which cowl, in flkoA 
Umc miiHit gmw up to be a mitn>, wbvu hit mcfito 
|)rc«cnti-<d him to be ibbut of his cuovciit. Cli|i • 
vril on the bead of a ynunffrr daugfalor, (ti 
if •>ho wvK 8U{M'nuinuaUHl, not otci 
mclanrbiilj, &c.) oud iustaiitlT she wu proTided I 
ill a nunni'tr. when', without eml or care of t 
|)art>nt», nbe liTiKl in all outward bappincaa, i 
notbinj;, uxrt'pt [Krhnpn it werct a busbend. TUi 
was a ffn>at caUM' of tbo Innjr rnotinnaiicw uf the 
Etigliah nobility in nicli pomp anil jtowor, a* ban^f 
then no teniplution to torture their tnuuiu with 
mckinR of r\-ntj» to nuiko proriaioa for th<^r j iiiii%w 
cliiblrra. Jnili>cil, ftomi^timee noblaaian gave Moall 
portions with tbdr children to the eonveat, not a 
■fl would prefer them in marrtafTP to one < 
own qoalitj; but gcmtally abbcj^s wen , 
accept tb«n with notbitif;. thtreby to ^ 
parent* and bnithcrv of imeh jninng 
uaidena to \k' the ronttant friends to their c 
oo all Dccaaiomi at t*ourt, and rbieflf in all pafw 
M 9. Ono emiitent instance bLTrof wo have in 
Ralph NcTil, lirst rari of WcaUttorelaud. of that 
hmUj wbum I behold as the happiest mbrcet of 
Engfamd sinre the OitKitwit, if either we c 
e— bar of bb children, or moanire the baf^ if | 
the honour ttt<-; aitAJned. 

lie had bjr Margaret, liis fint wife, 

i. John, his cklcvt ann, liord Nevil, tee. 
ii. Ilalidi, in tlw rifffat of Mary hb wifr, . 
Kerref* ut Uiuley. 

BOOK VI. in England. 836 

iii. Maude, married to Peter Lord Mauley. 

iv. Alice, married to Sir Thomas Gray. 

V. Philip, married to Thomas Lord Dacre, of 

Gi Island, 
vi. Margaret, married to the Lord Scrope, of 

vii. Anne, married to Sir Gilbert Umfravile. 
viii. Margery, abbess of Barking, 
ix. Elizabeth, a nun. 

He had by Joan, his second wife, 

i. Richard, earl of Salisbury. 

ii. William, in the right of Joan his wife. Lord 

iii. George, Lord Latimer. 

iv. Edward, Lord Abergavenny. 

V. Robert, bishop of Durham. 

vi. Thomas, in right of his wife, Lord Sey- 

vii. Katharine, married to Thomas duke of 

viii. Eleanor, to Henry earl of Northumberland. 

ix. Anne, to Humphrey duke of Buckingham. 

X. Jane, a nun. 

xi. Cicely, to Richard duke of York, and mother 
to king Edward the Fourth \ 

See we here the policy of that age in disposing of 
their numerous issue. More than the tithe of them 
was given to the church ; and I trow the nuns, and 
abbess especially, were as good madams as the rest, 
and conceived themselves to go in equipage with 
their other lady-sisters. And no wonder if an earl 

q Mills, p. 393. 

8t6 Tike Hitiani „/ Abbey* maom. ft. 

preTimd hb danghUn to be dudk, •oeiog do kiag 
of Euglud iince the Conqacvt bad four dughlai 
lirin^ tn womui'B Mtato, but ho dilpoMid ona af 
Ihcm to he a voiaxj ; and Bridfr(->t, the fouitb dangli- 
ler to kiiift E«lwanl the Fourth, a nun at Dardbnl 
in Kent, was the laNt priiici-H who ent«nMl into • 
ri'li^ouB order. 

4. TlivT were ti^U^mble tuton for the edtMBtim 
of youth, thcTO being a grvat penury of other pm 
mar-achools In that a^ ; and vvory coavent had a 
or more therein who (geoerallj gratia) I 
ehildmi thereabouts : joa, tfaejr who wen \ 
cnoogh in their own lirea wen nn 
to their diadjdino oror otben. Gmmioar wm I 
taqgfat, and mnak* whieh in tome tort an; har^j 
dirige (ai to the general uie thereof) at the i 
lotion of abbeys. 

5. NnaneriH alio won good ■bfreebooli. whcnfa 
the girU and mddi of the Dcigfaboiirfaood wvav 
tangbt to read and work : and fometimc* a little 
Latin wa« taoght ttii>ni thfreiu. Ym. give mv leave 
to aaj. if Mich fi-niinine foundatioiH bad itill con- 
tinued, provide*! no vow wen <»bcnidad apoo tbaai, 
(virginity tit least kuju wbeni It bi notl c 
bspty the wcaki-r wx, b«ide« the avoiding ) 
iorofiveuienceA, miglit be hrigbteucd to a 1 
peifectioa tlian hitherto bath been attatna 
Aarpneaa of thHr wiu and nddeiUMM of t 
eelti. which tbcir cneniiet miiat allow nB 
might by ptIui'fttiiMi he impnived into a 
•olidity, and that vloniml with art* whirh i 
want, not becauw they cannot Irarn, Uit i 
laagfat them. I My if tuch fmiimne fount 
wen extant Dow-of-dayi, bajily aome ' 

BOOK vj. in England. 387 

highest birth would be glad of such places ; and I 
am sure their fathers and elder brothers would not 
be sorry for the same. 

6. They were the sole historians, in writing, toMonkithe 
preserve the remarkable passages of church and nans, and 
commonwealth. I confess I had rather any than^**^' 
monks had written the histories of our land ; yet 
rather than the same should be unwritten, I am 
heartily glad the monks undertook the performance 
thereof. Indeed, in all their chronicles one may 

feel a rag of a monk's cowl : I mean, they are partial 
to their own interest. But in that age there was a 
choiceless choice, that monks or none at all should 
write our English histories. Swordmen lacked learn- 
ing, statesmen leisure to do it : it was therefore 
devolved to monks and friars, who had store of time 
and no want of intelligence to take that task upon 
them. And surely that industrious Bee ^ hath in 
our age merited much of posterity, having lately, 
with great cost and care, enlarged many manuscripts 
of monks, (formerly confined to private libraries,) 
that now they may take the free air, and, being 
printed, publicly walk abroad. Meantime, whilst 
monks' pens were thus employed, nuns with their 
needles wrote histories also: that of Christ his passion 
for their altar-clothes, and other Scripture- (and moe 
legend-) stories, in hangings to adorn their houses. 

7. They were most admirable good landlords ; and Abbou ex- 
well might they let and set good pennyworths, whoundiords. 
bad good pounds'-worths freely given unto them. 
Their yearly rent was so low, as an acknowledgment 

' An able stationer, in Little lished Twysden's Decern Scri(>* 
Britain, London. [He pnb- tores.] 



rf.t llulA^ uf Jhhryi 

rather than a n>iit. only to dirtinguith Um (cm 
feim tlie lAiitllonl. TYicxr finc« aim were Mqr; 1 
llxmgli i>v[-rT rtiiivftit, oft a InmIv politic, 
tal, rut licrmisp tb« nme eottiuted of otortal > 
for tliHr mpiuben, Ktiil tn old abliot for the 1 
thf^rLHif, t\\vy wfrt' glut to niaki' nM> of the | 
tttnc for ihf'ir pnilit, taking little fini-* hx ^"""9 
Xvtaxn. A<i for rt-nt-bccvoi, ^iM-ep, pulleu. Ate. n^ 
lerve*! till tlirir l<>*sca, t«>nant» both paid I 
more i-iuily, u gruvin^c on the nuiic, a&d tbe i 
rhm.<rfully, Iwraiot- at any lime tlipy might ' 
eat their full sliar^* thvrvof, wht-n rvpairinn to thtir 
hutdlonl'a bountiful taltlo ; iiuomurh that Umg \tmm 
from abb(7« were prefemMl by niany hefoie i 
tcnurca of fn.<vb<4(fa, h \tm wbjcct lu tmxM | 
troublefoniB atteodanev. 

8. Thdr hospitality wan beyond 
much that Ovid. <if liring in that age.) who % 
Famino to dwvll In Seytfaia, would hsvc 
FnaUnf an inhabitant of Eng Ibh sUmti ; 
in Chriatinaa time, tbvy kept moat bcmntifti] 1 
Whotoorer bmagfat the (arc of a man, brought wilfc 
kfan a patent for bla free wplromi* till bu )>laaed to 
depart. This wan the methml : where he brake Ui 
feat* tbcrr be dim*d : when' be dined, there ha 
rapped ; where he nipped, thm he brake bb faft 
next mnndng : and n in a rirvU'. Alwan f 
that hv prorided lodging for himielfat night; 
harinf gnmt balla and rcfnrtoriea. But fr 
ben and donnltaric^ «n for vurh of t 

* : At tU iMtaOMim «r fUliifc 

BOOK VI. tit England. 339 

9. Some will object that this their hospitality Objection 
was but charity mistaken, promiscuously entertain- their hoe. 
ing some who did not need and moe who did not^* *^' 
deserve it. Yea, these abbeys did but maintain the 

poor which they made ; for some vagrants, account- 
ing the abbey-alms their own inheritance, served an 
apprenticeship, and afterwards wrought joumeywork 
to no other trade than begging ; all whose children 
were, by their fathers' copy, made free of the same 
company. Yea, we may observe, that generally such 
places wherein the great abbeys were seated (some 
few excepted, where clothing began when their con- 
vent did end) swarm most with poor people at this 
day ; as if beggary were entailed on them, and that 
laziness not as yet got out of their flesh, which so 
long since was bred in their bones. 

10. All this is confessed; yet by their hospitality The same 
many an honest and hungry soul had his bowels 
refreshed, which otherwise would have been starved; 

and better it is two drones should be fed than one 
bee famished. We see the heavens themselves, in 
dispensing their rain, often water many stinking 
bogs and noisome lakes, which moisture is not 
needed by them, yea, they the worse for it, only 
l)ecause much good ground lies inseparably inter- 
mingled with them ; so that either the bad with 
the good must be watered, or the good with the 
bad must be parched away. 

11. Of all abbeys in England, Ely bare away the£]yputaaii 
hell for bountiful feast-making; the vicinity of theao^for 


election of Michael, abbot of St. an enormous sum for those days. 
Augustine's, in i375,wasiooo/.. See Reyner, p. aiS.] 


firiu nflcirtling thctn jiliTDtr of Seth. fiib. uid fowt 
nt low rate*. Ilenriipon tfai' poet: 

£W, f Mui /irirnM mw<«, vtJWv rfJii. 

Whoc other rc«>U bofon ban been, 
ir Ukmo of Ely iMt bo Mm, 
*ru liku to one who h»Ui Mm d^tf. 
And then bobulda tbe day «» bri^l. 

But, with tlic loavo of tht* poet'ii brp 
b1>>k>t» <m Oliutonbnry, St. Alhui\ Riwlinf ) ^ 
up rliiw to EIr, wbirb. thou^b (dtrt>«.<dhlg I 
fem»t»,lthe i-Tiilenw oft iifn miMT.) ^rt there 
Etf hi the ctiiutant l*atot of bi)iiaekc«.<iiing. Thm 
ntfwtlon of Reading tnittdii mc of « plc«j«nt Mid 
trut> Mnnr. whk-h, to nrfn-nh my wwicd mU lad 
iviuler, afu-r lunfr |«inft, I here intend tn r 
AfiMMM 12. Kin;; lli-nnr the Kightb. m he wm 1 
UMHwin Winitmr foivst, cither cmmull^ loiC, or, more |mo> 
boblp. wilfullr loajng bhniclf, struck du«m tbtnt 
duum-tiiDe to the abbo^ of Rndin]^: wb<*n% di*. 
giMag hfatuwir, (much ft»r doti^t. more f<fr dim^ 
•vttrj, to tee tuween.) be «ii iDTite<l to the ahfaoi'* ■ 
iMe, and paawd for one of the king*! ; 
|iIM0 to which the profKirtton of hii | 
properly entitle him. A sirioio of I 
hrfore him, (w knifrlitcd, auth traditioa, hj tU» 
kiog llcnty.) on which the king laid on liHtiljr* i 
di«gnicing nnr of that plan' for whom bo waa aw* 
Uki*a. " Well iuv thy hi-ait ' " .itwith the* abl 
" and ht-rv in a cup of nark I romciiibcr the be 
** of hu gr««e your muter. I would give an 1 
" drvd potindt on the eoodition 1 cook) fe«l ■» I 

BOOK VI. m England, 341 



heartily on beef as you do. Alas ! my weak and 
squeazy stomach will hardly digest the wing of 
" a small rabbit or chicken." The king pleasantly 
pledged him, and, heartily thanking him for his good 
cheer, after dinner departed as undiscovered as he 
came thither. 

13. Some weeks after the abbot was sent for by aHeprwei 
pursuivant, brought up to London, clapped in the phyridan. 
Tower, kept close prisoner, fed for a short time with 
bread and water ; yet not so empty his body of food 
as his mind was filled with fears, creating many sus- 
picions to himself when and how he had incurred the 
king's displeasure. At last a sirloin of beef was set 
before him, on which the abbot fed as the farmer of 
his grange, and verified the proverb that "Two hungry 
" meals makes the third a glutton." In springs king 
Henry out of a private lobby, where he had placed 
himself, the invisible spectator of the abbot's beha- 
viour. " My lord," quoth the king, " presently 
" deposit your hundred pounds in gold, or else no 
^* going hence all the days of your life, I have 
" been your physician, to cure you of your squeazy 
" stomach ; and here, as I deserve, I demand my 
" fee for the same." The abbot down with his dust, 
and, glad he had escaped so, returned to Reading, 
as somewhat lighter in purse, so much more merrier 
in heart than when he came thence. 



The wisest and most religious amongst the Ro-oidham*a 
manists presaged and suspected a downfall of these 5b?fHi«'^ 
convents some years before it came to pass; for*^ 


IMS Tkt Hittary t,/ Abl^» »«•■ *i. 

when it nn» in the intention uiil dtMfrn of RidHtid 
Fux. Iil'^liu)) of Winrhc«t«r. to luw built a iiiiim 
Ivnr. Iliiffh OMIum, Irisbnp nt Kxptcr. dn 
him. nffimiinfi tint «ucb ronvcntJi po« 
alrviidr tlmii thcv uoiiM Inriff eiijo;' '. He i 
him rather to W-mtow his bcmntj on foutulltig' i 
<vlloj^ in the nnircmity, a* which wiu liki^r le 
last lonfTCT Biiii ivrtjiin to do mem- )^Nid, ptomiHOf 
mlao fats own utmoBt BniiftmtMw in to {iluiw an tm> 
dertaklnjf. TIiIr wan done aecordingljr, Pox befaig 
the firtl ri>uiitli.>r (if, and Oldfaani a tibenl benebcCor 
to, Coqm« Chriati C'olh'frc in Oxfonl. 
^■. ,- ». Add to this a ^jH-orh of Itobcrt \^liitgift". 

wMiiiA. (ibbnt of Wcllow, niffh Crimnbr, in LiueolnAiTC^) 
ancle to nirhbi^hop Whitgift, who waa woot to 
mj, " That th«r aiitl their reUjfioo" {ehMij in nk^ 
Uoo to tnonaatericn) " could not Umg eoatiniw : h^ 
" caiuici,'* nid he, " I haTo read the whole acri plMr p 
* oTcr aiid oTpr, and mild nen-r And therein tlMl 
" our rclipinn wan foundwl lir Ood." And. for praof 
of hix opinion, the ahbot would allefre that i 
our Saviour, Krrty fJ/intitui tcAirA uijf 
Father ka(h iint /t/antt^ tkaU /v rrmfW «) 
that he pfvvcd a tnie pn>ph(t herrin the next I 
will mfKrientlr fvidciiri'. 
^Jr» 8. Wf will rancludf with Ibt'lr olm-rtatioo, a 
rfitf^ (Rniaotw pma^ of ahbe^ii' ruin, that there «■■ 
f^irtij aearee a freat abhor in Knj^and which, once at tile 
laaat, was not btimt down with lightninjf from 

0«Jwta.fanhaHlilinpiof ■ INr Omg* Pwl. h 


in England 


i. Tlie monastery of Canterbury burnt anno 

1145 '^. And afterward again burnt, anno 

1174 y. 
ii. The abbey of Croyland, twice burnt *. 
iii. The abbey of Peterborough, twice set on 

iv. The abbey of St. Mary's, in York, burnt ^ 
V. The abbey of Norwich, burnt ^. 
vi. The abbey of St. Edmunds-Bury, burnt and 

destroyed **. 
vii. The abbey of Worcester, burnt, 
viii. The abbey of Gloucester was also burnt, 

[in 1122] e. 
ix. The abbey of Chichester, burnt. 
X. The abbey of Glastonbury, burnt, 
xi. The abbey of St. Mary, in Southwark, 

xii. The church of the abbey of Beverley, 

xiii. The steeple of the abbey of Evesham, 


^ [This ought, I think, ra- 
ther to be referred to the year 
1 130. See Parker's Antiq. 193. 
I can find no mention among 
the early writers of Canterbury 
being burnt in 1 145.] ^ 

y Ex Hist. Geryasii, [in 
Twysden, p. 1428.] 

2 Ex Histor.lngulphi. [Once 
by the Danes, in 870 ; then by 
the carelessness of a workman, 
in 1091 ; and again in 11 70. 
See Ingulph. pp. 22, 96, 45a, 
ed. Oxford.] 

■ Ex Chron. Peterb. [quoted 
in Dugdale, i. 68], Walteri 

Weeks., Hovedeni, Oualteri 
Coventr., Fabiani. [These re- 
ferences are from Fox, ii. 501, 
and I have not been able to 
verify them ; they are very 
carelessly cited, and most erro- 
neously printed in the previous 

^ [A. D. 741. Symeon Du- 

c [In 1 266, see Wykes, p. 
77; and subsequently, at va- 
rious times.] 

^ Ex Chron. S. Edmond., 
Guil. Malmesb. 

« [Florent. Wigom. in an.] 

z 4 

844 Tht Hufmi of Ahhty* mm *t. 

I will not. with ^fl^.'4t^■r Fox, inft^ from mwh rw m t 
altiM thdl (ioti wiu mon- tiRi-nilM ntth attU'rs iVacm 
otbvr buililiiign ; a natural rauM* |in«cutiiif; ilarlfof 
such acri<lpnt8, niuiielT. bocauw tbi> blgbast ^timt- 
turvfi (wliatt'rer thoy niv) are the fnirevt BMllw lor 
ligbtning anil tbumler; m if those active me^ttm 
took the usurpation of surb a«{nring buildiag* in 
distaste for entering ttieir tiTritorr, and for uftntn^ 
witbout It-ttvo, to iiiradv tbe mairbeM of tbc middte 
rc^on of the air. And if mountaimi of God's ova 
advancing tbitber and plarinj; there paf *\t»i for 
their honour, and freiiuenttj feel tbu wHpbt of tfann* 
derboltH falling u[Min theiii, /eriant nimmtu Jkimn^ 
■um/m, do wonder if anificial buildings of bmoIi 
makiiig (wbataocTcr thi7 be. palactn. or « 
charrbes. or convi-nts) have Ibeir aniblUaa i 
bumbled with thunder and lightning, which < 
melt ami eonsunio ibem. 
B*M 4. Only we will add, that nurb fr gqacat I 
«ten« of abbey eburrbes by lightning ronfutetb tb» | 
{fi^HL. motto, cftrnmonly written on the ItdU ia I 

plot, wfaerdn each bell entitled itaelT to a|i 

1. Fmtttnphm^ 

Mm** deUhs I toU 



BOOK VI. in England. 345 

4. Exdto lentos^ 

The sleepy head 
I raise from bed. 

5. Dissipo ventos^ 

The winds so fierce 
I do disperse. 

6. Paco cruentosy 

Men'*s cruel rage 
I do assuage f . 

Whereas it plainly appears that these abbey steeples, 
though quilted with bells almost cap^-pie^ were not 
of proof against the sword of God's lightning ; yea, 
generally, when the heavens in tempests did strike 
fire, the steeples of abbeys proved often their tinder, 
whose frequent burning portended their final de- 
struction ; which now, God willing, we come to 


Great buildings commonly crack before they fall. Orders of 
to give the dwellers therein warning to depart: so able acomi- 
was it here in abbeys. But may we here first pre- p^uns of 
mise, as an introduction, that it was placed in the^^^^^ 
power and pleasure of princes and great persons, 
their founders, to displace and exchange particular 
orders, as sometimes monks for nuns, and recipro- 
cally nuns for monks ; white for grey friars, and 
grey for white, as their fimcy directed them : whereof 
we have plenty of instances. But all this made 
nothing to the loss of monkery in general ; though 

' [From Weever's Fun. Mo- reader will find several other 
numents, p. 122, where the inscriptions of the same kind.] 


Thr /fiMlory nf AkUfi 

MXM or cnloun of fnan wtrre altered, thm i 
belli dill liftnj; still in the itoeple, thotigfa niaf tm 
tiunge* tft cuiitoiit hc'vpiuI [icople. 

2. Secondir, particular convent* i 
dissolred d|k»d thi>ir niisdcmo&nrmr, u in Berklej , 
,. nvamerj : here a foun;; nun (left out of c 
Earl Godwin) diMembled lumtelf to be i 
in ibort apace, m> acquitted himiwlf i 
TotaricM tbcrc, that all or tliem. witb I 
(wbo§o iigf> inij{lit bave het'n picvumed a fi 
for bur bonentf ,) wen- gut witb child > : 
plaint and proof wbereor unto king Edward thm 
Coofcaaor, tbc}- wuro all driven out, and tbdr t 
ncTj, with large revenueo, bestowed upoii Eart God- 
win by the arorcNiid king, who waa then acooiuil«l 
patron of all abbevw. wbtcb, now fiUten Into bb 
hands by thi« foul bt|i««>, be bealowed, a* a lav fre. 
upon this new owtK?r. wbolljr altering tJie proprrtj 
w^ 3. Thirdly, wbole itbgiixm onlen might, by order 

MuMriiHi fmm the ih>|m, be totally arwl finally 
£lSir^Hcre I |MUM by the Vntn-* Flagelliferi. or a 
*■** frion; rvligiims tHHllanift. kIiimi^.-i! jmblicly t 
tbomrlva in tbc market-pla4.v, nwklt^ i 
their own tldni, tbcrcon to write tbnir ! 
l^ble cbaracten: I my I omit tbetn. i 
pat down by the \tn\yv hlnuetf. the rather I 
I find them not ill Knglaitd or elvewhere < 
with onnsidcrable rovenuca. I will innat < 
Templan, wboae nnineimu and wealthy ftalcndtj 
waa lor their ncioiuDcat. by the pope tn the cwoadl 

t •• Df hHMlia MMM— fj>.i5{.lMt«rW«)tarMMa. 

»a wamtU ia lajwi." C^M' [1 wrilar of nry n^miH 
I Brit, ia a t ammlM i kin. wtkority] 


in England. 


of Vienna, dissolved all over Europe ; and in Eng- 
land all or most of their land was given to the 
Knights Hospitallers^. This was a great shaking 
of all religious orders ; the plucking out of these 
chief threads made a rent in the whole cloth, men 
conceiving that in process of time the whole sheaf 
may be broken as well as the single arrows, seeing, 
perchance, other societies led lives not more reli- 
gious but less examined. 

4. But the first terrible blow in England given The fim 
generally to all orders was in the lay parliament, as SJIe^ron'of 
it is called, which did wholly Wickliffize, kept in**'**^^ 
the twelfth year of king Henry the Fourth ; wherein 
the nobles and commons assembled signified to the 
king that the temporal possessions of abbots, priors, 
&c. lewdly spent within the realm would suflfice to 
find and sustain 150 earls, 1500 knights, 6200 
esquires, 100 hospitals, more than there were *. But 
this motion was mauled with the king's own hand, 
who dashed it, personally interposing himself, con- 
trary to that character which the jealous clergy had 
conceived of him, that, coming to the crown, he 
would be a great enemy to the church*'. But 
though Henry Plantagenet, duke of Lancaster, was 
no friend to the clergy, perchance to ingratiate him- 

^ See Supplement of the 
Holy Warre, chap, i, 2, 3. 
[where Fuller has treated this 
question with ability and im- 
partiality. The decree against 
the Templars was passed in 
1307. Jacques des Moulins, 
the grand master of the order, 
was executed at Paris, March 
II, 1313, being roasted over a 
slow fire. The reader may 

consult a dissertation by Alex, 
ander Natalis, and another in 
French by Pierre du Puy, on 
this greatly disputed subject.] 

^ Thomas Walsingham, [in 
anno 1410, p. 379.] 

^ Being heard to say that 
princes had too little, and reli- 
gious men too much. Hollin- 
shed, p. 514. 

Tht Hutwy ofAhittft MOB n. 

wif wfUi the [>oo|tlo, yet ttio nnw Henry, ktnf of 

EnffUuid, hifi interest beinft altvn>«l. t« itn r^gthi 

him with the oonttidernblo |H>wer of tbv> cUwgf, 

proved ■ (mtroii, rt«, a cluun}iiDD to defend Umi 

Howorer, we may my tliat now tbe axe b bid 1 

the root of the trvv <if abbcTs; and tbb i 

the [tfcwent, thou^rh it was m fiu from hui 

body that it scarce ptcrrfd the bark ihi 

baro att«>m)>t8 in mrh mattcm are importamt, ai ' 

putting into people's bead* a feasibility of tbe pn»- 

Jift, fonaerly coaceived altofcther impo«Ue. 

TWhi^ 3- ^*^^ yeafH after, Damely, in the aeeoDd fnr 

JJ^^J^ of king Henry the Fifth, another ibrewd throat wm 

■p* "** made at Kngliah abbey* ; bat it waa liaefy i 

-^-^M cIcTcrly put a»iile by titat tkilful atato fencer llaii^ 

ii bf Chichelc, arrhbtihop of ('anterbufy ; for tlw I 

' bill against ablieyn. in full parliament. 

when the archbiahop miDded kinf; Heiuj i 

nndoubtiid title to the fair and fluuriBbing 1 

of Pra&oe. Hen-at that kint;. vho wax a • 

himselC «** inflamed to that desif^u by this ( 

penuaikm; and hia native couragi- ran flemitj ob 

the pn^eet, oqieclally when rlajiped un with cm«- 

■eienoe and oncoura^mral from a rhurdunui !■ 

the lawfutoifa thervttf. An Dndcrtakiiig of iImm I 

Taat dinieiwion* tliat the ffrfat««4 eoveto 

qiread and highest ambition rrarh itwlf within the 

bound* ihercof: if, to promote thin pn^cct. tW 

abbeyi adnnced not only large and liberal bqt «iat 

■nd laandible ruiib of money, it is no woiiJer if | 

they were eootrated to hare tlietr naili pared t 

to the quick. thcn4iy to Hare their Hogen. Oviv 

goea king Henry into Franee, with many naitU 

t attewling him ; *n that putting the king % 


in England. 


the seeking of a new crown kept the abbots' old 
mitres upon their heads ; and monasteries, tottering 
at this time, were (thank a politic archbishop) re- 
fixed on the firm foundations, though this proved 
rather a reprieve than a pardon unto them, as will 
afterwards appear. 


Next followed the dissolving of alien priories, of The on- 
whose first founding and several sorts something Tories 
must be observed. When the kings of England, by*"*^ 
conquest or inheritance, were possessed of many and 
great territories in France, (Normandy, Aquitaine, 
Picardy, &c.) many French monasteries were en- 
dowed with lands in England ; for an English 
kitchen or larder doth excellently well with a 
French hall ; and whilst foreigners' tongues slighted 
our island, as barren in comparison of their own 
country, at the same time they would lick their 
lips after the full fare which our kingdom afforded. 

2. Very numerous were these cells in England 
relating to foreign abbeys scattered all over the 
kingdom. One John Norbury erected two for his 
part, the one at Greenwich, the other at Lewisham 
in Kent * ; yea, Roger de Poictiers " founded one 

1 [Weever, in his account of 
the funeral monument in the 
diocese of Rochester, has the 
following observations : "John 
" Norbury founded a priory 'in 
** th i s town of Lewisham , which 
" he replenished with black 
" monks aliens, belonging to 
•' the abbey of Ghent, in Flan- 
" ders, and thereupon called 
'• aliens, because they were 

" cells to some monastery or 
'* other beyond the seas. The 
*' first foundation of these 
" houses I do not find ; but in 
" the reign of king Ed ward III. 
" they were increased to the 
" number of no in England, 
" besides those in Ireland, 
'* Aquitaine, and Normandy. 
*' The goods of all which prio- 
" ries die said king, anno reg. 


TAe i 

ia the mnutnt comer of tlw biul, in the town of 
LtncMter. Hip riclH«t of ihcni nil. Tor atuioal i»> 
Donie, wu tbiit whirh YvoTajlhnTn Imilt mt SfwMiaf 
tn Utiooliuhirc °. (giving it to tho monks of Aq^ 
ia Fnncf*. vnlavt) ftl no InM than 878/- ISiu Sd. 
of vfarlj rvveniie". And it ia R-markable, that m 
one of tlK*<H- )»riorie« ww f^nnttvd bcroiv the kta^ 
of Kn^bind vrcn> inrcviofl «-itb mnr dominiaa ia 
Fmnri', (nann-'lv, lK>«.Tiiurirt in (iluan'Ktpnhire^ a*- 
HfTiKil 1)^ the tOHlamcnt itf Kilwanl the CoafeMor l» 
the innniurtcrr of St. lk-ni« tivar Puix.) tu tamm 
wen* Imrtowed on tl]os4> (ilarM in fnirign pHtt 
where nnr Enjclinb kinfpt ocTer bml fin^<r of |wnP9 
or foot nf iNtrnfMion. 'Pius wt> ntu\ htiw Ifeoiy 
the Tliinl annoxn^l n oeii in TlirwuImtHlle Stfyct, in 
London, to St. Anihonv in Vienna i ; anil Dear 
CbarinjK Cmm then* «-■» another annt-'xw) to At 
Uft,r Itunccvd in Navarre. Ht'likf men'* ileTotloa. 
in that agf, I<x>ke4l on the world aa it iay in mm- 
mon. takinfc no notirf Iiow it wb» ftubdividea] iolA 
private |irinci|ni]itie«, bnt prrxveded on that mlr, 
n^ emii u Ike Lard'M, and iJu fulm 

" II, bockitM of hU w«n tritli EAwsrd III.. w9t tm tmmd fa 

" Franc*, enuxi Iw W nmfU. Rvfavrk AfmL BcanL Afif^ 

" Mtad tn ki* owa um. kilinf; ti. p. 7 1 .] 

*' oM Utah Imbhb Io &rm. - CmmlL Brit, tn t^sa^Mk 

•■ witk kU tlwir Unb rad inw- [f-tij.} 

"■irati.fcrllktipKaafllwM • Maa ri TJinilaifclirL Ip. 

" md twMtr ymn t at the 400. Di^Mi, L 106.] 

'• rad of wfcidi Mw (p«M • H«~Md LH1«- BmL) 

" Wiag Biinrlii Ji J Wlw— tfa ' " ' ' ' i' "" 1 _ 

" twH "— tJw Q ha n*mri m |l 761. 

•* llMprknaMaathdrhn«Bi, r Cm 

" ba^ »ai l ie — law . awn knlaf*. (p. it*.] 

" ncM 35. « W Ua paUBtt * llBrpOria, ai f 

"mmtmfftmt.- Ahandtktm 76J. 

BOOK VI. in England, 351 

and charity, though wandering in foreign parts, 
counted itself still at home, because dwelling on its 
proper pious uses. 

3. These alien priories were of two natures : 4^«n p"<>- 
some had monks, with a prior resident in them, yet naturw. 
not conventual, but dative and removable ad nutum 

of the foreign abbey, to which they were subser- 
vient ; others were absolute in themselves, who, 
though having an honorary dependance on, and 
bearing a subordination of respect unto French 
abbeys, yet had a prior of their own, being an 
entire body of themselves to all purposes and in- 
tents: the former not unlike stewards managing 
profits for the behoof of their master, to whom 
they were responsible; the latter resembling re- 
tainers at large, acknowledging a general reference, 
but not accountable unto them for the revenues 
they received. Now both these kinds of priories 
peaceably enjoyed their possessions here, even after 
the revolt of those principalities from the crown 
of England ; yet so that during open hostility and 
actual war betwixt England and France their reve- 
nues were seized and taken by the king, and restored 
again when amity was settled. 

4. But king Richard the Second and king Henry 
the Fourth, not so fair as their predecessors herein, 
not only detained those revenues in time of peace, 
but also diverted them from their proper use, and 
bestowed them on some of their lay-servants; so 
that the crown was little enriched therewith, espe- 
cially if it be true what Arundel archbishop of 
Canterbury averred in the house of commons to the 
face of the speaker, that these kings were not half 
a mark the wealthier for those rents thus assumed 

StoHiuir hanfia*. And a ivnod of ihs dojy, fa 
tlH> livt of Ili'iinr tlM> Foarti), pcCitiooed the U^f 
that Inynic-ii niij^lit nii( tiiradtr tbe posMMioas af J 
alifti priorive, but thoae foundolioiu mi|ftit be f 
uifthod, native EtifclUh ttub«titut«I in their nooi 
wlifHC n><)U4wt, br rrawn of the kinfr'n death oa 
in^. t'Kik no ufTcf t. Dut thin iloth iotimato (tb<M|^ 
I hail mther leam tliaii tcarb in to dark a | 
that UuM0 alira priorie* atill stood i 
set of itate. with a {loariUIitj to ivrert to| 
bnner m»; and tboufth the Idng had f 
their pro6ta bj hi* abaolotc pow«r, yt< at j 
were not wttled and catabUihed in the ■ 
act of {wriianu'nt. 

5. But in the fourth jrear of king Hemyl 
Fiftk in tht' hi-at and hi'ight nf bis wan i 
Fnincr, all mich prioric* ali<*n t» were not coeva^^ 
tual were by act of jiarltanicnt dhaolved ", and be- 
•towed on the king * ; it l>eing concflTcd 
that men moving according to a fiireiga : 
haviaf thsir afllNrtimu h-nding thrm 
■ea^ and their actions following, when 1 
wHh aeenajr. ibould be maintained in thb I 
Bealdes, h tended to thv manifval detriment i 
■tate that mch tbould tran9|)ort oar roin a 
moditic* into an cnemy'i conntrj^, without r 
a [mftortfoaahie profit to the commonwealth. ( 
alien priocita, whirh wcru conTcatoal. Ktrrived J 
the geneiml mortality of EugUsb moaaatcfiei; 

• [Phrhv'a] Aattf. BriL p. nT Um 8mm«,] tit. 1 

t74. tofki. 

tHw^«ey.HbLAaf.M& ■ [T* iJm mmW of %tm. 

telWM niala mm. adno. Bn Stow** Ouoa. p- 14$- IWw 

■ Pwftiwirt RJ». IB. 461. Mn db>ol««d b« Hmit nr. 

K. 179. Ilaadh [riiHalliii aad wtmi la Utmrj VL] 

BOOK VI. in Engkmd. 853 

alien priories were not conceived to have such a 
temptation to disloyalty as the others, having their 
absolute subsistence here ; and though the monks 
therein were strangers in respect of their birth, they 
were counted naturalized in a manner in regard of 
their education and livelihood. 

6. The dissolving of these priories made a dan- The dan. 
gerous impression on all the rest. Say not thata^^'Sr" 
English abbeys were unconcerned; because these ^J^"*^ 
strangers, being rather suckers than branches of 
their tree, their growing was a burthen, and their 
pruning off a benefit thereunto ; for though aliens 
in their country, they were allies in their cause, 
there being an affinity betwixt all religious foun- 
dations. And now here was an act of state for 
precedent; that without sin of sacrilege such dona- 
tions might be dissolved. Use was made hereof 
beyond the king's intention, who, (in this act not 
covetous, but politic,) aiming rather to secure than 
enrich himself ; whereas now some courtiers by his 
bounty, tasting on the sweet of abbey lands, made 
their breakfasts thereon in the time of Henry the 
Fifth, which increased their appetites to dine on 
the same in the days of king Henry the Eighth, 
not so glutted but they could sup on the reversions 
left in the reign of king Edward the Sixth. 





TVuHfji momr rutm txptei tuurfMp, many irt// rmptirt 

/rum Me, ShcA 9riU r^tnjt mm? ¥*UA a tfrrui %mgt0\fr%tif 

/or tU^litatimtj a ili^iOMHu o/ mumls and/ruurt iv fvur laJf* 

jUi^i, wAi re A/iM«' ifUMinr$ u/ (At'ir trniiUvmit^Ag m»ty o^^tmtm 

^titr UMtAino fur tkrm^ 9rAo mtrrr Umsktti fur iirmurir>t^. 

It Hi km»tr it tloHt- hjf (A#i</ii, tL^t yuH may ^•Aiin'r f>tmnr0 

lutw/itr iHttri'iiHH''<Atutity tram$e%*HiUd /vrrtd uhmI yrtitwd^ 

rinfimity ; or, {fjf^ fJ^usr, iow mmck a f/»rimpim^ /ummtmm 

is Utter tkam a ttinulimt fwJ^ 9uum tmkjtri to jmirr/mrtiom, 

YoHr /iiiiiiy, thouffk mitt a Hunm^ty, may he a rtiipiums knmm^ 

lutihlt ttvti hath mttitiplitd you imto a trAofs etrntrni, /«M«a 

fA' /rirt'eu r/tildnn irAiVA you in re *it tMs fn-^mt / My 

A<fr. , /,r thijf rntpm is rtHd^red^ *rky tkf rkihirrn o/JtA^ 

tifhr ki* nitfif**tnfH, trer* h*4 dotMeJ unto kim a$ kis ASlffa 

^ [I havt* fii(lt*Mvi*un-c), dtit rvf thi« *hrrt |f >iO|g t«> the prf f 

withi'Ut *ucct«». to ditciivrr hr had not tuccrr<irtl in i«!«m. 

M>iii«* trarf% <if thi« Uiiv and tiff inft this Udf with any p«<iii* 

hfr famil\ Sir llarrift Nich(». jfrre «>f thr umr naair. Ifmmj 

laA 4l*«i dill i!'.t* thi* kimint*»« in format i«»n »lKiuM rfttch >*• 

to I'ljii.inr xhv MSS in the 

llrmld'* Colli'i'r f«»r the tanu* thall lie in«rrtcd in the 

purpuM.* . \iiiX up til tht* time indct.l 

BOOK VI. The History ofAbbtyt in England. 355 

«wre, beeauie thejf were utterly /oreyons, Ma children onfy 
gone before ; on wihich aecouni thote tin removed from you 
into a better viorld itUl remain yours. God in due time 
translate you and your ttorthy hitband, in a good old age, 
into the tame place of kappinees ! 


I AST were the revenues of cardinal WoiMy-. 

Wolsey, if we account both his wivei wut. 

and concubines : I mean, the place 
' whereon he resided, and churches he 

held in commendam ; being at the 
same time the pope's legate a latere, archbishop of 
York, chancellor of England, bishop of Winchester* 
abbot of St. Alban'a, besides other meaner prefer- 
ments. Yet he found Solomon's observation true, 
IV/itm goods increase, ihey are mcreased thai eai 
(hem ''. Insomuch that bis magnificent mind was 
jioor in his plenty, and in the midst of bis wealth 
wanted means to compass his vast designs. "Where- 
fore, intending to erect two feir colleges, one where 
he was bom, in Ipswich, the other where ho was 
bred, in Oxford, and finding himself unable to endow 
them at his own charges, he obtained license of 
pope Clement VII., anno 1525, to suppress forty 
smaller monasteries in England, and to lay their old 
land to his new foundations, which was done accord- 
ingly ; for the cardinal thought that these petty 
liouses, like little sparks of diamonds, were incoD' 
siderable in themselves, whereas they would make a 

^ Eccles. T. 1 1. 
A a 2 


1%t ilutarjf ofjbheyi mkml n- 

fUr idiow if all were put togrlhrr into two jcnralt 
onlr. (his two rolU-gm,) tad be ranj awmy all the 
credit tliercof. 

S. An artion eomlpmaffd bj the oocsrtpntiiiu* in 
that age, MitHtuntitig it cflK<iitial to cfaaritj that the 
thing gircn be the proper goodt of the donor. CWf 
<&y 6read (aaith Solotaoa) i^pon tke iMttr'. It moat 
be dky tread, otbenriM, though tkiat bread* wtcj 
be pleasant to roon, it ii naoseous and dutMtoAll to 
the God of lieaven, who in such raaoa will doC ta 
the receiTsr, thoagfa man be the thief; uAaaadf 
diaavowiog the acoeptanoe of luch donatioM : viU 
neai hb own words, / kttie rtAbery for 

8. Plead not in the rardmaJ'f oxniie, 
faonaea bj him ra|>prvWL*d were of HmaU 
being as great, jtn, greater Mcrilege to iuvade the 
widow*! mite than the large gift* which the nA 
pciesta cart into C^rban; becauao their 
were but mpcrfluoas wens, wbilft ben waa ao ' 
tial limb; yea. a« our SaTiour obaprrea, the 
to4jf of her eatate '. Aa probably aome at 
poor fbaodatioiu were erected by fooDden IQw' 
of Maoedonla, to dteir /lutper, mmd iegm 
wUiimy f^lArmtekt*'. Ai for the po( 
mecly living b theae then diaolved 
nay be j wee um ed nore rellgiona then 
wen richer; poverty being a praCcdSaa 
piety, and they onoblc to go to the eoit of 
extra viganNa. I find not what proririoa «M' 
afterword made fur tbcee helpleai mala, ihraol oat 

a*, b. 1 7- 

' tCar.wVLy 

BOOK VI. in England. 367 

of house and home ; so that it is suspicious that the 
cardinal, notwithstanding his prodigious hospitality, 
made moo beggars than ever he relieved **. 

4. Others allege that these houses were still con- The miser- 
tinued to the general end of pious uses ; however it ^^^iraa-- 
was not fair to alienate them from the primitive *^**'" *'^- 

^ struments 

intention of the founders; yea, God himself seemed i^erein- 
not well pleased therewith. I know that no man 
knoweth either love or hatred by all tliat is before 
them. All things come alike to ally there is one event 
to the righteous and to the wicked *, &c. However, 
God's exemplary hand ought to be heeded in the 
signal fatality of such as by the cardinal were em- 
ployed in this service : five they were in number, 
two whereof challenging the field of each other, 
one was slain, and the other hanged for it. A third, 
throwing himself headlong into a well, perished wil- 
fully. A fourth, formerly wealthy, grew so poor 
that he begged his bread. The fifth. Dr. Allen, one 
of especial note, afterward archbishop of Dublin, was 

h ['* This season the cardi- " then he caused the escheator 

" nal, being in the king's " to sit and to find the houses 

" favour, obtained license to " void, as relinquished, and 

"make a college at Oxford, " found the king founder where 

** and another at Ipswich ; and " other men were founders ; 

'* because he would give no '* and with these lands he en- 

" lands to the said colleges, he " dowed withal his colleges ; 

" obtained of the bishop of " which he began so sumptu- 

" Rome license to suppress " ou8> and the scholars were 

** and put down divers abbeys, ** so proud, that every person 

'* priories, and monasteries, to " judged that the end would 

** the number of [40]. Where- " not be good, as you shall 

*' fore he suddenly entered by *' hear live years hereafter." 

''his commissioners into the Hall's Chron. 16 Hen. VIII. 

'' said houses, and put out the p. 694. ed. 1809. See also in 

** religious and took all their Stow's Chronicle a detailed 

'* goods^ movables, and scarce- account of their mode of sup- 

" ly gave to the poor wretches pressing the monastery of Dein- 

** any thing, except it were to try, p. 52a.] 
" the heads of the house; and > Ecdes. ix. i, 2. 


flloin in In-'lnitd >. Wliat Iwcane of the rrHhwl 
himself ii> notnrifraiily known; uwl m for Ua two 
collugvs, tlua ill I)»wich (the emMpm of iu I 
soon up, 1000 down) pnvnntlj TantsbMl into ] 
bouse* ; whiht thu othvr, Cbrirt Cburrli in <>] 
was ftjn to dlMlftim itji fminder, and (IteJa; ■ 
tlK> \mne of tliu bounty of kinjF llcnnr tbe Eighth) 
at this dajr owns not him ftir father who firrt gave It 
life, but who afterwards kept It from drin|f. In a 
word, thill diMotntion of forty nnall Ikmum ouMsd 
by the rardinal mndt^ all the fomtt of roliglnuB faiui- 
datioru in l-Iiifrland to ebakv, jiutty fcarioff the Idiif 
would fini>>li to fell tbo oaks, sodBg tho cwdiaBl 
began to cut the undprwood ^. 


Some six yean afLor. whilit as ypt all other abbe^ 
flonriabed Id their bdght and hajiifaDeH, as afc taA 

i JOodwiRkbAuMliaf n«a. " acuut It, u 

tb>Ei^ttli.CfinnSto».p.sts- "far th«y ww ihaaii'^ 

or Dr. Albn. HaU Ihm gimi » oM mm of woair l' 

aa HMuiag tksu^ ■n&vaor. " kiag. AadaaviUa^ 

■Uf niMMi ia kit ChfMBid*. " vwtibaa •« pndMfaa^ 

Hc«ip:'*Tk*nnltiulBlnnl " iImtm) thn*. TWMa_^ 

*■ tUi WMWI. by kb paw«t " pni|d* mlu Mack apia* 

** knlia*. Mat a itepUia of '• tkb ; >bJ ilw tWr wd lh« 

» uTcwIM Dr. JaU Allw. ■ » tU nntiMl. h^ iiiiiHi»fc 

*■ Man af UM bamiag Ikui •• anki^ af akMa, ym^tm 

** virtaa av mmA ■naMiBcii. lu " af taMBOtt^ <n>t^ ^ 

-vWl all nlMW rillatwii *• fciaM^ 111 mAti^m 

-nb^riMnaainkkpn - poOfaip ia kb onrto 1^. 

** af vrivai. widi a gnaU tntn. " Una, kad SHda Ut UvHaas 

•* aai waa iw al taj laut e*«rj " i^ttil wiik tka kiag**, aai 

" Ralifiaa whk fmtmtitm, m " ji^ wtmjjmr ka teal «M 

" tkoagk tka lagiM kad bMa - Mna u» RioaM." ». m^ 

» tkm. Md taMk wa gicai k Vh Mr. Pai Mkath iha 

" waM fcr kk vWiadaa. t^ lard CnwWt tka | I ill I 

" tka rrlifinu w«« wta pvnoa > M |i u y«J by tka CMaU 

" ftMTad aad Mamiuad mvA lul ibaiais. 


in England. 


secure as ever before, king Henry the Eighth, for 
reasons best known to himself, singled out the priory 
of Christ Church, nigh Aldgate in London, and dis- 
solved the same K This he bestowed as a boon on 
Thomas Audley, speaker in the parliament ; and 
indeed it was an excellent receipt to clear his voice, 
to make him speak shrill and loud for his master ^. 
This shrewdly shook the freehold of all abbeys, 
seeing now two such great men, Wolsey and Audley, 
both in their times lord-chancellors of England, 
(and therefore presumed well versed in cases of 
conscience,) the one a divine first took, the other a 
common-lawyer first received, such lands into their 

2. A word of the antiquity, wealth, and dignity of The and- 


wealth, and 
est satires, " Sir Thomas fol- thereof. 

' [•* The priory of the Holy 
*• Trinity, commonly called 
" Christ Church." Stow's 
Chron. p. 560. The same 
UTiter dates this suppression 
in the year 1532.] 

^ Hall's Chronicle, anno 

'5^5' [^^6 ^^^ spoken loud 
enough already, as Lloyd be- 
speaks him : " His reading 
** upon the statutes of privi- 
" leges commended him to the 
'* king's service ; his speaking 
** for the prorogation in par- 
" liament brought him to the 
*' king's favour.*' And as he 
had thus unscrupulously 
wormed himself into favour, 
so he secured his popularity 
by most abject sycophancy, 
courting alternately the king 
and the people, and turning 
with every tide ; for according 
to the same biographer, whose 
panegyrics are truly the keen- 

" lowed the most passable ra- 
" ther than the most able men 
** living, in a time when active 
•* men were more useful than 
" virtuous." And in this hu- 
mour, to gratify both king and 
commons, he preferred six bills 
against the clergy, bringing 
them into a pramunire to awe 
them. When sir Thomas More 
could not act with the times, 
Audley could : he took the 
seals when More resigned them. 
To conclude his character in 
the words of his strange bio* 
grapher : •• The king might 
** well trust him with his con- 
" science, when he trusted the 
'• king with his; owning no 
*' doctrine but what was esta- 
" Wished, ever judging the 
" church and state wiser than 
" himself. (!)" Lloyd's Wor- 
thies, I. 85.] 

A a 4 

860 Th$ History ^ AUtft 

thin ronvi'Dt, bccaiuc In each rMpect U i 
nUe. It WW TuuiHled uiiiu 1108. b^ queen Matilda ". 
(wife to king I{eur7 tlio Mnt.) tlc<ll«st4^ to iko 
Holy Trinity, for bUck nuMtw, nr ranons-rvgalv; 
luid iiiiu Noruuui (by tunw anl nation) wm in* 
prior thereof. lo prooeM of time it beouno ridi ti 
jiui<) luiii uniiunent^ »uA ftmnd all tlw priorioi fa 
l^ixlim or MiddleKZ, especfaUly in thia iNUticvlat; 
tliBt tbt' |>riur iboroof mw •Ivsyn ui klilcmiaa td 
Ltindon ", namely, of Poittoken Wanl. {tboogfa 
utliemuo tbfir coareat ituwletb in Ealgsio Wai 
tod lucd to ridu Muaagtt the kldenaeii In ■ I 
like tbe rot, mvo that hia haUt vm in the | 
of a qrirltnal tNinoii. In the year 196i, I 
the e^th prior of tius eoanait. t 
wai loath to deal in temporal i 
Tbcoliald FiIx-Ito aldcmuui fn bis plare. Thtf 
Vetv moiC bountiful bouielttv|M>n, relieving all 
eow mi and gocn, and got tbenMlvca mueh lepot^ 
tioa for tbcir boi^tjUity. 
AgMiM s. Some ro^leeturo thli waa Ung HaniT^ d 
fft ^rifk. in diMcilvin;; tbit prioiy. thereliy lo nake a d*-" 
in |HH>|ili-'»> olTootioaa, bow tboy raaented I 
lie db>imlrbi-«I thia convrnt firit, as the f 
|> Mmt out boreni the ImmIv of tbo army, wU 
meeting nith atLiniffiicctfi) danpon, may give I 
iH>tin.> to tbv rvst to ndvaiiee no fiuther; 
hwl found ttie people much itartled 
rauld quirkly knock olC rotmodi lib 
and (dexteioiu to decline envy for hiaMeU) I 

• llarfJUU. in hii CaU> hj SuTpc] 
Viva* of AbbrTk. [Sbnr'a 5laf ■ • S 
- ■- 1>- ni.nUtfaNi P li 

Try, p. I4f. l-p- »!. 


BOOK VI. in England. S61 

somely cast the same on his instruments employed 
therein. Others think the king as yet had no such 
project in intention, but did it merely to gratify Sir 
Thomas Audley, whom he loved the better for 
hating Cardinal Wolsey, now beginning to fell, 
against whom he had bitterly inveighed in the par- 

4. As for the manner of the dissolvinsf thereof, Tbe pnoT 

® taken by 

whereas all other abbeys afterwards were stormed oomposi. 
by violence, (whatsoever is plausibly pretended to***^ 
the contrary,) this only was fairly taken by composi- 
tion ; for [Nicholas Hancock] p, the prior thereof, was 
sent for by the king, commended for his hospitality, 
promised preferment as a man worthy greater dig- 
nity, which promise surely he performed, though the 
particulars of the agreement are not to be knovra. 
Whereupon, anno 1531, the twenty-third year of 
the king's reign, in the month of July, he surren- 
dered the same to the king's use. As for the canons, 
they were sent to other houses of the same order, 
who now, being severally disposed in other convents, 
they might serve them as monitors to warn all the 
rest, seasonably to prepare for the time of their 

5. The rooting out of this priory wrought a The effect 
middle effect in people, for they were neither dumb^pon 
nor clamorous thereat, but grumbled out their dis-^^P**^^ 
contentment for a time, and then returned to their 
former temper. However, at first they were so 
al)stemious, that whereas the priory, church, and 
steeple was proffered to whomsoever would take it 
down % no man would undertake the offer. Where- 

P [Stuw, ib. p. 394. Monasticon VI. i. p. 151, new edition.] 
^ Stow, ib. 

TMt Hulory of AtA€yt 


1 bo 

Aaclley WW fiun to be at mora 

MiiM make or tltc niat4>riab ; tke 

workmeo wiUi great bbour bi>^nninfr at the lop, 

looaed Moiie ttom ttonp, and, tbrowinf^ ibum down, 

moat part of tiwm wpk bn>kvu in tbo &1L aad 

nnDaliuHl uMflvva. 

nfadw 6. ANIint ml^ht movo the kio^ to ria^ dito 

^^ ^10. prinnr (lut of all the rest, to load tbU ml daneaw ia 

'*^ varioiuly roi^jcctuml. IndcoH thta waa the aneieat- 

eat of all tJigUuid of that unlcr rioee tbe Conqiwit : 

I mean, of canoa-regnlata, ai our antlior taUcCh na'; 

and tbenrforo it waa Imt reaaonabto tlM oldeatdMiM 

f^ fim, tbL> fint born iftioald b« lint bmM. But 

■unljr no aneh ooniidenition moved kbi|r flony !• 

tfaia efaoice, who waa not to methodical In hb daadi 

of irodohig. 

Atihb^ 7> As for tfao loni Aodlej, on whom thu priocy 

Daka'i waa beatowcd, Manruot, hla aole dan^tirr and Itcir, 

^"^ waa married to Tbomaa Howard, duke of Norfollc, 

who dwvlt thenin, and whiefa fnim him waa calM 

the l>uk(''t V\mre. No ioffcniKnu wiul will env^ •■ 

bonoBiable a {wraon the anronunodation of fo ba»^ 

•ome an habitation; onlv ionic perrhance wlU be> 

moan that thi' Lord'o plftct^ (fur bo in tbafa* aad 

Jamb* lan>fuiij^> tbcv mllotl the rhnrrh ',) wUlhar 

alouo the namerouf nt'iphbour-inhabitants it^mbvd 

for pnblie aerrioe, ihoolil bv to de»trr>Ted. that the 

people wef« for many yean U>ft ebitrrhb'm. till iheir 

want* Tcwy latolj wen Mipplied * hj the nsodUytng 

tbOTBof out of the rvina. bj the chaiitjr of oUwia] 

I am aim nooe of lb* bain of hfan wbe rliwintlitrf j 


f «MW. th. < VU. Amm* 

• Ofa. snrriB. *y. 


in England* 




It is the practice of advised physicians, in purging Obiervant 
of long corrupted bodies, (where the ill humours fim^ng 
may prescribe peaceable possession for many years,) S^-!;«-« 
to proceed not violently all at once, but gently by ^^'"p'*^ 
degrees. The same course was embraced by king 
Henry in dissolving of abbeys, gradually, and there- 
fore the less visibly, to work their subversion, so to 
avoid the danger of a sudden and extreme alteration. 
And first he began with the Minorites, or Franciscan 
Observant Friars, whose chief seats were Greenwich 
and Canterbury". Two motives mainly incensed 
him against this order : one, because two of their 
most eminent fathers, Hugh Rich, prior of a con- 
vent in Canterbury, and Richard Risby, had tam- 
pered with EUzabeth Barton, alias the holy maid of 
Kent, and were convicted and executed with her 
for high treason * ; a second, because this order 
generally manifested most contumacy and contempt 
against the king in the matter of queen Katherine's 
divorce, inveighing both in their sermons and dis- 
putations ^ against the unlawfulness thereof, espe- 

^ [^Wolsey had attempted, 
in the year 1525, to subject 
this order to a visitation, but 
without success. '* In this 
** month (January) the cardi- 
" nal, as legate," says Hail, 
** would have visited the Friars 
" Observants, but they in no- 
** wise would therein conde. 
'• scend ; wherefore nineteen 
" of the same religion were 
*' accused at Paul's Cross by 

" one of the same religion. 
•* called Friar Forest." Chron. 
p. 691. '* This man was after- 
•* wards executed, in 1538, for 
** speaking against the king's 
" supremacy, having before 
'* sworn to the contrary." lb. 
p. 825.] 

X [HaU, ib. p. 812.] 
y Sanders de Schis. Anglic, 
p. 81=86. 

«t TU Uittmy ^AIAtf$ mo* «i. 

daily Elatoa uul PiBjrbm, two finnooi trian in Lod- 
doo. A great [N^nft * bdiohli it M aminoaa, and a 
profDottlc of Md «Deee«^ tluU tho lulj (■ftarwl 
qoeen) Rllabath, jtiit elmm mmuhi befanv hid 
been diristeoed in than fHanTehurdi inOraa w rieh; 
as if bur lioptliing therein portended tluU tbiNo friai* 
sboulil toon aA*!r bv muibvd away fnta tbii tbrir 

COIlTCUt '. 

• Umm. p. fta>8s. " JM bMUM Mr Lord k^ 

•rrWaiciwMUMtowU^ " pu il iun n* M Mlfc. I 

Fdbr hH tb» Ividir klfatiUd '• niMl MMk k- Aid »|M 

b i^tri M giMlOT invilt bjr •• Im ImJ mmm^ In i%>il 

0IUW. Hid h altBgl lMf u w- " ■(■»«« lh« Kiag'i MHad 

rfcwM. and dRwda mdi a r»- " M•rT^[r. to ^— t^ hfa 

■■rkahli ptotan of Uw na»- " fran h. U bIm «U, * Jhmm 

■•B of Um Ums. Iliit I iImII -* in nmn; dOot |nnfcii». 

■mIm sa 'poloKj for Mtllag it " j«l. tcu mujr, wlucfc p*«Hfc 

dowB'is ■ not* : " »mA onMuda Um* iilliiBaha 

- Um «nt tku mmIt (*■ ** «Md»|t Ui/ fbHf vd M 

■irtid.'' wn tU dtmalcbr. " ftStMioai ipoi Lii|» «f ifak 

" Mf itpMliBBiliJ tiM Uu ** own wwUlf pfiiMdaa t Md 

* (omIHw kk Mfriit* witE - br thtt mmm thvy feMW 
** Abm Balar*. wm cm friar " Uj nd, tlij Imwmt, Md 
** his, a riaifte HiaB, jat nrj " Mtarity, !■ oton te ha*- 
" diMBt uT Ifca ovdw af Ob. » kn. to faMw* fkk altaa^ 

»!■ TUlBan.|N«Ml»- "fdgrtlldMWWljllirillMtlB 

" bf a OfMowldi ii|NMi Iba " Hd atUr Md«nM)Hl db> 

** t*a nd t wit l tfc tliiHiT " bHSm. IWw^ I m, «• Ma 

•• cf IW tUrd k>«k of Um " low Imadnd iri.tifc, «U 

" Ki^ rii. tW hM i«rt of " m tW aiMt oC tjt^ Hifc •• 

*' the man al AAA. Mviag. " dtoRTW iWi { bat iak» mhI 

» Cm* oirrr l*r dqcf /IrM " haad Urt yn W^ TimI 

-tkthlmd^Smt^k.nntktrt " ^mt tmS. AAA* mi III 

« •4*0 UU ^ firi % Und - mm. iriudi «n I* b«« Ui 

••ate,04M|.Mdtlwn«itlMl " blood tMk«l«p of tlMdi^i' 

■* Mika of Uw trbc mmbMa '• Hrbw it wm tW ■mM 

-irUcfcibiMdtkaUaif '^^ - mUm m priMH •« W 

-••lrai.'qB»tbk.'tfcM MI- »^iy AamA hf iillii»» 

* dMM wbMB iIkm «iU bat*. " 4c. I^m fci^ bM^ tbw 

>n 1^ " Pmo; botlfeaB 
" tW W^ iir aflklka Md "bMMtbMMKbtbMrMaj.lJ*. 
-df^ tka ««!»«# Mivwi "CarwfaipMdMdbibai^ 


in England. 


2. Hereupon, in the year of our Lord 1534, thoTotaUyand 
aforesaid whole order of Friars Observant were sup-g^veZ 
pressed, and Augustine Friars substituted in their 


• < 

place, who most sharply 
reprehended Peto and his 
preachings and called him 
dog, slanderer^ base beggarly 
friar, closeman, rebel, and 
traitor, saying that no sub- 
ject should speak so auda- 
ciously to princes. And 
having spoke much to that 
effect, and in commendation 
of the king's marriage, there- 
by to establish his seed in his 
seat for ever, &c., he then 
supposing to have utterly 
suppressed Peto and his par- 
takers, he lift up his voice 
and said, ' I speak to thee, 
Peto, which makest thyself 
Micheas, that thou mayest 
speak evil of kings ; but 
now thou art not to be founds 
being fled for fear of shame, 
as being unable to answer 
my arguments/ But whilst 
he thus spake, there was one 
Elstow, a fellow friar to Peto, 
standing in the rood-loft,who 
with a bold voice said to Dr. 
Curwin, ' Good sir, you know 
that father Peto, as he was 
commanded, is now gone to 
a provincial council holden 
at Canterbury, and not fled 
for fear of you, for to-morrow 
he will return again. In the 
mean time I am here as an- 
other Micheas, and will lay 
down my life to prove all 
those things true which he 
hath taught out of holy 
scripture; and to this combat 
I challenge thee before God 
and all equal judges. Even 


unto thee, Curwin, I say, 
which are one of the four 
hundred prophets into whom 
the spirit of lying is entered, 
and seekest by adultery to 
establish succession, betray- 
ing the king unto endless 
perdition, more for thy own 
vain-glory and hope of pro. 
motion than for discharge of 
thy clogged conscience and 
the king's salvation.' [On] 
this Elstow waxed hot and 
spake very earnestly, so as 
they could not make him 
cease his speech, until the 
king himself bade him hold 
his peace, and gave order 
that ne and Peto should be 
convented before the council, 
which was done the next 
day. And when the lords 
had rebuked them, then the 
earl of Essex told them that 
they had deserved to be put 
into a sack and cast into the 
Thames. Whereunto Elstow, 
smiling, said, 'Threaten these 
things to rich and dainty folk, 
which are clothed in purple, 
fare deliciously, and have 
their chiefest hope in this 
world, for we esteem them 
not, but are joyful that for 
the discharge of our duties 
we are driven hence ; and, 
with thanks to God, we 
know the way to heaven to 
be as ready by water as by 
land, and therefore we care 
not which way we go.* Those 
friars and all the rest of their 
order were banished shortly 

fkem. Nor wen thew ObMranIs (Hke tb« Oho** 
B«gttl>ii in tho lut (dift|tt«r) dlgpoaed of in olhir 
foandntioiM, bot toully and finaUjr hnnfalwi oM of 
nil tvUgious aocieliuii ; for king Henry hii anflM 
eomplinientcd the formiT oat of tbcir hooMn bf 
their own willing condctcenaion, whikt Ua ftvwM 
ont«d tbuM u dclioqnenU bjr « TioleM i^al- 
rioB ; jc«, pnttMibly Ptmie of ttHrm hnd beoi «»■ 
pcllod tbeir lives m well m tlicir livingi>, (tw« 
bundml n( them bring at oTir« impriMinod,) bad noC 
■ir Tbomas Wriothoftlr \ their fcrmt frii-nd aaJ 
lk »o uiM r , foaaonablT intfrredcd for tbctn to tbo kin^ 
on bopef of some uf tbt'ir future conformity to Ut 
nuveaty*! deiiiM. 
n^^to. 8. Immediately after, a fimuMM petitiom i 
CS tho Supplication of Bi^gan, oame Into put" 
^M It wa« made some ypan beftiro by one M 
*"^ FUb', a gcntlvnum of 011/1* Inn, and 
pn-tti'titrd by Oenrffv Bliot, an Kngliab 1 
nml fntt-rtAlnt^il by kinfr Henry for a gm 
tliou^b inili-vil tbi' same biufr nnec had 1 
dored hitn by qu(<en Anna BoUefl''*md 
arquaiuuxl with tliu pasHgea thanin: ao t 
^bly this nipplicatfun might ftnt ra 

" aftfr, tai afUr Uvt imm * [Uara, la hit _ 

"dint ofiralj imBW tkcn> Um. mj% that FU : „ 

** wltn ^UMt l£* Itiag'i •/- wuda ivpntad uf writlm tlh 

*■ fccttoM. Dr. Omria wm knk. noKitd U> ottm^ i^ 

- mtmAr imm at Httwiuri, utd ntUMdWlWefcardiaf llaB» 
" aftrr ibtt uchUahcip of Oak. p. 3 14. TW wW* vatf Ib 

• b»kM of (HIM in ^MM Mf U JMBrfb ?«'• Umm- 

- Mtrf tioMT-" CluPM. p. nnta, m moud Wlow.] 
S6).] ' Pwi'i Um. U- a79> (■»• 

k ib. p. i9*95 net'* IW |. p. j»$.l 

BOOK VI. in England, S67 

near his majesty, as contrivers thereof. And as 
Moses ® was sent to be nursed unto her vj^ho, though 
generally unknovni, was indeed his own mother 
which bare him, so petitions may sometimes be 
recommended back to the same power that first 
framed them ; great ones delighting, not only for 
the greater solemnity, but also for their better secu- 
rity, to transfer their intentions to be others* en- 
treaties ; their private designs finding more accept- 
ance when passing under the notion of a public 
desire. The effect thereof was to complain how a 
crew of strong, puissant, counterfeit-holy, idle beg- 
gars and vagabonds by their luxury starved a number 
of needy, impotent, blind, lame, and sick people, 
which otherwise might comfortably be maintained ; 
as also to discover the foul enormities and filthy 
conversation used amongst those pretended pious 
fraternities, as the same is set forth at large in the 
Book of Martyrs, whither we remit the reader. 

-t. Only a word of the geometry, arithmetic, andThegeo- 
chronology used by the author of this supplication. IlriSmetic, 
For his geometry, I conceive he faileth not much in J^^^^ 
l)r()portion, when, in measuring the content of tliisJJJ^^ 
kingdom, he affirmeth that "They had got into their 
" hands more than the third part of all the realm.'* 
But whereas he auditeth the revenues of the friars 
in England, besides their lands, to amount yearly to 
four hundred thirty thousand three hundred thirty 
and three pounds, allowing their quarterage to arise 
out of fifty-two thousand parishes, he highly over- 

^ Exod. ii. 8. 

thdr numbor. oot oninfiletiiig taa ih— 
nod '. Indeed Uio papiits tell ni of ten I 
ehufcbes in Englaad deattxijnpd »U in one year* 

MUtia d 

4 trmptomm dt a lem i t a 

Yrt tbcce beinf; ronTcatoal, nat puvichial t 
add nothin)* to ttiv foniK'r rijmfmUtiuti. Yoa, ■ 
all iho rlM|N-<lii of caiic in tliia Uiid be wlmHlcd Id 
take a new dograe, and to cominenco cfannhM la 
this nOalopie, it would not make op the tmaAm. 
Dut it i* ginm to beggan MiawtJiDfM to hyp ert w to ^ 
to tnako their ease the morv pitiful ; and JBdeed, if 
we debllt a third port of that mm. yet atiU mC «w 
tbe renuinder of mcIi frian' rercniMa. Bot vfaenM 
tke tttd autbor of tkia mppBeatioo aith that - tar 
** handled yean paat thcae frian bad not one peoqr 
** of this BMCwy." ^tutre, whether be bo not mb- 
takon in hit obrooologjr, and whether Mime of ihe 
Mine profita aeerucd not to the Benediotinn bafcw 
the Cooquertt 
Axt. 5. In answer to thin an anti-cnpfilieatiaa «na 
^(^ made, and m-t forth by air Thomaa More, (eadnnft 
among*! his otitic works,) ralinl the SoppBeaden 
of the Hauls in I'liiyafiiry ; the aeopc v hereof ii^ tn 
prc« the rnntinuatiitn of thote huidi given to piona 
BM for the ((ood of the deovwod, and that tfa^ 
might not bo aliened without dai^er of i 
In this ■application pleaaant dalljring and i 
are to intecinijmd with eomplainta, that i 
theiTof diaeoTercth hinttelf UMirc ntirist than talnl 
in his eapPBwioM : ao hard it is for an actor su to 
divest himself of btmselC as not to vent susne of Ua 

r awOMdlUt.iaUsdhrWM«rBrh.pL 117. 

BOOK VI. in England, 369 

own humours with the property of that person 
whom he is to represent. And seeing sir Thomas 
More would have his own jests when dying, no 
wonder if he makes others to jeer when dead. 

6. These two supplications pressing both together The first 


for audience and reception, that of the beggars on Uon best 
earth found the best entertainment : whether be- "**'^ 
cause it came first, which we know is great advan- 
tage in beggars — first come, first served ; or because 
these terrestrial beggars were nearer at hand, (and 
so best able to manage their own suit,) whilst those 
in purgatory were conceived at a greater distance ; 
or chiefly because their supplication suggested mat- 
ter of profit to the king and his courtiers : and such 
whispers sound loud, and commonly meet with 
attentive ears. And as an introduction to the dis- 
solution of all abbeys, spies were sent forth to make 
strict discovery of men's behaviours therein. Indeed 
the lord Cromwell, scoutmaster-general in this de- 
sign, stayed at the court whilst his subordinate 
emissaries (men of as prying eyes as afterwards they 
proved of gripple hands) sent unto him all their 
intelligence, in manner and form as in due time 
shall ensue. 



Now because some months were employed in that a gainful 


service before a perfect account was returned to the mjuJe for 
lord Cromwell, the suppressing of the smaller monas- "*^' 
teries may here seasonably be inserted ; for in the 
twenty-seventh of the king's reign, anno 1539 ^ a 
motion was made in parliament. That to support 

^ [>535-6.] 


9TD Tkt tlhlQry *)f AhUyt MR* ti. 

tlm klng^i •tetoi and ■ipply his wnita, all iiilg,liwi 
hiiaH<« jm^l bo eoafiorred od the oruwii. wbidi — 
nut able elearijr to sxpentl abovu two 
potmda a-jwar. 

S. Some tm^ rrport that Ji»hn Fiafa«r. 

mm7^ Iloefaeater, eamettljr tfaouf^ plramiitlr 

inSZ. motion, by ftllifniifr aii siKilofnic mit of .Caof^ "' 

** the helve of tho axo rmvMl % haii<Ilv< of the 

" of oakft otiljr to cut olf the acntbowa of tb« tree, 

" but when it wm a complete inttrametital axe ii 

** Allied down all the wood ;' wf^yka^ It, that tha 

pant of theae amaller hooiaa woold Id fine prme 

deatruptivo to all the ntt. Bat fUwr betaf now 

in hi» ffniTp, tbit rould not be tpokra hi Ibia pafw 

Uamviit, wfairh witli more pmbabatity wa 

T^TfvA by him againtt ranlJnal WtJtej fa 

the fortj hooMv, wliPimf before. 

faiH^ 9. This pni|KMiition fnnnd little 

yMH^lt either houaes. Hcnij the Eighth ww a 

hb neoearitlMi were tynutta: and both miB| 

for the Hune thing, mnat net be denied. 

the hrger thoogi thoj cut out of other bmo^ 

the mora entiru thejr pre w nre d their 

which made thit periiament to Mie thafa 

bjr laving the load on thoae lewei 

accordingly pMMMl to the crowii. 

A p— » i i. The hml Herbert in hi* History ■ cum] 

■M* » aiul that jostly, " that thU tutotc f»f db 

^MbarT "the IcMer mtauMteriei doth begin verr 

"^.y**** without any formal preamble In the printed hooka 

**^ " ther are pablJilted.'' It aeemeth ihai hnvln ' 

never Marobed the rvoonl Haelf, (otherwiae I 

oppoOTkm fci 

f Of Hmy VIII. p. ifO. (fkr«H I. p. 3S9.] 



BOOK VI. m England, 871 

trious in that kind,) to which a solemn pre&ce is 

prefixed, shewing some reasons of the dissolution, 

and pious uses to which they were attained, in form 

as folio weth : 

The Preamble is this : 

'^ Forasmuch as manifest sin, vicious, carnal, and 

^' abominable living is daily used and committed 

commonly in such little and small abbeys, priories, 

and other religious houses of monks, canons, and 

nuns, where the congregation of such religious 

" persons is under the number of twelve persons, 

" whereby the governors of such religious houses 

" and their convent spoil, destroy, consume, and 

" utterly waste, as well their churches, monasteries, 

^' priories, principal houses, farms, granges, lands, 

'' tenements, and hereditaments, as the ornaments of 

their churches, and their goods and chattels, to the 

high displeasure of Almighty God, slander of good 

religion, and to the great in&my of the king's 

highness and the realm, if redress should not be 

'^ had thereof. And albeit that many continual 

" visitations hath been heretofore had by the space 

" of two hundred years and more, for an honest and 

charitable reformation of such unthrifty, carnal, 

and abominable living, yet nevertheless little or 

" no amendment is hitherto had, but their vicious 

" living shamelessly increaseth and augmenteth, and 

by a cursed custom so rooted and infested, that a 

great multitude of the religious persons in such 

^' small houses do rather choose to rove abroad in 

" apostasy than to conform themselves to the obser- 

" vation of good religion ; so that without such small 

*' houses be utterly suppressed, and the religion •" 

*> [*' Religioas penons," printed copy.] 

B b 2 

379 Tkr HUlary nf AlAry* noc n. 

" thiTpin mtnmitl(H) to l\w frmil unit bonoambic 
" ntoiuiKt4>rioii nf n-lij^nii in tlit* n«lm, wbcro Utcy 
" mar be v(iiu|h>1I(h1 (o live rt>li;ii«*iuU Tor n^nrmmtinn 
" or tboir Hw«. lInTi- cmi v\i>v U- no [nilnw iwr) 
" rcfnrnuition in that bt-hair. In rntwtdonition wbcT»- 
** of, the king's incMl ri>ral inaj<.*stT. Wnng MpniiM^ 
" head in eanli. iimler *><»«l, of the rhurrh "f Eiij(- 
" taml. AaiXy finding luid d^vbtn;; tbt* iumnHi. 
" lulTnnnfment, nnti cxaluuion nf inir dcirtrine and 
" Tirluo in thi* Mid churvh. (« the only $\ot} attd 
" honour of (icm), and the total i-xtiqiini; mod At' 
" irtnirtion of y\w and win, having knowledge llwl 
" ihe pr«fni»e» be tnie, ai« well by the rompu of 
■* bis lato TiaiUtion* as by mndiy cn<dible inAinnft* 
"tiona; cnnideriiijf aJsu that diren and gnvt 
** aolonin nioiiatrtcrira of thi^ nialni. wht'Mn. thoaka 
** bu to God. religion in right well kept and ohHTTfd, 
" be dntilate of wicb full niinibem of religlnus per- 
" aotw OS tbvj ought and mar ki'cit, liath tbo<i|[(it 
** good that a plain dectantion nhould he made of 
** tbe pmnMi% oa wull to the lords aiitritiial waA 
" tinnpoml aa to other hli loving flobfecla, tbv fom- 
" moiu in thi* prvwnt poriiiiiieat aMantbled. 

** WfacreuiNm thi* mid lordii and tMOunom, bjr a 
** great deliberation, tiiially be resnlvnl. That te li 
" and ahall be mnrh nioro to the piramro of AU 
** mightr God. and for the himoiir of thu bia naln, 
" that the poNMtMons offtiirh Ninall ndigioon boaoHk 
" now buiog ifient, tpoilcd, atn! wasted for IncfMa* 
" and maiatcoaneo of rin. •boald be uaed and caiK 
** rerted to bettor nan, and tbo unthriftj refi§ioai 
** pecioaa lo upending tbo Hune to be eompcJInd I* 
** rHbnn their lives; and tbereiipon bumC hnaUy 
*■ de«ln> the king's hlghneas that tt mar be gna rt>4 

BOOK VI. 171 England, 373 

*' by authority of this present parliament, that his 
*' majesty shall have, to him and to his heirs for 
'' ever, all and singular such monasteries, &c. 

" Ilis majesty shall have and enjoy," &c., as it 
followeth in the printed statute*'. 

In this preamble two principles are laid down ofTwopnn- 

. /» ii«i 1 i_ 1 • 1 dples which 

intallible truth, and postenty must not be so pre- must not be 

, . i.' i.1 questioned. 

sumptuous as to question them : ^ 

i. The smallest convents were the greatest sinners, 
and they who had the least lands led the lewdest 

ii. It was harder to reform little convents than 
those that were greater. 

It seems such small houses, like little fishes, could 
not bo caught with the net of reformation, as slip- 
ping through the holes thereof; and therefore no 
way to repress their faults except by suppressing 
their foundation. All I will add is, God first 
punished great Sodom, and spared little Zoar, 
though probably also in fault. Here Zoar was first 
punished : let great Sodom beware, and the larger 
monasteries look to themselves. 

5. And now adieu all religious houses in England Bxact mea- 
that could not clearly spend above two hundred the «tan- 
pounds i)er annum ; and we must not believe any jijjoiution. 
sinister dealing was used by favour to rack the 
revenues of some above, and out of dislike to shrink 
the rents of others beneath, the standard of dis- 
sohitioii, when twenty shillings a-year under or over 
the aforesaid sum might save or destroy a small 
monastery. As for such (if any in that posture) 
who had just two hundred pounds and no more, 

»» [27 Hen. VIII.] cap. 28. 


tbt7 wtiv i>t>iH>xioiui to the litlltuu^ whiUt fiw ihil- 
Kngt mnrv Mvcfl nil; u that U h fair ball In the 
U-nnn raurt which toachcth the line, jvl go(4b 
ovvr it, 
•«*' 6. Ten thoussnil penou were bjr tbb di«olutioo 
■(•nt to loek their foitnnn in the wide wotU. Soowk 
ini]ei<d, hail fatbun or friendi to Kcehe Am; 
othcn wmv) at ail ; lonie had twpotj ifaUKBga glwa 
tbam «t tbdr qjeotiao, and a naw gown, which 
Doeded to be of itraiig doCb to but ao lonft till they 
got another. Kfott were rapmcd to want. I «« 
DO furh cprtointT for a romftirtable lirelihood m s 
lawful mlling ; for monkish profcadon was no pe*- 
nesnon, and luany a jroung nun |»roTt<!il an old bqcgw. 
I pity not tboae who bad bands and bt^lth to work, 
bat ffttreljr the giuy hnin of Mitm.' im|>oit>nt petaMH 
ilewrfBd flompaMdon ; and I am eonfidimt nich, had 
thfljr etane to tlio doom of the eharilable reader 
hereof^ riu3ald havD hod a mval'i meat and a Bigh^ 
^''^K'iV given unto them. 
AUinr 7. A dear revenue of thirty thooHnd ponnda pv 

n^mm. annum waa here adTanccd to the cmwn', (beiMea 
TfiT***" *^>oP— "d pounda In plato and moTablea,) tlMBgd 
^"^ the Ung eqff^ed it but a ^ort timet, aa im"i»H it 
vrnvf hjr gtnat, nXe, and t-xrliange to hb aolj l artfc 
lliii waa done bjr the politic eoonael of the «te 
lord Crumwcll, not hoping that tbeae omU monali 
to ao many mouthi aboold Mthdy thidr hanger, bol 
only intending to give them a taste of the iiwritn— 
of abbey land*. And here papfata pleotiftiUy lafl 

■ (" h» 

I- ^ 447) 

haadnrf ilmHud Am mOiv thi Mk. Im4. ^ 
•m BwMt. (Rrf. InuldiMi MMtmOi >4 wdi af 
w«Jh>« ncioaiafi iW afabcj* awl 

BOOK VI. in England. 875 

upon him in scattering these lands all abroad, that 
if any should be so scrupulous as to find fault with 
the fact, a general guiltiness should amount unto inno- 
cence. Thus they say, ** There is no fear that a man 
'' shall be condemned for felony, who hath so many 
*' receivers in the county, that scarcely a judge can 
'' sit, and surely no jury can be empannelled upon 
<«him, saving such who had been parties with 
" him ^" 

8. No fewer than three hundred seventy-five The num. 

t . ^^ ^t 

convents, as Sanders doth account them, were dis-: 
solved at this time : sure I am none was left stand- 
ing in the whole diocese of Bangor, where no foun- 
dation was valued at full seventy pounds per 
annum K 

9. We must not forget how, in the foresaid pre- why the 
amble, the king fairly claweth the grei^ monasteries; ^aHiSt 
wherein, saith he, religion, thanks be to God, is right ^j^jj^^^ 
well kept and observed; though he clawed them 

soon after in another acceptation. The truth is, 
king Henry could not suppress the lesser abbeys 
but by the consent of the greater abbots, whereof 
twenty-six, as barons, voted in the pariiament, who 
mollified them by this commendation into a oonoar- 
rence with his desire. 

10. However, most specious* uses were pretended, '^p^''^"* 
(though few, perchance, had faith firm enough to^ndedoi 
believe their full performance,) that all should bepaiStiei. 
done to the pleasure of Almighty God, and for the 

^ [Burnet (Ref. I. p. 448) by interweaving their interetta 

asserts the same, that diese with the proceedings of the 

lands were sold to the prin- crown, to oblige them to 9auaX 

cipal gentry in the several in these proceedings.] 
counties, to allay the general ^ See Speed his Catalogiie 

discontent of the times, and, of Valoations. 



TAe Hhtvfy 1/ AUtyu 

faooatir of Uii* n.«lm ; and {iwticulAr cafv m taken in 
tbc rtatato, M it if printed, for tbv mtrtmtioa af 
nuuiT ivnts and ■pnriom, mmMlw*, and pmaoiw to 
rouiiitt^'ni, donopt. ntnl lii>ni<r«ctur«. OnW 1 
taken tlint i1kim> to whom ibbcT latida vrrt 
■hould kit.-)i, iir rftUM.' to U- k«'|it, k continual li 
and honuulioM in tbv Huni- Mt« nr iimrinet; ihej 
wvrc also tn <iccu|iv viiirlv a» murb uf tW do 
In tiilaffc tuk tti(- nbbotR did, or tlifir {nrtULt* uni 
llii'ni, «it)iiii tlR< tinii' of twentr yran iH'Xt I 
lllin act, tithrnriac fiirfeilitlfc to the kinj^'a highncM^ 
for vvt'ry muiitti oo ulfendiiiff, 6/. ISt. W^ to be n«o- 
^vretl (u hix UM- in anv of his eourt# uf tvcoid. The 
anvan wbrrvof. If riffon^mily vxiurted. would niTKTim 
to a nflt mm fmm *uch oH'cndi^r*. vthime boafAafi^ 
waa cantnu>tt>tt to a itlicptn-nl and bit dn^. 1 
roliovinff thtiw w)i« wnuld uork by itidiMtr^, 1 
nirb who cftuld not work by tbiHr rliaritr. 

fimiifmal. \\. Thc-M' JN-IUlJticS ftttXld In full fllTOJ i 

o-JT''*' (-'iKbty year*, vit. until tbc twrnty-fint 1 
Clljj^^ Jame*. whfn by art of fmriiiiniont tbi-y wrre r 
Ind<>i'd Hurb who nn* obnoxioiu to ptrmi ■ 
(inly innticcnt I)y o>urt4'«T, and may be n 
at tbclr prinro'i jdmsurv; and though foch 1 
may Ih' dunnaot as dboaiHl, thoy aru ncrcr <lcad t01 
tevokiNl, fcoing eointuonly pr^im^ call on auch 
■UCatoa when thenaelTflB an cmlled oo by tbair 
iwuMJtha Many of the EngtUi gmtry kaow 
thmnaelTM mmcvt to atiah ptnaltiait whoo, Imtcad «f 
maintaining tlllaf^,[tl)*^7] ^^ convfrtvd thr fnagm 
of abU'n into t'nclamir* ; and tbcn-furc pmridod for 
thiir own nafety whtm they wmugfat thv kiag to • 
ivrivation of llioav riatnto ■". 

• Sw lU CkataiM tU SI U kMK J^m. a. at. 

HOOK VI. in England, »577 

12. But the courtiers grudged at this grant and Some 
great indulgence given by the king without any so great a 
vahiable compensation, some sticking not to say that ^'"*' 
hereby the king at once gave his subjects more than 
ever they gave him in subsidies, benevolences, con- 
tributions, or any other way whatsoever, all the time 
of his reign ; which, if so, let no man's eye be evil 
because the king's was so good to his subjects. 



When all in the school are equally guilty, and the Northern 
master beginneth at the bottom to correct the least 
boys first, no wonder if those in the highest form 
begin to shake ; as here no doubt the bigger abbeys 
did, except some few, who, (to follow the metaphor,) 
like sturdy striplings counting themselves above 
correction, began to prepare themselves to make 
resistance: hence presently arose the northern re- 
bellion, wherein all the open undertakers were north 
of Trent, though, no doubt, many secret compilers 
south of Thames were engaged. 

2. This commotion began first in Lincolnshipe, **««p»n» wp- 

, pressed, 

where the rebels presented six articles to the king, punished, 
in the last whereof they complained that divers 
bishops of England, of his grace's late promotion, 
had subverted the faith of Christ, as they thought ; 
which is, the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishops 
of Rochester, Salisbury, St. David's, and Dublin °. 

3. This Lincolnshire commotion being quickly 

° [These risings began in general amnesty was proclaimed 

October, 1536, (Burnet, Ref I. all over the north by the duke 

p. 456,) and were not fully of Norfolk. Burnet, ib. p. 

<iuieled till July 1537, when a 470.] 


The HiOary t^Abiry 

(<u|>|»n<MM.xl, ami n riglit iindfniUnding begotten I 

twixt ilio kill}! ninl )iis KulijvrtHi ibe 

liiiiiiotir rt'inrfvi-^t intu Yoricshirv. wWre no I 

tlwn fifty tb»usan<) (Mut)i SaiKlen) i 

in a Itoily uniter li(»bert Afike, a mc«ui gMitlcaMil^ 

tbi'ir <'n|itain, uid nnm l>tamonil, (tlnnigli a knaiv 

of viothLT fluit.) whu toniK*d biiitfclf tho Eari of 

PiiVtTtr. Yvt tliw <li«tent)K*r aliu i 

cured hy Ibe king's panlon and Ibi'ir i 

till «M>n after a jfivat part of tbem fi>ll iota a r 

uf robeUioD. irmnying in tlieir eua^pu tlie £▼« wvonib 

of otur Saviour, tbo cbalioe^ with IIm b<Mt, and tba 

uamo of Jmds bvtwtxt tbem ; wbo, bdng vaiwiaiifcaA 

hy thi< kinit'a foroea nnder tb« noniiaand of j 

vnri of Sbrt'waburjr, veie cooHguXj •>« 

tbo mine <>. 

" [Par in kkwuM of Um " iIm Ambantm i 
rUaX U Uneolaakirv. mi " |wtrata i 
IUI'b Chraa. p. Sio. TWac. " iT 

olBMtina. But tU iMMUtw. " tWr had aW 

iJMiaVwIiAlnwMftrMra " la th« iaU. ■hiiiiMiia 

bnaUiy*. MImrW wiikin ■• pdMti CMm " Y j 

■ii d«n after iW ^w*Ptlii|t of " iIm anm mi tit* ■■• d 

tba otMr. " TImm mmi," Mp " hhI ■ cfcaUn witk ■ 

tkMHtlKir,''hMlaKfaartfcM " cdw ia k oa Um ntfca 

** tn other bwad tkaoMrlvw " with Srtn other 

- iy tlNir <alli ta ha WtUd ■' Hha kipoortay u' 
" ami obadini to kii eapuia : " Maelitr. TW 

- tbajr alw> dacWad bjr ihrir " liad a 

" bai enh t» tW awiawniBBa " tada af iIm **« 'I'laaJi ■ 
- aad ilifciiiii at Iba Ulb of - Ctefat. aad fai iW ai* 
•Ohrfat, aad daBvmaca 
" htiy thaftb aara dacar 
-aaif ■ || i—i.«ad^l 

BOOK VI. in England. 379 

4. Indeed Sanders (to whom it is as natural toExnisedby 
defame as for a stone to descend) complaineth, that un^iSy. 
the king executed those whom formerly he had 
l)ardoned for the same offence, contrary to God's 
proceedings, with whom peccata remissa non recur- 

runt ; yea, contrary to equity and all common jus- 
tice : but our chronicles make it plain that they ran 
on the score of a new rebellion, (their faults specifi- 
cally not numerically the same,) and justly suffered 
for their offences therein. 

5. Thomas lord Darcy and the lord Hussey p (first 
and last baron of his femily) were beheaded on this 
account ; the first of these being much bemoaned 
both for what he had been (a martial man of merit 
by sea and land) and for what he was, (decayed, 
being almost eighty, with old age,) insomuch that 
there goeth a tradition that he had the king's par- 
don in his pocket, and slept the while the sentence 
of condemnation was passed on him, and then pro- 
duced it too late : such, it seems, were the rigorous 
proceedings against him. 

6. Aske and Diamond were executed in this rebel- p«"o»» 
lion, and so also were six abbots, namely, of Sawley, 
Barling, Gervaux, Whaley, Rivers, with the prior of 
Burlington, besides many gentlemen of prime ac- 
count, whereof these the chief ^ : [sir] Robert Con- 
stable, [sir] Thomas Percy, [sir] Francis Bigot, 
Nicholas Musgrave, Nicholas Tempest, [sir] Stephen 

P [Lord Darcy was executed q [Aske and the others were 

for the northern rebellion, and at first pardoned, and subte- 

sufFered on Tower Hill; the quently appeared at court ; but 

other for the Lincolnshire in- being accused, at the condu- 

surrection, and was beheaded sion of the year, for rebelling 

at Lincoln. See Burnet, Ref. again, they were executed in 

I. p. 470.] June following. Hall, 824.] 

Hnmilton. Tlioiiiiw Oilbr. Wlirwtn l<niult)T. [rir] 
John KiilnitT, nml hiR w\Tc. Ilowcvfr, •oniv pjtjr 
latiy Mftn pruiM^r U» tbt-M.' )it*m)n9^ u ignunnllj 
KeaKiuik aud ffrioviHl to bflmlil tbo ilcvtrurtioa vT 
tfac ol<l rvlifrioii bcfure tlim- liii<I n««>m<«l any rou- 
pcU'iit iimtrucliiin for n tifw. Amt thun «ru tbov* 
niut iif till' niiMt anrient of Ui<* nurthrm 
u[ till* Knmisli iK'niiaaon, w[io in tlic iipxt 
tioii bml Mnrcvljr TmllitM) tlu-niwlvi'* tkgMxn but they 
wt'n* routcti tbo mtoikI (imo in the rvbellHUi of the 
t«rl« of NnrlbumbiTlaiii) and WcBtm«ivlaod. 


IbMMn Bt tbU timi' lbi< itutninu-nta uin|ilajx<d tty tbv 

OLmpJTn l*"^l (-'mniwoll to iiiaki* ditrovfn' of tlio ririinis Utt* 

'^**' of munkK niu) frinn were all n'tunusi [u tholr per- 

M)ll^ or in tbi'ir inlt'tlipi'-iioL> sont unto blm. lliey 

were nifii wbo well undentuoil tbt> mcwage Uirjr 

went on, and would not come biu-k without a «li»- 

bctorj answn to htm that mmiI thcin. knowing 

thenuolTC* wcro likflj to he no Iii§«tii tbt-ivb;^. And 

now Omj h»d fnniul out watvr liimuj^ to drive llw 

mill, (besidM what rut hy.) a mfBrit-nt ddcrtion (a 

eflrrt the hudncm. ttf theap, mmo wnv pvt la 

eommiauon to vi«it abbfra : otbcn moriog bi s 

lower but no liw nt<«dful •phen* of activity'. 

TWptk. a. Of tb«tte romniiwioueni tbc jtriuHpal wwf» 

33it^ra. Rirbanl Larlon. 'HiomAx liifth, William IV<«tK 

dnct4in of tbe law ; doctor John London, daan iif 

%VallingforTl '. Of tbt* thn^ furraer I mo mf 

Dothiiig, but find the latt«r (though Piaplofed to 

* Lord I Irrfam te tiM tifc •< 
llw. VIII |h4>7- 

BOOK VI. in Engl ami, 38 1 

correct others) no great saint himself; for after- 
wards he was publicly convicted of perjury ^ and 
adjudged to ride with his face to the horse's tail 
at Windsor and Ockingham, with papers about his 
head, which was done accordingly "• 

3. Their power was partly inquisitive, to search Their two- 
into the former lives of religious persons; partly sword, 
impositive, to enjoin them stricter rules for their 
future observation. It is hard to say whether their 

eyes were more prying for what was past, or hands 
more heavy for the time to come ; and most true 
it is, that betwixt both, many monks, formerly lazy 
in, were now weary of, their present profession. 

4. Some counted their convents their prisons. Monks 

* weary of 

being thus confined ; for once out of the house, their UrtM. 
without lawful cause and leave obtained, and never 
in again. It was a fine thing when they might, but 
sad case when they must, live in their monasteries : 
the eighty-six articles of the visitors (looking, with 
Janus, partly backward, partly forward) did so vex 
them, that many who had hopes of others' subsist- 
ence, cast off the cowls and veils, and quitted their 


These visitors were succeeded with a second sortothen 
of i)ublic agents, but working in a more private way, ^ own 


t Fox's Acts and Mon. p. "extortions in time ofvisita- 

1221, where is a picture " tion, in bribes of some reli- 

thereof. ** gious houses, x'», xx^, and 

u [In the rebellion lately " forother sums, besides horses, 

mentioned one of the articles " advowsons, leases under con- 

of their petition was, that Drs. " vent seals by them taken.and 

Layton and Lee ''may have " other abominable acts.** Wee- 

'* cimdign punishment for their ver's Fun. Mon. p. 104.] 

am TAf Hillary «/ Abtfy^ 

eneoonging tho mumben in moniiteriM to iaqMMk 

for weing Umm wu Midon aoefc 
genenl agreement in mnjr great oonveot, but \ 
fx'tioQi won^ ruiinti ukI pAitioi did ftp|N9ar t 
tbfw emiiisariaf mido an ftdnuUgooni nw t 
No fttibej oouM havo been lo sooo die liu y w j I 
canning tetting it igauMt iUel( nd eecnk fl 
of tiieir own divfadocw. Wbermpoa 
aeeueed, did rrrriminate their aoeuMn 
Irai to RooTcr tbt-'ir own innoceocy, pi 
HclvM b)r plunging oiben in the Hke , 
nthrn, befaig eomeioBi to the m eette^ putMtrf 
accusing bjr eonfoabig their foaha. and than vaiy 
fdul ones ; inaonneh that aome have ao much cte- 
ritr a» to conceive that the; x 
than tbej were, though tt wai 
btackamoor to bewot bia own (bee. 

9. Yea, foroe bold that ai witchea long I 
'*^vith vatehlag and bating, and pindied ^ 
read; to nod, are eonteotcd caaaalaMlj 1 
theoiielTea to bo eaaed of the pieaent pain. ■ 
of these poor imilt, fr{ghtc<I with mc na rw. an4 
fearing what might br tbi.' nircrs, acknowl«>dg«<d 
all and more than all againat thcmwiTn; the tnih 
whereof none on earth can dedde. 


Thf> pajtivti Ho hipnvlljr romplain (bow jiMli; Gad 
atono iLniiWfth) tliat a third «>rt of agenla mvat 
e«n|ilon<d, to practiae on the cfamtity of tile Dttaa, an 
to Miqiriae theni into wantonneB. Some jmmg 
gallania were on deiign aent to am 

BOOK VI. in England, 883 

fair faces, flattering tongues, store of gold, and good 
clothes, youth, wit, wantonness, and what else might 
work on the weaker sex : these having with much 
craft screwed themselves into the affections of nuns, 
and brought them to their lure, accused them after- 
wards to the king's commissioners for their incon- 
tinence. A damnable act, if true, and which mind- 
eth me of the ensuing story, here not impertinently 

2. Some sixty years since an English gentleman a uiemora- 
had the chastity of his wife in suspicion, jealous of a 
particular person who kept her company. To put 

it to trial, this her husband so contrived the matter, 
a private place was appointed, with all accommoda- 
tions for such a deed of darkness, whither the woman 
with her suspected paramour were by set design 
(but wearing to them the visage of a seeming 
casualty) brought, and left together. Meantime her 
husband made himself master of a secret inspection 
out of the next room, where, with some of his 
friends, he was the witness of his wife's dishonesty 
and his own disgrace. Soon after he entered his 
action, sues for a divorce, and the court seemed 
generally inclined to the granting thereof. 

3. But a reverend judge there present refused to sin plot, 
consent thereunto, alleging it the duty of every **"'**^ ^' 
husband, by his prayers, counsel, and all other lawful 
means, to save and secure the chastity of his wife, 

and not to tempt temptations to tempt her, who 
otherwise might charitably be presumed honest, if 
such a fore-plotted occasion had not debauched her ; 
and this not the detecting, but first causing of her 
disloyalty. Seeing therefore in some sort he had 
been a i)ander to his wife, let him satisfy himself 

in the nHarmiicc or what wu doubtftil bafoni, md 
hear tlio burthen of hU nvm b(>tni]riti|[ her. 
AMitaik. 4. Iluw just tbb juiljp^''* «o»tnM« wmb, all eir^ 
I wii rumMancv* (.■onMilerml. I will not inti'rpatv ; oolr in 
i^i^Ul" ni>|>H<*>tl»n to tho |>n-M>nt |iur|KMM^, though I oaaftm 
the relation b<»twixt huatiau«I nit«) «rifi> ibo atmntH, 
and tlicrvfon' iniMl i>Mi>rinft to their mutual pc^ 
normtioi), the jictipml princtpltv of n'ligion and Um 
communion of Mint* tk*tL all ClirHtiaitB, ■• thtf 
liMiilcr the honour and glory uf (iod. to p r o ierfc the 
rotuoicncra of ntlier* umk-iili-d. It was tbeiolotv ft 
merv nUanical trirk. (who i» commonly called the 
ti'mptcr in iirriittun.**.) first to solicit wtab to i 
attd after the oommitting therM>f to be on « 
lAe irHire»y. And accing thv ten)|rt«r b i 
^Itjr than the t«>mpt4<d, an more active aad i 
taiy, no remon that lu' should vvrape and the i 
bu punbhed. But all this dtscoorw ainlutl^ \ 
fmindatioo (aiUng. nainely, if the praniBBi i 
be (which as yet are not) proved, that i 
dealing wai tund in vurprUng of any volariat i 

^^^ A. Bat atlU the paptsu go further, i 
•ivn'M*. of false Tvtomt, that maiiT of these inTeiglen of ■ 
met with imimfrnitlile |ii<<re« of ehastity, (oeitl 
be IwttenvJ liy fom- mir umlfrniiw-d br fraud,)! 
d»)niring to lie with their bodlM, did lie oa I 
reputations, making tlieir Aunn to suffer in 1 
Imba reports which they returned in the king's c 
nilMJonum ; and the following storr i«, [ assure ytm, 
tmditioiKd with very much ciedtt amongst our I 

■ MalL tv.j.anlTkw. i 

t It«». >il 10. 

BOOK VI. in England. 385 

6. Two young gentlemen (whose names for justAsaditory, 
cause I forbear) went to a nunnery within twelve 

miles of Cambridge, in the nature of travellers on 
the highway, who being handsomely habited, and 
late at night, were admitted into some out-lodgings 
of that nunnery. Next day their civil addresses to 
the abbess were returned with such entertainment 
as became the laws of hospitality. Afterwards (pro- 
ducing or pretending a commission to visit their 
convent) they abode there certain days, and, how 
bad soever they were, met with no counteq^art to 
embrace their wanton proffers. However, at their 
return, they gave it out that nothing but their 
weariness bounded their wantonness, and that they 
enjoyed those nuns at their own command. 

7. One of the aforesaid gentlemen, with great Th« p«ii- 

^ ^ greeofthii 

grief and remorse of heart, did in private confess tradition, 
the same to sir William Standly, knight, (afterwards 
employed in the Low Countries,) avowing that no- 
thing in all his life lay more heavy on his conscience 
than this false accusation of those innocents; and 
the said sir William told this passage to a noble 
catholic still alive. All I will say to this story is 
this, that if this sir William Stanley was he who, 
contrarv to his solemn oath to the earl of Leicester 
and the United States, betrayed the strong city of 
Deventer to the Spaniards', and lived many years 
after in a neglected, forlorn condition *, one so faith- 
less in his deeds may be presumed false in his words, 
and the whole credit of the relation may justly at 
l(*ast be suspected. 

z Cjinul. Eliz. in anno 1587, « IdcMn. ibidem. 

!>• 5^7- 

1- ri.LER, vol.. III. r c 

Tht Hittofy qf AUey* 


JjJJJJ^' It u mnfrMod by uiipartial i>poplr. Hud wime 

""■f motmrtrriM of I»oth pcxr*, Mug pot to the tm. 

rnkhf appcwfd very eommcDtlahlr in their bi'luTJoar, •• 

titat tilt' leftBt uprmon rouli) ant jii«lty be c 

tb(>m. I read in one author'*, ttuit ** Mimo 

bi-hAVot) thrmnc'lTcs ho wi'll, that thnir Hvr« i 

not iiiiIt cxciiipt rmm noloruios faults, bat I 

f|«ro time* bo«tMwei) in writinff (KMiks. | 

rarril, t'tifrrsvinjf : m> that thvjr visitorv bmuat I 

t(>rrf«wor» for th«-m." Amoiif^i thfue th« naniMfj 

of UfxlKUm, near OxfnnI, must not lie forfOttm, 

wbiuii. a» it hath a fsooA name. Ibcinjr a nctlirt, that 

i», (lotro h(»iuir or habitation.) wHI answrrtnl tbvrr- 

unto In the romlitioiut of ibp |M>ri|>lo liTing ihrmn. 

■*•* 9. But then.' wi-n* fpw tnu*h blark smuia, aaA 

NmtU thm* innocent ronventii, Itring inronn<l«rabl» la 

number, could not presorrp ihr rmt from nun. 

Kij^ht ant] one picFUS pcnons aiv insufficient to mt« 

Soiloni from destruction, if ten be the lownt tnaBfaar 

to whirh divim* merrT will dntrvnd*. 

Kiorsi.v VUIOIS. 

I Mj the jfeneraliiT : othmrtK*. take nny noa*- 
nrnn (torifty, and *iwtv then- Ik- many |i 
will the many ofrendf-m. there beinjr a Cham a 
the ei};ht in the ark ^ yea, a Cain amonjp* thm I 
primitive (lenoiu in the Iteginninjr of ibc world* 
I add aljKi notorimuly vicioui. for in Many iAiajft m 

* I^W llrtbcrt in llrnrt ' Om. tIL 7. 

V'lll. f jw. < U«L if. I. 


in England. 



offend aU^. Yea, if the visitors had been visited, 
they were conscious to themselves of many failings, 
which might make them more &vourably to reflect 
on the infirmities of others. 

2. Here I shall present the reader with a black ^^ wj 
bill of some eminent malefiEtctors, as I find them intii^ 
my author in the same nature ^. 

In Battle Abbey. 
John Abbot, N 

Richard Salchurst, 
Thomas Cuthbert, 
William March, 
John Hasting, 
Gregory Champion, 
Clement Westfield, 
John Crosse, 
Thomas Crambrooke, 
Thomas Bayll, * 
John Hamfield, 
John Jherom, 
Clement Origge, 
Richard Tovey, 
John Austine, / 

In Canterbury. 
Richard Gomersham, ^ 
William Lichfield, 
John Goldingston, 
Nicholas Clement^ 
William Cawston, 
John Ambrose, 
Thomas Farley, 
Thomas Morton, J 

^ James lii. 3. Great Brit. p. 791, x = ioft7< 

ST John Speed's Hist, of ool. i. 



S88 The nUtory ofAhhe^M bom ti. 

(*hriHt4)|)her Janicti kept S niarritHl wbonm. 

In St. A iiffUAtinr. 
Tlioiiias Rarhani, a whoremonger and a Kodomit**. 

//I Chichester . 

John Champion and Rof^er Karliam, b(»th of them 

unnatural KodoniiU*fi. 

In CatheHrnl Church. 
John Hill hail no K*sii than IS wlioren. 

In Windsor Castle. 

Nichohui Whvden hail 4^ 

(itHirpe Whitethorn kept 5 ' 

NicholoA Spoter kept 5 whoren, 

ItolN'rt Ilunne had 5 

Uohvri DanvHon kept 6 

In Shulhred Monfuterjf. 
(teorpe Walden, prior of 


ShullinnK hail 

John Standnevhail at \m 

, ' . whore*, 

eommand 7 

Nieholaj4 Duke, to mipply | 

hifi venerr, had 5 

In ltri.%tmr, 
William, ablM»t of Bristow, kept 4 whom. 

In Mnydcpi'limdleff. 
RichanK prii»r of Mayden-Bnidley, kept 5 wborm. 

In Itath Monastert/. 

RirhanI l^ineouilK* hud 7 whorem and n^'at also a 


BOOK VI. ffi England. 9$0 

In Abingdon Monastery. 

Thomas, abbot of Abingdon, kept S whores, and had 

two children by his own sister. 

In Bermondsejf Abbey. 

John White, prior, or rather bull of Bennondsey, 

had 20 whores. 

I find this catalogue only in the third edition of 
Speed, proving it a posthume addition after the 
author's death, attested in the maigin with the au- 
thority of Henry Steven his Apology for Herodotus \ 
who took the same out of an English book, contain- 
ing the Vileness discovered at the Visitation of 
Monasteries. Thus this being but the report of a 
foreigner, and the original at home not appearing, 
may justly abate in their belief of the full latitude 
of this report. Indeed tradition is the only author 
of many stories in this nature, amongst which the 
ensuing story entitleth itself to as much probability 
as any other. 

3. One sir Henry C!olt, of Nether Hall in iheA«iti^ 
county of Essex, much in fiftvour with Idng Henry 
the Eighth for his merry conceits, suddenly took his 
leave of him late at night, promising to veait on bis 
grace early the next morning. Hence he hastened 
to Waltham Abbey, being informed by his setters 
that the monks thereof would return in the ni|^t 
from Cheshunt nunnery, where they had secretly 
quartered themselves. Sir Heniy pitched a buck- 
stall, wherewith he used to take deer in the forest, 
in the narrowest place of the marsh where they 

^ Cap. ai» fol. 183. 

cc 8 


TAt IfUlmy ttf AlAeyi 

wvrv to poM over, loaTing ■ome of bb ( 
to managt' i\w mmw. 

4. Tlie moaki mmiog out of tbe tinnoarjr, 1 
. ft great noho tnadv iMfbiod thvm, ooil nupvctinf lo 

bo diacDvetv). jiut out tbt' lifflit llirv liatj with Uiem. 
whow feet without i^of coald find the way hoow ia 
»o tued ft pftlfa. Mftking mora hftit* tlwB food 
fpeod, they tmn thonuclTet ftll into the not. Tto . 
next morninff sir II. Colt liroafrhl ftod 
thvin lo king Hcury, who had oft«n Na 
but nevn- fatter Teowon. 

5. Here I canoot bclievo what b nHnmotily told 
of aoder-grooDd nulta leading from fHaiie* to nna- 
Dvrin, eonl^itnl hj t\w situation of the |tlac«, thioagh 
rocki bnpmbalily and under n\cn impo«ibte lo be 
conTcjml. Surely Itail Waltham monk* had waj 
•Dcfa ffubtemnoaa eoatrirancM, tbc^ would wmnvt 
bftve made use of to open ft pa— ge; and aneii 
raulu extant at thbi day in manv abbetv cstAod 
but a few pavca, gvnenlly oaed for the ranrvranc* 
of water, or KWen to eany away the filth of tb« 

6. More improbable it }% what ia goaerftlly r^ 
ih4r Urn. potted, tbftt ftUpots made provisif>n for their liuts on 

their leftMi, eq}oining their ti-nanti lo fumi>h them, 
ft! with wood and eonla, to with fuH for tltrir wan- 
A reverand divine ' bath iufenned me that 

' Mr.8««pli.U«»UU. Llh into giMiw AnfMi. Mi w 
«■« MM of tW H w i i i iMMJ^ btor ih» ■■iirfciiJ asd ■ 
(•M ColUvr, Eoci HM. U. p. ffmttinm wi tha TJAin^ wkv 

ihM- ftwl tol« wM ia*vM>d «>«pl> of Mk% li 
to hriH (^ raliciHH ^mm aadfliiMll^tU 


in England, 


he hath seen such a passage on a lease of the abbey 
of Essex, where the lessee was enjoined yearly to 
])rovi(le unafn clnram et lepidam pueUamy ad pur- 
fjandos renes domini abbatis, 

7. It was never my hap to behold any instrument chanty 
with such a lustful clause or wanton reservation doubtful 
therein, and shall hardly be induced to believe it:*^^"^ 
first, because such turpis conditio was null in the 

very making thereof; secondly, because it was con- 
trary to the Charta Magna^ as I may call it, of 
nionastical practice, si non castCy tamen caute ; where- 
fore what private compact soever was by word of 
mouth made betwixt them upon their leases parole, 
sure all abbots were (if not so honest) so discreet, 
that no act in scriptis should remain, which on 
occasion might publicly be produced against them. 

8. As for the instances of their private incon-ASodom 
tinence, they are innumerable. I will insist but inlJlmn^. 
one happening just at this juncture of time, and 
which may be presumed very operative to the ruin 

of such religious houses. 

'* A Lettorey certefying the Incontynensye of t/ie Nuns 
'* ^if *^J/on with the FrioreSj and aftore tlie acte 
*' done the Friores reconsile tliem to God. 

'' To the right honourable Master Thomas Crom- 
'* well, chief secretary to the king's highnesse. 

relijijious houses. (Burnet, Ref. 
I. p. 484.) Nor is Cromwell 
or his friends by any means 
free from these imputations. 
There are many letters to him 
in wliich lie is requested by 
one or another to bestow upon 
them this or that priory ; others. 

again, in which money is offered 
to him for his favour in these 
matters, which certainly would 
not have been made to one who 
was severely upright, as those 
employed in such proceedings 
especially ought to be. Cotton 
MSS. Cieop. E. iv. 125. orig.] 

c c 4 

Th* Hitlary t^ AUIityt 

" U majro pli««c Tour ipMidncMo to 
*■ tfaat BMiopv^ this (lay )>TvclHNi, sod dvckivd tha 
" kynjte'a tjrU'llv very well, ant) htuAv b gnt« aodv^ 
" wi»e, iho chfiirbo full nf pi>opU'. Ono of like 
** Pocnn' ill Ui» Hud declaretirtn niieiilr rallt<d hha 
" blM* kiwvf. with (rtlicr foolish wonln: it «-» tbe 
** f(M>liiih fi-llnir with lh« mrlml hcmtl that kucvled 
** in yiiur n*ajre when yrMi ctaav ftitib nf tho coaA^ 
** M>n''i> chambtT. I ran du le«e doe but fvt hfM 
" in prtDune, ui ptrna tjus Mtl mehu alionnm. Ye^ 
** tonlay I Ir^unc**! niniiT cnormuia thin]^ agmiaat 
" BiwJi<i]i(\ ill tbi> cxaiiiiiiatini) nf tbv lar bivderm : 
** tint thai UiMliii{ti* pfniwidc>tl (owe of tbu facnS»- 
" iTiw to have (tone tbi-in* wiiyiis by Dlgbt, Mid W 
" hiinsolfc «iih thciii. wii) to the arcompUilinwat of 
" that they JM'kcil but money to buy thrm wcwiw 
" Bppandl ; furtbrr. Ibat BtMhope wonld have pcf^ 
** awKded onv uf bii> lay brvd«nm, a miitbr, to hav» 
** made a kny for the doan-, to ban' in the nijrbt- 
** tilDO rvoeiTcd in Wfocbi-M fur him and bi» fcMowci^ 
" and eqicctally a wiflb uf riobrii)){f, now dwt>IUtig 
** not bnv from the old lady Derby. nifHi I'lcbridg*^ 
** which w1 A hb old ruatoaier bath byno tnany tinea 
** tuTo at tbi* ;rntp)i roounaninf with the aid Bi»> 
*■ pluiy. and miirbu bi> wva deairoua to haw liada far 
" ronvryml In to him. Tie Mud BiHbop also far* 
** twadf'd a uurine, to whom Ih< wan cnafuaoar. W 
" lAidimftm carporu pnim/tlemdam ; and thtu he pa^ 
" awadod her in conioanuu, making her to beUmSb 
** that wheuioeTer and aa ofte aa tbey AM 
** together, if abe wetv fannodMtriy ^ter 

k 1I« WM OM of frhn who. tbr Brifltka Mm 
■ — «i tit In tki eoMi tt t w t iM ' I ea 
■f fMU nrdn'. brpd bn* with mmw. 

BOOK VI. in EnglamL 399 

by him, and tooke of him absolution, she shold 
be cleerc forgeven of God, and it shold be none 
offence unto her before God ; and she writte 
diveres and sundrye lettores unto him of such 
their foolishnesse and unthriftynesse, and wold 
have had his brother the smithe to have pulled 
out a barre of iron of y^ window, whereas ye exa- 
niyned the ladye abbas, that he might have gone 
in to her by night ; and that same window was 
their commoning place by night *". He perswaded 
the sextene that he would be in his contemplacion 
in the chorche by night, and by that meanes was 
many nightes in the chorche talking with her at 
the saide grate of the nunnes quire, and there 
was their meeting-place by night, besides their 
dav communications, as in confession. It were 
too long to declare all thinges of him that I have 
heard, which I suppos is true. This aftemoone I 
intend to make forder serche, both of some of the 
brederen, and some also of the sisters of such like 
matteres : if I fynde any thing apparent to be 
true, I shall (God willing) thereof certify your 
mastorshipe to morow, by vij. in the momyng. 
And after this daye I suppos there vrill be no 
other thinges to be knowne as yet here ; for I 
have already examined all the brederen, and many 
of them wold gladly departe hense, and be ryghte 
weary of their habbyte. Such religion and fained 
sanctetye God save me free. If Master Bedyll 
had byne here a frior, and of Bisshops counsell, 
he wold right welle have helped him to have 

n™ This copy uiis taken out of sir Simon Dewes. [I have 
the MS. letters in the library of coilateU it with the original.] 


The /Ii%iory €f/ .iUtrys 


" liroghte hiH inaltor to jtaiwo, without brt^krin^ 
** ii]>|K» of niiy ^rate or yet countt-rfetttiig of ke«Tt-m, 
** piiirli c*:i|>assM*tyc G^mI hath S4*nt him. 

'• Kniin Svoiif, thi«i S»n<lavi\ xij. lKTcnihri!«. Bv 
*• thr ^|K.»i*i|y hand of your as-Min**! |MH>r |irit<^t, 

•• HU'IIAKO LAYTtiN "." 

We will conrhiile this clisc«»urv* with oiu* ob>M*r- 
vatioiL how thnuiph i^ioranct* the tnie nu*aiiiii)( «»f 
that wonl rrr/usf* wa» in that ag^* abumMl : for in 
pure l^atin it fiijnJiifieth «Mie net ojien, or let hntm* to 
his own lilM*rtv : 

wht*n*aH n*rlu«i4> wan taken in that a;;«* for one rlikotr 
fihnt up ; so that many monkn an«l frian wi-rt* 
nvhiM^s indeiNl, not in the romm«>n ar«H*pti«»tu t»ut 
tnit* notation of that name p. 

*' 'I iii« xt.m ntii* i»f till* jiriiiH* 
%-ii»it«»r<» .it'i*ri*itu*tit!(»iif«|. 

" H'lr. lilr. i. ijiiit ;. 

P ' Thi* j:i'iii'r.i! %'iMt4tit>ii i»f 
thr limn i*trrirn )if;;aii in tlif 
month nt* OotoU'r. .iiui m Fi*- 
liru.irv ti»l!<>v%:ii^. .1 |iirl:.itiifiit 
!ii*ini: l»flil .»t \\'i"»tinin*t«*r. 
tlK*%4' i:ii»n'»triMi'» ri'|i »rt* «■!* ili-* 
Ci*<iii!ii<»<*i'»:i«-rn w-Tv fiTtjtiril . 
U|Min %« )•>« li .( \..t^ ri %i|\ I il \h tt 
till' lr"«*« r \%u*\i i^!t'ri» * i" Fuiirr 
Im* 111 '>lii«iiifi In' ;;i\ I'll til t!>t* 
ktii'^ Hut («>!n.iki*ttii%urrripl« r 
i»f thi'^i' tiniiM*^ tht' niiiri* «'.i«\ , 
till* ti»lliuni^ I. •■.i%nr«'% \\%t** 
ailojpti il. .!'• (!t-%( rilH-tl liv \\ «M*- 
y%*T ' Kir-i nt .ill. f* »r nri iji- 
*' tr<M! irtioti t.i til it u!m« h t »l- 
•• Utwt i|. i r«ii,'*i!l iikI tl..' ri'^t 
** «if thr «i«it«ir^ 111 tlir.r \.<>i- 

** tatii>n« |>iit f.>rth itf th«-ir 
*' ciin%rnt« all ri-lip«>u« |Mfr«iin« 
** «lt**irtni til l«c raird iff 
** the hurthrnnu« mkr <»f tb« ir 
'* |irt»fi-%«iiin.toHhi>in tlie«l»liiic 
" or priiir \kjk% ti» ^\%c to ftuch 
" iMi dt*|»artr<l Un th«rir h^htt m 
** |iri«*%t*« p>un.anil fiirtv Uiil. 
*' ttntr^ of nioni*\ ; thi* itun« U* 
" h4v<* kiii-h ap|»ar«*l «« Mfctil^r 
" 1% •linen w.»ri*. MhJ tt» ,;o «ih;> 
" thrr thrv unulil. Thrv put 
" fiirtti lik«*wi«r all rrhii^toLk 
" |M'r«4>n% that vtrrrv under tk«* 
" ap* of ti»«UtMrnt% ^rttr«. 
" ami iftir\«ariU rh»^^l U|i tl.<* 
'* rf«i«liii* that wiiiiM rrttiAir 
* stt that till') i'oiiiil n«»C con.<* 
*' iiiit i>t' thrir |ilac^*« . Afiftl t««*k 
*' itrih-r tl at ii<» nun »li«>tilU 
" t.*(»uu* t*t tbv L«>um*« \*( »( 


in Englaml. 



Sanders saith that kins: Henry sent a laree instru- Monk* pw- 
ment to ever}' monastery, fairly engrossed in parch- a rewgna- 
nient, enjoining them all to subscribe, sign, and seal 
the same with their seal conventual, Upon the pain 
of his displeasure. It is not probable that such a 
fonnal wTiting was sent unto them, drawn up before- 
hand by the king's officers ; but most certain it is, 
^vhiclTamounts almost to as much in effect, a general 
intimation was given to all houses how acceptable 
such an act would be to the king. It was also 
j)ressed upon the said monks, friars, and nuns, that 
they, through their viciousness, being obnoxious to 
the king's anger, this might and would be done 
without their consent; so that it was better for 
them, rebus sic stantibus^ to make a virtue of neces- 
sity ; the rather because this compliment conduced 
nothing to the king's right, (on whom the parliament 
had already bestowed those abbey-lands,) but might 
add nmch to their own advantage, as being the 
way whereby their pensions might the more easily 
be procured, largely allotted, and surely satisfied 
unto them. 

*• nor women to the houses of 
*' men, but only to hear their 
* servici* in the church. This 
*' little bondage, after so long 
'* and so licentious a time of 
" libertv, could not be endured; 
" which being perceived by the 
** connnissioners, with fair pro- 
** mises of other preferments 
'• or competent yearly pensions 
** they so wrought with the 
" abbots, j)riors, and prioresses. 

*' and the rest of the convents, 
" that divers of them surreu- 
*• dered up their houses, with 
" the appurtenances, into the 
** king*s hands before the sit- 
** ting of parliament." Fun. 
Mon. p. 105. Of the abomi- 
nable frauds committed in the 
suppression of the abbeys, see 
an original paper presented to 
queen Elizabeth, printed by 
the same author, p. 1 24.] 

396 Thr /Alia 

a 9. Tliu pn!iniM<« made taeli InprtMioii on th* 
particfi Minrcmeil thervJn. that (V«riag the lag wwiM 
bv l(N>kfd on with tiad vyea, ibfT* ran u it 1 
rare in thoir r(mjtniAtif>in>. wbn ihoold be ill 
fcMT>m«iet therein, llowvrer tb(>j used aoTCiml 
tiKit'io. f.\mv onlr rnndemnii^ their Urea for • 
stjttntu, but not eoniraring tlMnaelTea pcraoaaUy 
tMoiu, na hy the followirtg ii 

•* The Siirrtmdfr dfike Warden mid Fryer$ vf 

** St. Fraaeit in Stamford '. 
" For aa iBorbt< iw we. the wardm and (roets of 
** the howfo or Saj'nt FnuictM in Sunnforde, coaMoly 
** callvd thv graj frei*n in StannfoHc^ in the eoon^ 
" of Liueiiln, duo pnifoundlj^ roncid«-*r that the par> 
** feceioa of Cbriatian Ijring dotho not connate bi 
** done coroBKmiea, werTng of a jpvy onntic, dia- 
" jpm^g our tplffe after utranngo (umuiu, dokyng 
** and berkjug. in gunlynff owr ael^ vyth a guidle 
" full of kmitA,and oUwr like papistical! rvrpniunje^ 
" whi'rvin wc lia^c b,ni niooat prinrijiallr pnrtnetl 
" and miwoi-lyl in trnuti iin»t ; 1>ut thi< wnr tni wajv 
** to plottiM* (jinI, and to lire a tnic> Chrutian ouui, 
** wjihc owte oil TpocraMie and fiiTTved diaunnlalion, 
>* it MDcecrir ilcclarrd unto us hy owt Ma«tcr (liriita^ 
** bit FTangrliata and apnrtole«. Bring tnitu 
" after to folowe the nmo. rourortnjmg owr I 
" uDto the will and plcasuro of owr i 
** undre God in erthe, tlio Kingva Klaiei^, t 
** to follow beoflftitth the aaperrtMooa I 

« OaloitWramrdi ef iW M»ton, iMrttr of tU 
C<wt of AanMrtabMi. [Ant mmution iMiar. \m %i» 
print«4 fav Whtw. wIm fv Mm. a. •■!».] 

HOOK VI. in England, 397 

" oiiy forincycall potentate or poore, wythe mutuall 
assent and consent doo submytt owr selffes unto 
the mercy of owr saide soveraygn lorde ; and 
" wythe like mutuall assent and consent doo surren- 
" der and yelde upe imto the hands of the same ail 
" owr saide howse of Saynt Frances in Stannforde, 
" comenly callyd the grey Friers in Stannforde, wythe 
*^ all lands, tenements, gardens, medowes, waters, 
pondyards, fedyngs, pastures, comens, rentes, re- 
versions, and all other our interest, lyghtes, or 
tytles aperteynyng unto the same ; mooste humbly 
besechyng his mooste noble grace to disspose of 
" us and of the same as best schall stonde wythe 
" his mooste graciouse pleasure ; and farther, frely 
" to grant unto every on of us his licens imdre 
" wretynge and seall to change our abites into seculer 
" fassion, and to receve suche manor of livyngs as 
" other seculer pristes comenly be preferryd unto : 
" and we all faythfuUy schall prey unto AUmyghty 
" Cod long to preserve his mooste noble grace, wythe 
" encrease of moche felicitie and honor. 

" And in witnes of all and singuler the premysses, 
" we the saide warden and covent of the grey fireers 
" in Stannforde to these presentes have putte owr co- 
" vent sceall the yeght day of Octobre, in the thirtythe 
'^ yere of the raygn of owr mooste soverayn kinge 
'* Henry the Yeght. 

" Factum Johannis Schemy, gardian : 
" Per me Frairem Johannem Robards. 
" Per me Fratrem Johannem Chadwhort. 
" Pel' me Frairem Ricardum Pye. 
'* Per me Fratrem Johannem Clarke. 
" Per me Fratrem Johannem Quoyte. 

I'ht tlUlon, '/ AUi^» 

I JoliBiinoni OemauL 

" Prr mf Fratrrm J 

" Per me f'nstrrm Johumrm Von|f. 

•* Per me pmtrrm Jnhartttrm Ijon^, 

" Per me Fnirem >>'iHiplniain Tomaoa'.* 

9. Other roMKnaliont wiiv Tar more humMe and 
mbmiMdvc, with an M-'knovU-djrminit of tbcir fiekiai 
' and roUiptunua livpn : nirli wax itip KumiMlrr maAc 
tiT ihf prior hikI convent of St. AndivirV In N'orth- 
atnpton, which, bcraUM' Tory lodiotu, wc fthall oolj 
tnuitcribe m raQch thereof m roarcraelh nor p 

" But OA wdl wc u otlmv owr pmlpceMon, eall]r4 
** n>ligiuuM< iierwne* within Tuwr «id nuMiaatocj. tak- 
" m^ un tu tbi' liabtio or owtvwardo vMtufv of the 
" Mitk' ntlo, onely to the i»tt>nt to lead o%rr Kflka la 
" an Tdcll qurctmw, and not in vvrtuote Ktiereyim, 
" in a ftatolj ratTmacion, and not in obedient bs- 
" niyljrte, )iavc undrc the shadowe or enlor of tbe 
" nidr rate and habitc n)-nlT, dK4>*tablT, and abo 
" ungudly cniploTud, Tua rather devnwred tbe Jtnij 
" revenue* vwuinff and c(*mynfr of tbe latde | 
** mow^ in contynuall tngurgttaciont and iarrrnga at 
** owr caiaj-ne lx>dyes. and of otbcfa the mpportana 
** of owr vuluptiKiae and carnal appetyta, witb other 
** tarne aiul anKudty expennv, to the manyleat wah- 
** rcrtinn of dcvoclon and cleiuuii of \y\yag, and to 
** the matt notable klaundcr of ChrrsU boly E*aB- 

«t tniKtli in Wi«Ttv. ib. p 

rJBivd mj*, ~ Tls Immmf h ■■ Mt 

idb.) -*pntl^ IW UaJk m>U nd 

• [Ofltlra M8N. Clmi. E. " wtan^ttA ; iW farm* In 
i«. p. 131 orig. L«;lMi.l>iUa 
iMtrr 10 Cranwrll ramdiM 

ih« I iiMliii wl tUa cMfW, - y^*.-] 




HOOK VI. in EufrlaniL 399 

*' gely, which in the forme of owr professyon we 
dyd ostentate and openly advaunte to kepe most 
exactly ; withdrawyng therby from the symple 
and pure myndys of yowr graces subjects the 
onely truth and comfort which they oughte to have 
by the true faith of Christe ; and also the devyne 
honor and glory onely due to the glorious maiestye of 
(iod Almyghty, steryng them with all persuasions, 
ingynes, and polyce, to dedd images and counter- 
" fett reliques, for owr dampnable lucre : which our 
" most horryble abhominacions and execrable per- 
suacions of yowr graces people, to detestable 
errours, and our long coveryd ipocrysie cloked 
with fayned sanctite ; we revolving dayly and con- 
tinually ponderyng in owr sorrowfuU harts, and 
thorby perseyving the botomlas gulf of everlastyng 
fyre redy to devowre us if persysting in this state 
of lyving, we shulde departe from this uncertayn 
'' and transytory liffe, constrayned by the intollerable 
'' anguysh of owr conscience, callyd as we trust by 
" the grace of God, who wolde have no man to perysh 
*' in synno, with harts moost contrite and repentante, 
" prostrate at the noble feet of yowr moost roiall 
*' maiestye, most lamentably doo crave of yowr 
" highnes, of yowr habundant mercy, to grant unto 
*' us, most grevous agaynst God and yowr highnes 
'* yowr most gracious perdon for owr saide sondry 
'* offences, omyssyons, and negligences comytted, 
" as before by us is confessyd, agaynst yowr highnes 
*' and yowr most noble progenitors ; and where yowr 
" hyghnes, being supreme hedd immediately next 
'' aft re Christe, of his church, in this yowT roialme of 
'' England, so consequently generall and only refor- 
" mator of all religious persones there, have full au- 




Tht Hittani uf AlAf* 

- ihoritT to eomcU! or dyMolTe, at yowr | 
** jilcaMm' »n<l libertye, all eownti uaA Mripatia 
** cumjMuiTiMi abainrng tbe rowln of ihcir prnfranno : 
" uul mfiFfoviT to Towr faif^biiM, licinfr owr towrmvfa 
" Ion] uid iitiiIoubt4Ml fouD'ler of jowr nitic oinwi 
" trry. br diwoludon wlicrcof np)M*rteynrth oaelj 
" llii> nrrginsll tittf and pmpre inhoTTtauc*, ■• wdl 
" of nil ntliur j^uckI* mnrcablc uid uniuov««ble, lo 
** tbr nido niuniutnj in my wjw ■pptitTTnin^ or 
" U'liJitging. to he clivpoanl mod iiii])luVNl w la jroiwr 
" grmee* moat exc«ll«at w juio m m ahdl mne exp*- 
** djt>nl aod nece— ry," &c 

** P(T wf Fnorbcum, priorew. 
** /Vr Mr Joluuin4>in, mib'^mwma. 
" f*rr me Tlmmani SitijUi. 
" Per mr TlKtuuiiii (ladAton. 
** Prr mr Il«b*rtum Mutin. 
" Prr mr Joritbuiu IlopkiiM. 
" Per me llM'liarduni [tunbriy. 
** Prr me JohauiH-m I'ellc, 
*• Per me Jotiuintti) llivmld. 
*• Prr me TlioniAiii [lortr. 
"Per me Wjlliflmum Ward, 
" Per me Tbonuuii Atlrrbury. 
-Prr me WUIk-lmiim Fowler'." 

fKh«*r n^a^ipuilioiM. iitrriiifr in thoir woi 
for the main in tbe maili-r, and trt^n* with all i 
firvt'tUfA tn thi' kin^'ft Ttnlon. A* tdKMdlmn hnpa 
to rairaiio with the fewer stripe* fi»r brinp I be fint 
iu uotjrJDg their {loiiit*, thtme canvnita proanial to 

' [tUud Ike 

lit of Umnk, >9 Urn. VIII. 

nooK VI. in England. 401 

themselves the kindest usage which were forward- 
cst in their resignations, though all on the matter 
fared alike. 

4. Yea, John do Warboise, so called from the Betwixt 
place of his nativity in Huntingdonshire, (where my last no 
worthy friend Mr. William Johnson is well bene-SI^ ^' 
ficed,) though the first, with his sixty Denedicti 
monks", who with solemn subscription renounced 

the pope's supremacy, and now as officious as any 
in surrendering his convent to the king's visitors, 
met with no peculiar and extraordinary civility above 
others of his order. 

5. Such resignations sealed and delivered, the 
visitors called for the seals themselves, which now 
had survived their own use, having passed the last 
effectual act ; and these, generally made of silver, 
were by the king's officers presently broken in 
[)ieccs. Such material stamps l>eing now abolished, 
it will be charity to preserve their impressions, and 
exhibit them to posterity ; which here we shall en- 
deavour, rendering some probable reason how most 
of them refer to the founders or situation, or some 
remarkable action therein. 



In presenting of them I will not be confined to The design 
the strict tenns of blazonry, the rather because some ^ 
of their arms may be presumed so ancient, as fitter 
to give rules to than take them from our modem 
heraldry. And what my pen cannot sufficiently 

*^ Speed in his Description of Huntingdonshire. 


4m TktBiihry^Jl^i 

dewribe. thereio the mMler my Mtiufy hinnlf |y 
hbi own ejre, to which these coat* ue 
tbn tint tthcet of thb rolumu kftvr tbo kfrtofy «f J 
Walthatn Abbey. 

1. I will make m methiMl of my own, I 
(whifo the miD eodf) in tbe w«at : Tavi 
Dcnrooihire. give rerry, or *, aoi 
or, two niiiUel*, gule«. 

ft. Glutoobary gmre Tcrt, (u I con}c<rtiii 
eokmr.) « eton bottony aryi-nt. In thv first < 
tbe wontui with a ffloiy boliliog « b«be, 
ab»iit hw hnii). in ht-r amw, 1 
tlic (lin>ction nf tbe aiip.'l (Uhriel thoir c 
tint (letliraled (» the Virjrio Mary f, 

3. Mi'ltlk-toii, in (•louct'stt^nbin.', gnvo nbl^tl 
bukvt« arfrrnt, rettleubheil with laarcs of I 
gnlei. Had the number of the huketa beta c 
•even or twelve, •otno wuolil interprK theicia aJ 
rrferciux- to the reTernoua prewfrrd by < 
runinmnt) of the Ioatu* mltmenloiuly ii 
whereas now thoy dmoto tho bounty of t 
in relievinjf tbe |Kmr. 

4. %>*hat Malmeitbury In Willahirv gavr, 
yvt attain. 

A. Abingdon gave [ar^font] a cmm flurt lM>t«ixt 
maitletR nable ; murh ftlluding to tb(^ annn «f onr 
Engliib kingB before tbe CoDqneat, wbo, it ttrmt, 
wvra gmU beoofikcton tberaunto. 

6. The abbey of fit. Jamea. in Rewfing, gave wnmi, 
thrw McallopHihelb, or. Here I know not what 
Mvret lyniiiathy lb«'rr u betwi-en SL June* aad 

■ tAntvBt —i Mm. •mvd. Ut* Wm Mi|iflM ia tW atw , 
Um Mak nM ftmMl W fMrr I f(w iW fM anL v. 1 1. ' 

BOOK VI. tit England. 408 

shells; but sure I am that all pilgrims that 'risit 
St. James of Compostella in Spain, the paramomit 
shrine of that saint, returned thenco ohsiti canchis y^ 
all beshelled about on their clothes, as a religious 
donative there bestowed upon them. 

7. The abbey of Hyde,/M.rto Winton, gave argent, Of Hyde, 
a lion rampant sable, on a chief of the second, four 

keys argent. 

8. Battle Abbey, in Sussex, gave gules, a cross Of Battle, 
betwixt a crown or, in the first and third quarter; 

a sword (bladed argent, hilted or) in the second and 
fourth quarter thereof. Here the arms relate to 
the name, and both arms and name to the fierce 
fight hard by, whereby duke William gained the 
English crown by conquest, and founded this abbey. 
Nor must it be forgotten that a text ^, pierced 
through with a dash, is fixed in the navel of the 
cross : now though I have read letters to be little 
honourable in arms', this cannot be disgraceful, 
])artly because church heraldry moveth in a sphere 
by itself, partly because this was the letter of letters, 
as the received character to signify Christus. 

9. St. Augustine's, in Canterbury, gave sable, aOf st.Au. 
cross argent. 

10. Cross we now the Thames, wh«re westward Of okm. 
we first fall on St. Peter's, in Gloucester, whose 
dedication to that apostle sufiSciently rendereth a 
reason for the arms thereof, viz. azure, two croe»- 
keys, (or two keys saltire,) or. 

1 1 . Tewksbury gave gules, a cross of an antique Of Tewkt. 
form or, a border argent. 

y Erasmus in his dialogue ergo." [p. 377, ed. 1643.] 
c:illed " Peregrinatio Religionis « Accidence of Armes. 


104 71U Hiatory ^AUxyi Boom 

■- IS. I will not odToiitDro on the bUsoninf of I 
linns of Wmclicoinli, (tutvjng much coafomltf I 
tbLTcin with Mnrtinior'ii roni.) but Icutc the i 
to sotiBfy hu own eyes in thi> inspcctioo tbcrMit 

13. I nhoulil 1m.' tbankful to bim wbit woniM ] 
infiimi me o{ thv ormB uf C'ireDcvst«r, which hkhail 
I onnnnt |irnrun<. 

14. St. Alben'fl gave tuarc, a rwm saltiR^ ar*. 

15. WentmituilLT Abbey gaw azuru a < 
[or] betwixt livp luartlcls or ; anil tbb I humbi 
cfdTO were anciently the entiru ann« of that I 
htiag la eflbot the mme with tboie of king X 
the Coafoanr, tlio tint fminiler tht^rcof. Hat i 
wardf their coavi-ntual msiI was augnumtvd with I 
aniM of Fninee bikI ICngUnd on a chief or. Iietwixt 
two roam guleo, plainly rdattng to king Henry tbc> ' 
ScTrntb enlarging tlH>ir rhtirrh with bis rhapeL 

16. The prior of St. John of Jeramlcm gave gulaa ! 
a crow argi'tit. which the lord prior somctitna 
lialfid with (hut b4-fore) his own roat ^ atkd i 
thnos baru it in a chief at>out it '. 

I7<Thc arms of Waltham Ahliey, in E«px,a 
at thii day neither in glow, wood, nor stooc^ I 
about the town or rhurch thereof. At laK wvl 
recovrrcHl thrtn (whhj Af>mo notu) out of a bit 4 
of Riibcrt Kulk'r'a. the last abbot, though Dot l 
tain of the metal and eohmra. rix. gule* (■■ ] 
jecture) two angehk (fan they bo lew than vl);l 
tbuir hands (mch wc find uf Ihetn in fcripl 

> St. Mnj'% in C:«raatr7. 

I B* ami is iMr wal. m 

■ Tbw tir IVh. E 
* UMt. ir. t>. 

BOOK vi. in England. 405 

holding betwixt them a cross argent, brought hither, 
saith our antiquary ^ by miracle out of the west, 
whence Waltham had the addition of holy cross. 

18. The arms of St. John's, in Colchester, I leave or CoMmi. 
to the eye of the reader. 

19. Bury gave azure three crowns or, the arms or Buy. 
of the kings of the East Angles, assumed in the 
memory of king Edmund, (to whom this abbey was 
dedicated,) martyred by the Danes, when his crown 

of gold, thorough a crown of thorns, or arrows rather, 
was turned into a crown of glory. 

20. St. Bonnet's in the Holme, in Norfolk, gave or st. Ben. 
sable, a pastoral staff argent, picked below and 
reflexed above, (intimating the abbot's episcopal 
jurisdiction in his own precincts,) betwixt two 
crowns or, pointing at England and Norway, the 

two kingdoms of Canutus, the founder thereof* 
The aforesaid staff was infiilated, that is, adorned 
with an holy lace or label, carelessly hanging down 
or cast across, such with which their mitres used 
formerly to be fastened. 

21. Thorny Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, gave azure or iiioniy. 
three crosses crossed fitchee, betwixt three pastoral 
staves, or. 

22. Ramsey, in Huntingdonshire, gave or, three or Bmtsy. 
rams' heads couped argent, on a bend azure; the 

rest of the rams must be supposed in the blue sea, 
the fens appearing such when overflown. Besides, 
such changes were common here, whereof Melibseus 
coniplaineth in the marshes of Mantua ^ : 

Nan bene rijke 

Crcditur^ ipse aries eiiam nunc veUera eiecai. 

f Cuind. Brit, in Essex, [sub init.] ' VirgU, Edog. iii. 95. 


TV Hitfory a/Ab6tyM •ous ii. 

'TlMn b no tnHtfa^ to tbo ftMDcTriflf twok. 

Tin nn sUn dria hb flM« w Uliily dutk. 

Bat linre, thu ilnininfr of the fnu hath, I hope, 
■Murod tfapir rattle Truni canialtieA. 

SS. The vor)- luinic nf PetCTborottgh unlocks the 
raiiRon vthj ihftt atiboT jj^stp guln, two ctom-Iebj* 
betwixt fimr <-TnMr« mMM-H fitrboe, or. 

84. {'rowUn'l Abbov gave quiutert7 three (eiB 
them lonfT knivm nr short) kworIh bUded ftrjtvnt, 
h&ftctl or pometlnl or, aznro thrra whips ttiingBd 
and knotted or, the •econd like thi* thinl, the fourth 
hke the firvt : iturtmtiivnts of crucltT, n-latiajf to 
thoir monks tni«ncr(<d by the Dwus, umo 870 ^ 
whenor their hbtorhn giTc* m tbti iccooBt, tkat 
Bnl thtj wero ttnnmim4di, tortured. Ke there ^bm 
whi)N, afid then rjrtmimati, killed, eeo there tt» 
iwonlN. Bnt if tuty will bare thaae whlpa to 
to tbp wliip of St. Bartholomew, the tOi 
able R'lic of that tnonanlcrT, I will not afifnee. 

85. The amis of Evmham Abf>er, in Wormtor- 
»birf>, I mnnot n<rovrr. bnt {xiMibly may belfan tto 
eonclnsinn nf tbit vork. 

r« 96. Sfarc'wvbnrr gnvt} axure, a Don nunpuift (mr 
a peatoral irtaff hcndwvya, [or], to that both the oA 
thereof are plahily diaravrml. 

ST. Vman we now north o( Trpot, whrre only twv 
remain : St-lby, foumlH by William ttte Caoqucmt; 
whirb {carc Mlile. thnv vwanx aryent. membrvd or; 
alluding, an I believe, to the depreoaed Ntoation of 
the {tbce, where the neijtbbouring river of Onae 
aSbrdeib nieb birds in abumlaDcc. 

88. St. Mary"*, in York, gave argent, a enm 

BOOK vi. in England. 407 

gules, and a key, in the first quarter of the same. 
In the midst of the cross a kmg in a circle in his 
robes of state, with his sceptre and mound; yet 
hath he only a ducal cap, and no crown on his 
head. I humbly conceive (under favour of better 
^judgments) this king-duke*s picture to relate partly 
to king William Rufus, partly to Alan duke of 
Britain and Richmond, the principal co-founders of 
that monastery. 



Amongst the principal persons who suffered for a 
their zeal in defending of abbeys was the lately grounded 
mentioned Thomas lord Darcy^ whose extraction ^ ^^*"^ 
I find foully aspersed by the pen of that passionate 
prince, king Henry the Eighth ; for when the rebels 
boasted of the many noblemen who sided with 
them, in confutation thereof king Henry returned 
a letter to them, interlined with his own hand, 
wherein this passage : " Others, as the lord Mamey 
and Darcy, are but mean, scarce weU-bom gen- 
tlemen, and yet of no great lands till they were 
promoted by us, and so made knights ^'^ It 
cannot be denied but that king Henry too much 
consulted his choler, (now swelling high, because 
opposed by the rebels,) more than his judgment in 
this his expression ; and seeing an historian should 
stium cuique trUmere^ give me leave % little to 
enlarge in this subject. 

2. Of the lord Mamey I can say but little, finding wimtha 
him whilst as yet but a knight, sir Henry, servant ncj *^ 

^ Vido supra, pag. 379, par. ' Speed*8 Chron. in his fint 
5- ed. p. 776= 1023 of the 3rd. 


wiil iinu (if tlic< L'xecutan to the \aAy Maifanl. 

Count«^ of [Vrbv : at which timo be «■■ Hmr- 

cvUor of the tluchjr nf Lancaster. It BMnetli ba 

r<Mp hjr tho Uw, Iwinji lht< Gnt and la»t bwnn of 

hit iuuhp, wbote »oti! danftfatcr wu marrivd to 

Tfaotnu llowmrd, vfawount Bindoa. 

"t^mnM m 5. Longer miMt wo itMiiit ou the p«reatafi«, per- 

<W iwr7« fbrmuwcfl, aod ptNteritr of Tboou lord iJUvf, 

^Jjj findiiiff in thp north three distinct bnncfaei •»— — ' 

wh<>rvof the first wss 


in England. 


In John Darcy, (son 
to the aforesaid 
Norman,) stew- 
ard to the king^s 
household, justice 
of Ireland. 


For five descents, 

being barons of 

Knaith and Moj- 


1. John. 

2. John. 

3. Philip. 

4. John. 

5. Philip. 

In Philip the 
fifth baron, who, 
though dying un* 
der age, left 
two daughters, 
Elizabeth, mar- 
ried to sir James 
Strangewajs, of 
Hartley Gastle, 
and Mai^ret, to 
sir John Gon- 
yers of Hornby 

5. Thus expired the second male stem of the 
Darcys, styled barons of Knayth, long since aliened 
from their family, and for this last hundred years 
the habitation of the lord Willoughby, of Parham. 
Come we now to the third stem, which was 

Bepun I Ckmtinued 

In sir John Darcy Through seven ge- 
of Torquay, se- nerations: 
cond son to the i. Kchard. 
last lord John 2. William. 

Darcy of Enayth. 

3. Thomas. 

4. George. 

5. John. 

6. Michael. 

7. John. 

In John lord Daroy 
of Ashton dying 
issueless, thou^ 
he had four wives, 
in the reign of 
king Charles. 

6. Thomas Darcy here named is the person, the 
subject of this discourse, of whom four things are 
memorable : 

i. He was knighted by king Henry the Seventh, 
who made him captain of the town and castle of 

410 Tht HUlory if A 

Bcnrjck '. and comniuider < 

bin 1 

Kitift llcnnr the Eighth, in tbp fint jtmr ^ 

, modi- hii 

' in V.\rc of the 

1 JllctlCl' 

bt-vond Trt'Dt, miiiinKnifd him thv «uni> y«ar ■• 
a bnroii to |i«rtimtieiit, hii|iIuvi'<I him with ■ fwvy. 
uiiio 1511, Ui aK<t«t Kt'nliiiuid kiiij; uf Amygti 
apuniit the Mount, uid nuuk- him knight uf the 

HI. tliough (ho cnrortora of this Tboouu Ducy, 
Rinco tlio H-<*nnd bniich wiw cxplrctl, ware tfylBd 
lonU in iMimc di'txhi. (whether bv the coortca^ W 
the rountiT, or bvintutte thi- right of a bwnaj I 
in them,) vet this Tbomiut wm the Ant i 
baron tn {mrtiiuiient, in the fint uT king Ilei 
Eigbtii, and liis nicreaon took tlivir pbee i 

iv. Thoagh tlie rerenuo of thi» 
Uarr; was not great at the begimdng i 
Henry tbe Eigfatli, bocaoM the bein-gvooral i 
lord Darryt of Knayth carried away the i 
the inheritanre, yet Ite bad a t 
augmented by his match with 
dauglilcr and betren of tir Ricbaid TeapMC 

11ie n'miU of all if this : this lord 
htiuoiirably deacendcMl, and bin nobility aagi 
not fint ftmmlfd, by king llcnrr the l-jghtb, h 
liU wonU did intimate. Let, Ihen'fore, |«aMoaate 
)trinnii ii)K!ak what they pUii^v. thnr |ntient Mib}ceCa 
will believe bat tbeirjuM |>r»p4inion: and altboo^ 
the fox'a eon rnaat bo n>jnito<) bom* whibt ibi? Kcm 
in prewoce it {deaaod m tu tuns tbmn, yet Ihcy 

I Prinu fl«iIU de vtnn 14 lliwid VII- 

BOOK VI. in England. 411 

never alter their nature, and quickly recover the 
name after the lion's departure. This I thought 
fit to write in vindication of the lord Darcy, who, 
though he owed his life to the law, it is cruelty 
he should lose both it and the just honour of his 

7. As for the present Conyers, lord Darcy, he is 
not only descended from the foresaid lord Thomas, 
but also from the heir-general of the second stem of 
the Lord Darcys of Knayth, and was by king Charles 
accordingly restored to take his place in parliament* 




Although many modem families haye been great ^j^^^ 

gainers by the destruction of monasteries, yet the 
ancient nobility, when casting up their audits, found 
themselves much impaired thereby^ both in power 
and profit, conunodity and command : I mean such 
whose ancestors had been founders of abbeys, or 
great benefactors unto them. These resenred to 
themselves and their heirs many annual rents and 
services, reliefs, escuage; as also that such abbots 
and their successors should do fealty and homage 
to their heirs for such lands as they held of them 
in knight's service. 

2. Now although order was taken at the disso-^[^|^ 
lution to preserve such rents to the founders' heirs, 
(payable unto them by the king's officers out of the 
exchequer,) yet such sums, after long attendance^ 
were recovered with so much difficulty that they 
were lost in eifect : thus, when the few sheaves of 
the subject are promiscuously made up in the king^s 


41 S 

The Hhtarp efJhUgt 

mow, it U hftM to fin<i them there, aad I 
fc-tch them thfocc. 

3. At) for thu furvsoid tervicot merred (d 
Bt moni'v or nionur-wortti) to th«n and their I 
llicr wen? lotall)- am) finally cxtiagnuhed ; I 
nierly nuch abbi'TH uonl, 

i. To aemi itieii on tboir own eharj^ in i 
to m-ar, to aid and attend aurb of tbiHr f 
bftiofactora' beire of whom tliejr held land in kn^lu!^ 

iL Thcj boontiftdly oontrilmted ■ portloa to IW 
niarriajp) of their eldeat dattgbten. 

iii. They baro the ooeta and cliafget lo aeeovtiv 
their eldvat auna In a geat«ol militoty equipage wfaaa 
knighted by the king. 

Bat now, the trre being plucked ap by t 
no nirfa fruit eould aAerwanls bo expected. 

4. Nor iniMt we forget the benefit of t 
l^ao ralhid a cnnraHmdo, from eating logetbrr: Ar 

tbo beira of the fore«aiil founden (not by eoortor, 
bat compontion for tbeJr ftvmer &Toaj«) had a 
privilege to aend a aet number of their poor • 
to abheyi to diet thuivin : tfann many aged s 
paat working, not feeding, (coMly ui keep, and et— I 
lo CMt oC) wore aeot by their niu<tem to aaell 
abbeyi^ where they bad plentiful food during their 
tivOT. Now though aoine of thoau eomdiea (whvro 
the proper ty waa altered into a aet mn of xaautj) 
wai aolTBblo oat of the exeheqoer after the diiM^ 
Intion of abbcya, yet iodi whieh eoatinard in kind 
wBi totally extinct, and no aoch diet hereafter givem 
when' both table and hooic were oTcttuned. 

BOOK VI. tn England. 41S 


The noble fSamily of the Berkeleys may well give 
an abbot's mitre for the crest of their arms, because 
80 loving their nation, and building them so many 
synagogues. Hence it was, that partly in right of 
their ancestors, partly by their matches with the 
co-heirs of the lords Mowbray and Seagrave, in the 
vacancies they had a right of nomination of an 
abbot, in following foundations : 

414 The llisiory tif AbUyi boob ti. 

IHmet. FmituUr, iH^rr. Vmlm^, 

' /. .- * -L^ 

1. Si. Aii|(ii»Ciiir*%, t. Kirfirrt Fiu- i. lUarli oifMirtft ;4li; i| J •• 

ill Ilri»(i4 Itanliiiic. *^ Oic iwiirr 

mlMMr|kaC^ iif Si. Victur. 

I riiy BMiinwil 

thr naiiir vi 

2. niirtnn l^asiin, 2. Thr l«wil Miiw. 2. l^prom pn^ ^|A< 10 1 O 1] 

ill l^tcnCrr- i (•rmy, in eh* 1 |m4r«Mii|r t^ 

»)unr. rriicii iif kinic ««itrr «if M. 

I Wmry tlw Au|piMiii«. 

;>. ihUiiil, fir . y itilvrt cU* j. [C MtemMM ] [195 5 4^ 

tirllji i^Mimla,! Jk|tml»niv, 

ill Viirkihirr. I ftmft (tiinnoni 

i hi« nmilMT. 

4. riianNiil^s in > 4. Iluich dr Ana/. 4. [ llWfc aiiim.J ^93 ^ J ^I 

Ntrtluiiiip* kDiicht, in \hm 


tinw vi the 


Rufant liiak 

tlw nMD» id 

i luMVMnlir, 

and Annalrtlin 
I hi* fUuiHurr 

I WM nuirrM 

to (ffilbrrt kml 


5. r««nhr,inWnr.| 5. [liunlMo«br«y 5. [rhfnwiM | :j4i o 9] 

wk-kthirv. and nthflrft.] 

6. Cnisum, in 6. Pr«nnmtrM*n- 45'^ 19 ■ > > ■ 

iifirf«Crr« UMI nunks. 

;. K|i«iirih, in ;. Thmuw Miiv. 7. (*«rthMiwM. >90i4 ; I 

, th^ IftW «if hmjf, «iH a^ 

Airhiilnir. in Ni<unirHBRi 

l<iunilu»)iiiT. Ml \\\r mirn 

i< kiii« 
KirhAnl the 

K FiHinUii.ft. K T.I « htrh the h. f< Nirrrtani.; 'nr.l o 7 ^i' 


«rTr |:r«nd 
I vtM-f •■ ttiTI. 

. t;. Kirk^v. !ii \dt\- if. K'Vrf tlr IVU i^ C aiiiWi* rnniUr **'* ; >3 C I 
cr«(rr«liirr Irr, «)*if lirld iif H| Ati«cu»- 

th-« liiAiHir 11^ tiiir 

I.* r Uiril 

10. \>at i.r^-r. iu lo HIm k raiMHit 4C*i! c 

1 tirkvlt rr. 

\\ liat hIkiII I H|i4>ak nl' iUv ^uuill li«itiM-«* of |ji>ng* 

hriflp* uihI Tiiitoni, in Ci|<iiii-4*««t4*niiin\ (not iih'II* 

uooK VI. in England. 416 

tioned in Speed) the hospitals of St. Katharine and 
Maiy Maudlin's, near Bristol, the well-endowed 
school of Wotton-under-edge, in Gloucestershire, 
besides forty chantries founded by the Berkeleys? 
yea, I have read in a manuscript belonging imto 
them, no less judiciously than industriously composed 
by Mr. John Smith, (who did and received many 
good offices to and from that family, as is mutually 
confessed,) that the forenamed abbeys and others, 
held of the lord Berkeley at the dissolution no 
fewer than eighty knights' fees, and payed services 
unto them accordingly ; all which are now lost, to 
the value of ten thousand pounds, within the com- 
pass of few years. 

2. Nor will it be amiss to insert that Robert iK<)ii«t 
Derby, the last abbot of Croxton, was presented ^h^of 
thereunto, April 22, the 26th of king Heniy the 
Eighth, by Thomas (the sixth of that name) lord 
Berkeley, (the place being void by the death of one 
AtterclifTe,) belonging to his presentation by inhe- 
ritance ; and in the record he commandeth the prior 
and convent to receive and obey him as abbot. 


Ingratitude is the abridgment of all baseness, a ir anduuik- 
fault never found unattended with other viciousnesg.^**^**** 
Tliis is justly charged on the account of many 
abbeys, whose stately structures grew so proud as 
to forget the rock whence they were hewn, and the 
hole of the pit whence they were digged ; unthank- 
ful to such founders who, under Gh)d, had bestowed 
their maintenance upon them. 

S. One insUuiec of many: — Vut ww the Kb* 

imlitjr of the lord BvrkolcTi to Kt. AnsUn'a. \m 
HrMtol, IcntinfT thtmuwlrc* in that ibrir huxe eMal* 
not one rcctoiy to which thoT miffht |>nMai • 
rhupl&in ; all tbi> btmoiiom in tlivir namcroua mmgmn 
bduff a|i|>ro|>riAt<Hl to tliu and other moMlUriaft 
Now HC4> tl]D n>4|uital. 

9. Manrir^, (tlie limt of that name,) lord Btr fcah y; 
liavinfc nccaMon to mnko tbf rlitrh about his nMlIn 
tho brootler. for the bcltt-r fortifrinfc thereof, took 
in tome few feet of jtround out of Ik^rkclpr cbufdi- 
yard, whirh rhiirrh, «ith tho litbo* thnrof, hfe 
anoctton ha*! ronferriil on lhL> afonwaid inoiiailtij. 
The abbot, MiolUiii;; thin at a |fr«at ttv«|*M^ or 
rather as a litlli' mrrittf^, to |iroterat«d the afore- 
said Innl with rhurrb rfnaurp*. that he tnailo him la 
a manner ract the dirt of tho ditch in hit own &e^ 
cnforrinjr him to a fntblic ronfMelon of hi« fiuilt, 
and to giTo five Rhillinpi rmt for erer, with wmos 
titln^ and iHuturc for u manr nxfn oa winild till 
a ploupb-Uiid, hi tb<* wimlii of his will. Pro n— 
dalitutf cHlfMT metf de fmtato ^uod feci dW ae m ilfriu 
dr Bcrkch-jr eirra coMtriltm mtmm. 

4. 1 know it will W |i(cadcd for the abbot that 
there b a» much right in an inrh a« in an oil. that 
he waa a lldui:iary ontruittod to drfi-nd the rights af 
hit ooavent, that rounden>' hcin aif not privl 
In do iiyoriea: jrea, thcr of all |MmoiM lonat I 
per to take bark what tliHr ancestor* have | 
llowoTpr, the lord'i enmiacbincnt on the rhoreh- 
rani iMMng in a manner done in hi« own ik>frnce, 
the ihinff in itaelf mi omall. and tbf nw^t of hia 
«jior«t<>n Ml fiD-al In ilui nblip*. might have met 
with that m«vkiirH which obould be in the 1 

BOOK VI. in England. 417 

of all spiritual persons to abate his rigorous prosecu- 
tion against him. 

5. Thomas, the first lord Berkeley of that name, Another 
found little better usage from the abbot of St. ingratitude. 
Austine's, though he had formerly, besides confirma- 
tion of many lands, conferred on that convent pas- 
ture for twenty-four oxen; discharging also their 
lands, lying within certain of his manors, from all 
services and earthly demands, only to remember him 

and his in their prayers; yet did that abbot and 
convent implead him before the pope's delegates for 
tithes of pawnage of his woods, for tithes of his 
fishing and of his mills. The lord removed the suit 
to common law, as challenging the sole power to 
regulate 7nodum decimandi. And now, when all 
was ready for a trial before the judge itinerant at 
Gloucester, it was compoimded by friends on such 
terms as the abbot in effect gained his desire. 

6. Indeed, so odious and obvious was the unthank- a omaeof 

- , - 1 . . -11 their niiiii 

fulness of some convents, that it is reputed by some 
the most meritorious cause of their dissolution, and 
their doing things mthout and against the will of 
their founders is instanced in the statute as a main 
motive to take them away ". 

7. Some who pretend to a Prometheus' wit fondly -^/i over- 

wise OQii- 

conceive that the founders of abbeys might politicly oeit. 
have prevented their dissolution had they inserted a 
provision in their foundations, that in case abbey 
lands should be alienated to other uses against or 
besides the owners' intents, then such lands should 
revert to the true heirs of the said founders, if then 
in being. 

^ For the dissolution of chantries and colleges, 37 Hen. VIII. 

rap. 4. 


41S Thf i/iMiory </ A6A^$ im Emgimmd^ 

i^*"*- a. But mch ctmi4ct not that meh m i 

would bare rarourefl mora of wi]4ne« tbui l 
in that 0^: m wdl m(f[fat odo have •onirlit to 
flcpurv liinuolf with a nhelttr oipuiict the blliaff tf 
tb« flkies, as ix|ually probable as tho divottlf^ «C 
abbcjr lands to other iatentioM. Bwiil e ^ MMii • 
jealoua datue might be mt«r]iraCed boratical. to pK 
hllo pooplu't fanoiui a futtibllitjr of nch I 
ym, I have hiiird it 4)iH«doDed by tho I 
llie law wbvth(.'r mirb a conditional MttlonMBl \ 
Kuch a clauM! wcra lofpil or no, many i 
that mch donationn rniul bv abatilntc. Bat ■ 
Kwb A clouw in their fouudationi, it had not nacfc 
bcfriondt-Hl th(.>m at tbii time, wmi^ f^>lc« an aa 
oiu>ilT rut off an twinc-lhmub by power of pai{{»- 
mt'nt, when dlBpoM<d In make such a tttMolation. 
SMitMih 9. Now some vonceiTpd It jitst abbey laoda dinald 
MKfcw have bfien ivstoml to the hdn of th*^ (buMlan; 
S^^ but M«iD|t thfl moat and grcAtMt abbey* woe fanOl 
*^^i- and eodownl befbra tho ConqoeaC K ww hard !• 
And oot their hein^ if extant. Beiidca. thti vqhM 
mbilater matter of mueh litigiotMMB r^ttally to 
aham them lunongrt their many bemAeton : «bcr^ 
fere the king, the foandor-gpneial of them alL 
mediately or fanmedbtdy in himself or hi hia wcib- 
Jeetc, ai who in hb peraoa or ancvaton con to —< 
eooaented. or at least eonnived at their fnnndiilna^. 
may charitably be prmnned to aeiBe th«n all Into 
hit own haoda, ao tn rat off the oeeaikio of 4b^ 
geraoa dhrbioa amongit hia wbfeeti about the paib 
tkfcm of thMB catatoa. 





There he three decrees ofgraiibide, aeeording to fiMiCe miemrci 
abilities: the finA ie to reqtiiief the teoand to deeervef the 
third to eon/eeSj a benefit received. He i$ a hofpjf num 
that can do the firsts no hmeet man that would not do the 
second^ a dishonest man who doth not the third. 

I must be content, in reference to fonr faieomn on mtf, to ait 
down in the last form of fhainkfullmese ; it being better to 
be a lag in that school than a truant^ notataU appearing 

* [Arms of Ken. Ennine, array in 1643, **when other 

three crescents gales. She " noUemen were crest or ooro- 

was the daughter and co-heir " net-fiillen, and excepted to 

of Christopher Ken, of Ken " by the enetnr as the moat 

Court, esq., in Somersetshire, " dangerous offender ; being a 

(from whom bishop Ken was '* pioos man for religion, an 

descended,) and married John, ** hospitable and well-repated 

the eldest son of sir Anthony, '* man for doing justice and 

and grandson of sir Amias Poo- " good to hia country, a watdi- 

lett, who in 1627 was advanced " ful and active man in the 

to the dignity of a baron by the " field, and a shrewd man in 

title of lord Poulett, of Hinton *^ coundL*' Memoirs, p. 65 a. 

St.Oeorge. According to Lloyd, He died in 1649, ^^ Teaim 

the husband of this lady was before this portion was pnnted 

entrusted by king Charles I. of Fuller's History; to tUa 

with his first commission of q^tdioa he alludes, I suppoae.] 

E6 S 

iU* f «. Km, memr^mf to mt S»tim»r'§ mmmd «^ 
■AM (if NwAr^fiU liiiiiliWdUa Ufltmdm <rf 

Jfwifiwi <to ^wwf (ia«iiy Mu mim UitU < w«t) ^ 

^<Mrf« ■ ' - - - - 

<f «U Mtfam^ i/tUg Mtfim. fib mhm nw^ mAmI 
tiftmifjfmir hanm$ tktrmm. Otdibm ftm im aff jaar 

MIMf{f)M^ (A«M Mte fm. 


■TGirr ii tlip rule or wluu U MS Mid 
~ whnt ifi otbt.Twui>. Wv will 
rcmi«.' tlu" »l(?«cri|»tion uf 
I iTiimrk- ; n itiimrli' u a work 
{offiiDg the [lowirr a{ Mtiin!>, 
tbe KaiSmutinn of fiiith im tbc miarinn 
of a new tuiiiittiT. 

i. Work of 'Gmf] fi'io fmlf <MA 
tktHtft* : fur though bo •amothnM mcch 
nwiral ittftrumctiU whorcbjr, jet never h 
mnm to eflbct miraeloB. 

ii. P*3*inf At ptmtr of natmrt'\ Hcnre H n tint 
it is not dniM by teisarc, bat pnventl; : oot \rj 
Aoffve%, bat peHc«tl]r. God** cnra hv oeTvr nib. 
jeot to relijwo, (once btxled and onr beded.) «s. 
et^ tbo party lun oa tbe «eore of a dp* fnflk : 

r >j*. lo- 

' Ptebilnui. iB. 

BOOK VI. in England. 4C1 

Thau art made whaler sin no morCf lest a worse thing 

befall thee **. ? 

iii. Done for the confirmation of faitX] God will 
not make his works cheap by prostituting them 
merely for the satisfaction of man's curiosity. 

iv. On the mission generally of a new min%stTff\ 
For, although some sprinkling of miracles on other 
occasions, yet their main body was done by MoseSi 
a new lawgiver to the Jews ; by Elias and Elisha, 
two grand restorers (adequate almost to a giver) of 
the law, in a general yisible defection to idolatiy ; 
by Christ and his apostles, as the first preachers of 
the gospel. 

In this our description no mention of the rarity 
of miracles, because the same resulteth from the 
premises, frequency abating from the due wonder 

2. Now that such miracles long since are ceased MiiMhi 
appears by the confession of ancient fathers andoeMcd. 
most ingenious Romanists. St. Chrysostom (twenty- 
third Homily on St. John) thus expresseth himself! 

ai yap wv eicri oi ^tp'ovvref kqi Aeyovreg^ ota re fui xai 
vvv (TTjfieia ylvovrai ; ei yap iricrr^^ t?, W9 tiycu Xf^^ '^ 
(plXetg Tov ^piTTOVy W9 ipi\€iv jei, ov jfjpeiav ix^^^ (nifi^m^. 
TaOra yap Tot9 onrloToi^ SiSoral. ** For even now 

" there be seekers and sayers, wherefore also now 
^^ arc not miracles done ? for if thou beest a belieyer, 
'' as thou oughtest to be, and dost love Christ as 
'' thou oughtest to love him, thou hast no need of 
'' miracles ; for miracles are given to unbelievers.'' 

3. St. Augustine, passing his censure on the^jScAo. 

d John V. 14. 
E e 3 


Tlu Histarg t^ AUtyt 

minwled of hU ago, had ao low an ofilafcNi of iMr 

truth that )ii' nuikud tliem under two beads * : 

L Fiymmta mettd^tim komimim, Fofgeria* af 
\jittg men. 

il. Pttrtenta faUacutm apiritmmm, Prodigiaa of 4^ 
ci'itful ticvilk. 

4. ninhop Fl-tlier liinut-lf, niiting ajfainit I 
atul u^cuirioualt)' ttvnlintr of (be powvr of i 
a|fMi Return mime nuBum ctmimuji, of which, aakll 
he. wo now ice no effvct ; which oddeCh to tW 
wonder that m wiiu a man should «oga^ i 
foulish wutidvr of tbL> boljr maid of Kent. 
y^y^ a. Tlie tnio ouuu of the cniing of i 

not tny want of dWino |iowor to eAct tbea, aa I 
that infinitenuM oould erer. like Naomi, be i 
aoQuat«d and effbte, to hare no mora trae ^ 
In the wittnh thenxif, but became nUnelo* an tba 
Hwaddting-clothoH of iii£ant chnivhciL And when 
d(H-triiic« ar«' once catabU^uxl and reeetrod I 
rbuirli, niiniclL*s are impertinent ; jea, it iaaob 
than a t«inpiii)K itf Ood. after meh i 
Inof siiiru III the tiutK itill to expect a min 
cunfiimatiua tlienxtf. 
TWBWf*. 6. WhoR-rurr, when the iRi|K>rtutiity of | 
MMM pnsweth tu tu iinxlucc iiiirBrW t« altt-vt our tvU^oa, 
we Tvtnm unto thi-nu that Mur» is an utd bhk, 
fi>n»<lc<] long Hin<v on lh«- M-Tiptunw ; and wo maj 
jiutlv lajr rloim lo alt th« miracUa in the N«w 
TcntomuuL to be uunt, bccauw done in dcmoaatntiaa 
of that doctrine which we at thb dajr do dafand. ^ 

• Db Uailsto Bcckiir. n^ ' DiCkpiMttOa 

BOOK VI. in England. 4S8 

are the seals of that instrament, the writiDg wherein 
we desire and endeavour to maintain and practise. 

7. Such forgery must needs be an high and Counter, 
heinous offence. If the counterfeiting of the mark, mwHSm » 
tokens, and letters of others, so as to gain any^l^^ 
money into their hands thereby, be punishable by 
pillory, imprisonment <f, or any other corporal penalty 
under death, at the discretion of the judge ; yea, if 
it be treason for any to forge the king^s sign-manual, 
privy signet, or privy seal \ how great a guilt do 
they contract who falsify the signature of the high 
God of heaven? miracles being of that nature 
whereby he immediately impresseth his own power 
and presence on that which is so supematurally 
brought to pass. 

8. 1 know what such forgers plead for themselves, Thafa^Br'f 
viz. that they have a good intent therein to beget, 
continue, or increase a reverence to religion, and 
veneration to the saints and servants of (jod, so to 
raise up vulgar fancies to the highest pitch of piety. 
Wlierefore, as Lycurgus made a law, not that theft 
should be death, but death to be caught in their 
thieving, so these conclude counterfeiting miracles 
no fault, but when done so bunglingly that it is 
detected, conceiving otherwise the glory accrueth to 
God by their hypocrisy. 

9. But what saith the Holy Spirit? Witt jfoucmdatBL 
speak wickedly for Gody and talk deceitfuUy far Himt 
will you accept His person^ wiU yam yet contend for 
God f Do you so mock Himy shaU not His earcettency 
make you afraid ' f Yea, so far is such fraud from 

? Statute 33 of Hen. VIII. i Jobxiii. 7. 
*' Statute 1 Mary. 

£ e 4 

\ repute to rrliiri'"). ttuil. Iieinfr fnond i 
dupoKth toim to athcHii), nn<l to n ffU9)Hrion o^ti 
tmtb own of the rval mimrlcji In wripttiro. 
T 10. Tlip pn>tcni1«fl rftmc* of vhicb i 
gcnernJI; rednribte to ttuMc tin> brada: 

i. Saints' relic*. 

it ^Sftintll' itntgn. 
How Diucb fnrgftiy tboro b in the fint of t 
geoenUy kDnwn. to many pfecm bc^ | 
of Chriit'i oftMi u would kittd a (tnat iUp; 
amonj^ oil of thctn mmmcnd me to tb* 4 
the prinnr of Ik'nodicttncA at DmmebolnM I 
folk, the legend whumir deserveUl to b* f 
Qaeon Ht^en, thoj iar, finding Uie t 
at Jennalein, dividtHl it into tunc paita, • 
the nhw otdtn* of angi'li ; of one of I 
besprinkled with ChririV Uood) ftbe 1 
eroMR, and, patting it Into n Imx adomed with | 
timm fttime^ bo^iowpd it on ComtaDtlao bar t 
Thb relict was kept bjr hb neecann ontU 1 
emperur of Greore, fbrtanate to lodft an be < 
It about him. but mlnln in fifffat when fnfuotlity I 
nnio; after wha«e difith llngli hU rhaplaJB (h 
in N'orfollc, and vbo onnstantly aaiil prayvn I 
tbe em«i^) Mole it awaj, bus 1 
into KuglatHl. and bvntowod it oa Bra 
Norfolk. It Reems there in no Mnny Id ■ 
but ratcli who ratrh mav ; yra. mirb 1 
iai>creto;(atifin. Ut tbb rron thirtfHiiw 
tre Mid to be mived to life, and 1 
reatorcd to their uftht. It < 

kC^pgnw* LffcnAi. biUw Life of Ki^ ISdmmi, [C > 

BOOK VI. in England. 425 

trade much in odd numbers, which best fasteneth 
the fancies of folk, whilst the smoothness of even 
numbers makes them slip the sooner out of men's 

11. Chemnitius ^ affirmeth, from the mouth of a False teeth 
grave author, that the teeth of Saint Apollonia loniaT* ' 
being conceived effectual to cure the tooth-ache in 

the reign of king Edward the Sixth, (when many 
ignorant people in England relied on that receipt to 
carry one of her teeth about them,) the king gave 
command, in extirpation of superstition, that all her 
teeth should be brought in to a public officer 
deputed for that purpose, and they filled a tun 
therewith. Were her stomach proportionable to 
her teeth, a county would scarce afford her a meal's 

12. Tlie English nuns at Lisbon™ do pretend that J^*J"™m 

of Xnain&s 

they have both the arms of Thomas Becket, arch- Becket. 
bishop of Canterbury ; and yet pope Paul the Tliird, 
in a public bull set down by Sanders ", doth pitifully 
complain of the cruelty of king Henry the Eighth, 
for causing the bones of Becket to be burnt, and 
the ashes scattered in the wind ; the solemnity 
whereof is recorded in our chronicles, and how bis 
arms should escape that bonfire is to me incre- 

13. The late mentioning of ApoUonia curing the Saints, their 
tooth-ache mindeth me of the popish designing of pioyments. 

^ In bis Examination of the Printed in 1622^ and reprinted 

Council of Trent, cap. de Imag. by Morgan in the Phoenix. 

jKi^. I . See p. 332 of the last edition.] 

"> Anatomy of the Nuns of ° De Schis. Angl. lib. i, 

Lisbon, [by Thomas Robinson, pag. 171 [=141]. 

Tlu ffUtory t/AUt^ mm < 

Minta, rioRiL' t't hf [)li3nucbiu of (UtMaes, uitl qthwi 
tttM of <»ccu|<atioiM : 

FSt-SeUMknconth Uw 

' L PotranJ Um fmw. 

t* Hftcwiiio too ptami^* 

U 0«iioir Umi gout. 

L Orii|iui ptmtveU iboe- 

t. Boeh Um wUon. 
I. WmmMo tlM ■1hi>- 

Sl PbIhC* pniCacto aiM- 

SL ABtfaoajr th« twM*- 


tH. Eloytlwa 

St. Lnk* tho p 

St. mihiiliithiinwiiiMi 

Si. Ilnbvrt Um hMitan. 

Sl Yna the kw^Ms •. 

Not U> fpesk of St. Anne, [ir(>)ier to help {R-upk* to 
lost goodi; St. Lcuoanl. m]U to ofioii ttiL' tlwm of 
gnnlii and nuke prwoDeni' fcttvn full off: ukI |rily 
it b tlut be draoM riww a raf>t of his ulficc tu kdj 
nve to huDoat penou In dunuice. I-lxjxvt nut (mm 
me a roittoti wbjr tuch B»iuta an* |i«trvD9 to «idi 
pmreanoiu, tupentitious fuM-y bviog all the aotlMir 
thereof ; othcrwiae, wprc judgmval ooaaolted i 
Luke ttbould bo tult* bu' tu {»bniciaiis, aa Ua | 
calling, tbougli )<i>iTliikiicu be vntettaiued 
abo R« a qttalilT fur dcliftht atid arroni|>li«hmmL 
iA. Now tnoftt niiraclt'A may be raJU«l cuuft'iitnaJ. 
K.mua]u being more dcxtcroiu tbvmt tbau wcular 
prieati^ boeaiiae thair conTenta afibrded gmtcat cm^ 
fenienejr of ooatrivaBee, with more heada aad haa^ 
In pint and praetiao tbenfai. And tUa may b* i 
evivfd one mab canae which jaaiij i 
jvalouay againat them, and in doe tfane ad«aMi4il 

•IHm Bmi 

BOOK Yi. m England. 4S7 

destruction of monasteries, because fathering the 
issue of earth or hell to be the oflbpring of heaven, 
entitling their monstrous delusions to be miraculous 


Such false miracles are reducible to two ranks : ^ ^^ 

toanT Off 

i. Reported, but never done. mizwte. 

ii. Done, but not true miracles, as either the pro- 
duct of nature, art, or satanical machination. 

2. Of the former, whose being is only in report, ^^pJ^* 
were many thousands, whose scene, for the better 
countenancing thereof, is commonly laid at distance 
both of time and place. These, like the stuff called 
stand-far-off, must not have the beholder too near, 
lest the coarseness thereof doth appear. Thus any 
reddish liquor (especially if near the eyes of the 
image of a samt) is reported blood ; any whitish 
moisture (especially if near the breast of the image 
of a she-saint) is related to be milk: though both 
of them neither more nor less true than what Wil-* 
liam of Newborough writes of the place near Battle 
Abbey in Sussex ^ where the fight was fought 
between the Normans and English, that on every 
shower fresh blood springeth out of the earth, as 
crying to Grod for vengeance; being nothing else 
than a natural tincture of the earth, which doth 
dye the rain red, as in Rutland and in other 

3. Of pretended miracles which are really done^DoMVy 
let precedency be allowed to those which proceed 

o Camd. Brit. Id Sussex, [p. 225.] 

rrttm 8l Nan's Wd 

Tlu HiHary of Abbey » 

Amn twtntn) ntHMv ; and hem wf will ii 
nnL> (lilt (if miuijF tbi»imtHbi. >k. Nun's Pnol in Coi 
wnll wiu fumuTly &moiup for curing mad folk^A 
till* tbp mantirr tiicrvof : 

4. Tlio water ranninff 
into a aqaarc an<l rlnso irallii) pln^ which n 
fiUnl to what <lq>th tln'v WavA. V\wn tUt J 
wai the fnuitir itomm M*t, liu buck bcin^ t 
the [MKil, 011(1 ftvttn tfacnre with a suddMi blow i 
tbL< brvast lumhlcl bcudlong intii tho pond, when 
rtrong fellow (provided Tor the KMice) took hin m 
UxmeA him up ami down wiung and athwart tlw 
water, until the patient, foregohif hb strmftth. Ii 
•omcwhat frirgi»t hn furr ; then wat ho i 
to the chun-h. and wrtaiu maMea aid n 
and St. NuD hod tbo tbaiika or hb rcrovety. : 
all this water there wan nf>t one drop nf i 
but mere lutuml eaoH!* artificially i 
that not euriag the phrvmy, but abating tbo I 
tbs preMint. 

5. Bat other MMsminfr miracle*, d^me \*f I 
and tbo oioranvDru of art, wtre ff)iun with i 
thivad, e»]K<L-iAltjr wtn^n tbe^ mwle advanta 
ooeult qnaUtiea, tho eertala maoii wbiiveof n 
•0|ilMr can randar. Snch eanallka happen i 
CfasMi and phMi^ whldi ptnparij are not i 
tbooKb thejr pnnle all men t<> *m\gt\ ih 
wfaareby they an offbetcd ; one of wbioh kin 

I to pTHterfty, iaVMtfd with all the 
I thertiif, wliirb I have nuvfullr (not tu i 
eurioual;) inquirvd Into. 

6. In the yvta of our Lord 1646, on the rixtoMlli 

f Cwvw, ta hM &«nw7 mt Coraw^ p. iij. 

oooK VI. in England. 4S9 

of February, this happened in the parish church, 
St. Leonard's, Eastcheap, whilst Mr. Henry Bough- 
borough was minister and Mr. John Taylor upper 
churchwarden thereof. Thomas Hill, the sexton of 
that parish, making a grave in the night-time for 
George Streaton, in the south side in the passage 
into the chancel, and under the first stone» opened 
a grave wherein he found two skulls, and, as he 
conceived, the proportionable bones of bodies be- 
longing unto them; under all these he lit on a 
corj^se, whose coffin above was consumed, but the 
body, which he brought out of the grave, complete 
and entire, save that the nose thereof flatted with 
his spade, as the sexton believed ; the flesh thereof, 
both for colour and hardness, like scalded bacon 
dried ; his hair and nails complete, with his eyes 
(but sunk into his head) and all his entoails entire, 
(for a young chirurgeon did open him,) save that 
shrunk very much within his body. 

7. Some said it Mras the corpse of Mr. Pountney, a eorp« 
in Soper Lane, a merchant, buried thirty-four years i 
before; others, of one Paul, a wealthy butcher in 
Eastcheap, (which Mras averred both by his principal 
apprentice, as also by William Haile^ the old sur- 
viving sexton,) interred four-and-twenty years ago. 
I read a memorial hereof entered in their paridi 
register, and thousands of people are alive to attest 
the truth thereof. Had this happened in the time 
of popery, what a stock had here been to graft a 
miracle on, the branches of the fame whereof would 
have spread all over Christendom. 

8. Such false miracles succeed which are effiscted 
by art alone, whereof seyeral kinds : first, such asdm^art 
are done by confederacy, wherein if but five complot 

t«fFf>ther. they nuv ensily dceoive flve 
thiiH tlip holy mai<1 of Kent wns axlniinNl for 
mon'i M^rpt iiiiu, by koi'|iing awnmpaaienef 
tho frion that fomm-ly haH hmrd their 
otbM* dono by legenlcnuin : tbni tboro wm m rva4 
at Bexley in Kent made with devioea to mow tW 
oyei and Hpi, fbnt not to nee ud >pnk,) wbiefc ii 
the year ISSS ^ wu publicly iihcw«d at St. PaaF* hf 
tite iirporher, (then hishop of Rochester.) and thtan 
broken in pieces, the iwople Uu^ing at Ibat wkiek 
they adonyl bat iin hour before. Sueb 
waa alao uiied at llaitt<ii Ab)>ey in Gl 
where tbc UiKKJ of a duck (for gack it 
at tlio diwotvinjr of the house) «aa to rui 
eonvi'yril that it »tnin^-ly spurted or apranir up, to 
the great anuuccmeat of ooounan people, accounttay 
it the blood of otir Sarioor. 
" 9. Thirdly. stnuifi;e tbinga an dune by 
which is a mysterious manner of uttering 
not out of (hr |torrh of iho mouth and mtryr ti 
the throat, (tlto romninii plan^ of KiKvrh,) hat ovfe 
of the itiwanl ruoiit or rather orrbeil cellar nf tho 
belly, yt>t mi that tlte hoIlowneM thereof aeeinitagly 
fixeth tbo aouiul at a ilifttaiiot\ which no donbi htth 
been mistook for the Tciiro of images. 

10. l^iitly, Mich as are done by tbo pomr «f 
Satan, who bath a high title ami largi* territofy. aa 
tenned prince of tht potrrr of the air '. Now tbe 
air botqg Satan's shop, bo batb tbtuvin many tuob 
to woifc irtth, and maeh nattor to work on ; U to 
the i^iini) of Betaon, lightning, ihtmdMr, mmm. 

Chrno. ill tb« 

' Kpfcfk. ii. ). 

BOOK VI. in England. 4S1 

hail, wind, rain, comets, &o. wherewith many won- 
ders may be achieved ; and it is observable that air 
is required to those two senses, sight and hearing, 
which usher in most outward objects into the soul. 
False lights are of great advantage to such as vend 
bad wares: Satan's power must needs be great in 
presenting shows and sounds, who can order the 
air, and make it dark or light, or thick or thin, at 

11. We will conclude with one particular kind ofPi»tyrf 
miracles, wherein monks, by the deviPs help, didphedei. 
drive a great trade : namely, predictions, or pretended 
prophecies. Of these some were post-date, cunningly 
made after the thing came to pass ; and that made 

the invention of Prometheus which was the act of 
Epimetheus. Others were languaged in such doubt- 
ful expressions that they bare a double sense, and 
commonly came to pass contrary to the ordinary 
acceptance of them. However, hereby Satan saved 
his credit, (who loves to tell lies, but loathes to be 
taken in them,) and we will only instance in two or 
three, which we may write and hear with the more 
patience because the last in this kind, which at the 
dissolution of abbeys brought up the rest of monas- 
tical prophecies. 

12. There was in Wales a great and loobily image, a fimu 
called Darvell Gatheme, of which an old prophecy fmi^ 
went that it should bum a forest, and on that 
account was beheld by the ignorant with much 
veneration. Now at the dissolution of abbeys it 

was brought up to London, and burnt at the 
gallows in Smithfield, with friar Forrest^ executed 
for a traitor. 

Tin HUbify ^ Ahhtft >«« n. ' 

JjJJJ""^ 13. A pro|ibocy wm rummt in th« abbej «f 
Mkau. GloRttinbnry, tlint n whitinji mIkhiM iwim on iW 
top of tliu Torr t)iere«r. (which ii n vtetft hill I 
by.) luid the crcdulmu cnaotry poof4e niMlcntoad H of 
an eruption of tho Mia, which they nupt.'clt.'d annnl- 
ionly. It happened that abbot Whiting (U 
of GtafftoDbutT-) waa bangad tberwm for Ua i 
■uicj to nirreoder tbe abbey, and denying tho kfa^ 1 
mprctnary ; an Bwimraitifr in nlr. and not i 
waved with tbe wind in tbe pUee. 
l;^^ 1^ We will oloMt all with tba pfO|ibirtical i 

(at leaatwiau m men aiooe haTa espouBd«d Ihc^) 
of tho thrco laat mccurivo abbots of Glo 
became mueh of mudeaty and ■omBthing i 
Dootainod therein : 

I. Abbot Bullion, [or Dutler.] MemtiUo, i 
tbat fa, a* aoBw will have it. Remember, r 
tUt abbey mwt be dlMolTcd. 

U. Abbot Smbfookft Fial roimtat Dimimi ; ttet 
la, If it moft be dknlvod. the will i>f the l^jcd b* 

IB. Abbot Maubom, [or Malvura,] Mtr 
tuteita : Rabe up tfaoav which are diowail !■ j 

Which HMne My wai accomptifcbed whm thb 
■hbey fimnd that fiivonr fhnn king llenij Che 
Eighth to be Tailed into a bbbf^irie. But I like 
the text better than tbe eomnewt, and then ia 
noro humility in their mntto* than M^tdity in tbe 

• (bi kh tiM wM baUl tW Ue Iba huM feahM *• iMt 
whfchwi— dringnWphM—W Moom*. 1. 995.) 

BOOK VI. in England. 433 


The English monks were bookish of themselves, English 
and much inclined to hoard up monuments of learn- exoeiienUy 
ing. Britain, we know, is styled " another world,** *^™" 
and in this contradistinction (though incompambly 
less in quantity) acquits itself well in proportion of 
famous writers, producing almost as many classical 
schoolmen for her natives as all Europe besides. 
Other excellent books of foreign authors were 
brought hither, purchased at dear rates, if we con- 
sider that the press (which now runs so incredibly 
fiist) was in that age in her infancy, newly able to 
go alone, there being then few printed books in 
c()nij)arison of the many manuscripts. These, if 
carefully collected and methodically compiled, would 
have amounted to a library exceeding that of 
Ptolemy's for plenty, or many Vaticans for choice- 
ness and rarity; yea, had they been transported 
Ijevond the seas, sent over and sold entire to such 
wlio knew their value, and would preserve them, 
England's loss had been Europe's gain, and the 
detriment the less to leaniing in general ; yea, many 
years after the English might have repurchased for 
])ounds what their grandfathers sold for fewer pence 
into foreign parts. 

2. liut alas ! those abbeys were now sold to such The miaer- 
cliapnion, in whom it was questionable whether their tyniom of 
i^noi-ance or avarice were greater, and they made^^^Sf** 
havoc and destruction of all. As brokers in Long 
Tjanc, wlien they buy an old suit, buy the linings 

FIJLLKR, vol.. in. F f 


n, lliuan, of Abhiy 

I raocQTCd I 

Ingrtlicr with tlit* ouuiik-. w> it i 
thai aiirli as |iun')iup<I tlio titiiltling* of moi 
ftbcniM ill ttu- Mime ^nuit Iimvc the Ubtmrie* (lfc» 
ntuffinjr tlicriHir) ronvi'vinl unto ihcm. And mam 
tlii'M' igtiorniit owiii^rs, mi Inti^ w tbcv tniglit kccy • 
k-djp'f-lKMik «ir t(*rrii.'r, \t\ dirwtton Ibonof to 1 
Hitrh »tmp:(irlii)fr ncn-it wt iM'Innjn"! unto tin 
rantl nut (o iirLtipn'i.' nny otliiT moauiiMi&ta. 
c<ivers of bnukit, with curiniu bna I 
intcndml to protoct. (troved t» btftnr tbeca. I 
tb<* bwlfi of envcloiiinK'-wi ; and wa, nuuir exn 
anLhn^^ 8tri|>[H'<] niii of tht-ir mtvn, were ivfi. t 
to In> Imnit iir thnmii awnv. Thus .%Uo|>'« i 
rastialtr lifjhtinj; on a |MiirI, |>reft'm-d a grmUi I 
it ; Tct he left it aa hv found it, and, u b« i 
DO profit hj tbi> prari, it rpreiToil no < 
him: wheieai the»o cruvl mnooranta, w 
iMrtiaRiuii bealu and f^nt-dv elawi. imt, i 
tattcml tbeae ineatinuible pieces of antiffuity. WW • 
would think that tho &tbcm abould bo < 
to Durh MYvile ptnploTmcnt an tu be mtvcngvi^ to 
tnako rlmn ihi* fouU-vt Mnk in mw>'% bridi<<« t Vaa, 
whirb is wufM!, nutnv an ancii>nt manuanipt Uible eat 
in pieea to cnvi-r fitthj' {wnipblotA ; hi that a rape of 
diuDond bath bctin nia<lo to ko'p dirt within it : 
jn, tlie wine m<*n of Oothain bound tip in tkc wb- 
dom of JSolumnn. 
i^'^ S. Hat biiir bow John Bale, a man tn ft c w n tf y 
iZZImZ arrne from the* Iraat shadow of puptirr. hatJnj ■! i 

mm^ monkerj- wjlb a [HTft-ct batn-d, comp(~' — ' * ' ' 

to king EdwanI tho Hixth ' : ** CoTetooi 

■ In kn [KrlAntMMi ' 

BOOK VI. in England. 4S5 

" that time so busy about private commodity, that 
^ public wealth in that most necessary and of respect 
" was not any where regarded. — A great number of 
'' them which purchased those superstitious mansions 
" reserved of those library books some to serve their 
*^ Jakes, some to scour their candlesticks, and some 
to rub their boots ; some they sold to the grocers 
and soap-sellers, and some they sent over sea to 
'' the bookbinders, not in small number, but at 
'^ times whole ships full, to the wondering of the 
" foreign nations. Yea, the universities of this realm 
'^ are not all clear in this detestable fact ; but 
*^ cursed is that belly which seeketh to be fed with 
** such ungodly gains, and so deeply shameth his 
^ natural country. I know a merchant-man (which 
'' shall at this time be nameless) that bought the 
contents of two noble libraries for forty shillings 
price, a shame it is to be spoken. This stuff hath 
he occupied instead of grey paper by the space of 
more than these ten years, and yet he hath store 
'' enough for as many years . to come. A grodigi- 
'' ous example is this, and to be abhorred of all 
^' men which love their nation as they should do. — 
'' Yea, what may bring our realm to more shame 
'' and rebuke than to have it noised abroad that we 
'' are despisers of learning ? I judge this to be true, 
'' and utter it with heaviness, that neither the 
" Britons under the Romans and Saxons, nor yet 
'' the English people imder the Danes and Normans, 
'' had ever such damage of their learned monuments 
'' as we have seen in our time. Our posterity may 
'' well curse this wicked fact of our age, this un- 
'' reasonable spoil of England's most noble anta* 




4M Tk» Uktatg ^AU^ amm 

l *M»i« ^ 4. What soul can be m tmunn u not to i 
MiMMT- into uigvr licniUT What heart, haviag tlw 1 
Jfa^^^iqiark of ingennitv. U not hut at thk 
oflbml Ut Ittvraturu ? I deny not bat I 
bmp of books then* wni mach rabbit : I 
lyitig Icigeodt, good for nothing bat 
keeping wooM hare canied the Iom of i 
dous time in reading tbtm. I eonfea* i 
were many Tolumes full fraught with i 
which notKithiitiuiiling might he oaefiil 1 
raen ; except any will dcn^ apotbeeariea i 
lege of keeping poiwna in their abopa, i 
can make antidutei of them. But, 1 
what lifauliful Bible's, rare ratben, subtle i 
iiSL>ful historiaiH (anoimt, middle, modern)! 
painftU comments wore here i 
Dwanimnti of nuUberaatiea ! mII t 
■eoing oTor; book with a enm waa < 
pf)pi»h ; with circle*, for ooq^rtng. Yoa. I mv 
that then holy dirinity was profiued. phTwr I 
hurt ; and a tmi]nH, yea, a rint committed em I 
law itself; and nion< parHcnlarly the Usloiy i 
fiMTiKT timit then and tlii'rr rcceircd a < 
wound, whereof it baltx at thin day. and, * 
bo)>e of a perfurt niro, mutrt gn a ertpplol 

5. .Some wnold penoade us that in all MaM 

was a mnack or taste t^ anabaptintical fiuf,t 

H^^'^i about this time began in (tennanT, 

l^** de«lruyvd the *tatelj- libraries of Mun^eri 

*•■* burg. Indetxl. a> the x-icked tenants in ( 

thmijrht ttieniki'lYcs not safe in and fture of t 

fan] till thoT hail killed the heir, that m> U 

ritance might bo tlwir own, so thi' ani 

BOOK VI. in England. ' 4«37 

ceived themselves not in quiet possession of their 
anarchy, and sufficiently established therein, whilst 
any learning did survive, which in process of time 
might recover its right against them ; and therefore 
they beat their brains to the final extirpation 
thereof. But I am more charitably inclined to 
conceive that simple ignorance, not fretted and 
embossed with malice or affected hatred to learning, 
caused that desolation of libraries in England ; 
though perchance some there were who conceived 
these books, as the garment spotted with sin **, had 
contracted such a guilt, being so long in the posses- 
sion of superstitious owners, that they deserved as 
an anathema to be consigned to a perpetual de- 

6. Some will say that herein I discover an han- Suiicm dii- 
kering after the onions and flesh-pots of Egjrpt, and cauadetsiy 
that the bemoaning the loss of these monuments is*®^®^ 
no better than Lot's wife's looking back with a fare- 
well glance to the filthy city of Sodom. To such I 
protest myself not to have the least inclination to 
the favour of monkery. But enough : for I know 
some back-friends of learning there be that take it 
ill that we have jogged them in this discourse ; and 
therefore we will let them alone, to be settled 
(luietly on the lees of their own ignorance, praying 
to God that never good library may lie at the mercy 
of their disposal, lest, having the same advantage, 
they play the like prank, to the prejudice of learn- 
ing and religion. 

^ Jude 23. 

Ff 8 

ne Bhtmrf ^ Miey 





If crrr the jtoet's fictinB of s golden tkmmm 
imineil into Dknae her Imp fbaiid a 
perfctmince, it ww dov. at the (IMpatfaw of 4 
ImhIi : and tboogli wv will hoc give hfaring or % 
in (bll latHode of bi« tlaBdemu pe-n that iipirti ' 
how kiDg Ilenrj (when aaeiait and 'iliiii— J, t 
teric and eurioui In CriflM) wai woM to roward ■ 
■a ordered hb tlunie or diatr In a eamweaiam 
diataiice from the fire, to as to pleaae him wMk A» 
church of aomo abbe; or lead of Mne rfaordi *. jM 
it b ecTtahi that in this age nnall tDcrita of r 
nu4 with a prodif^otu rerompeDce far tbeir • 
not onlr all the coi^t*. but the mean 
in the king'« kitchen did liclc hli flngeis ; ] 
king> aerranta, to the third ami ftmith 
tatted of hlf liberality ; it hetiig but proportiovafaiB, 
that where the maater got the manor in fee. Ua ■■■ 
under him should obtain kmih* long leaae of a turn 
of oatiiidefal>l« ralue. 
!B««>T <• Indeed king Henry, beiidva hti own d%mritka 
'S** to manifloenoe, wai doobly coneomod to ba b w— Uft d 
herein: first, in boooor, for leeinjt the parllaMeaK 
with one bmith had blown lo mnch profit unto him, 
and bad with their mAaga coaferred the harrevt vf 
abbey laiidtt on the crown. It «w fitting that motmt 
[■qwdallT thf |irincipal advaneen of the bwin^| 
lould. aith Itutb, y^n oiimm^ Mh liiai—',- 
■Pcandly, in policy, to make many and great «■■ 

I Mntk II. i& 

BOOK vr. in England, 439 

effectually sensible of the profit of this dissolution, 
and so engaged to defend it. Wlierefore, as he took 
the greater flowers to garnish his own crown, so he 
bestowed the less buds to beautify his noblemen's 
coronets. But, besides these, he passed abbey lands 
in a four-fold nature to persons of meaner quality. 

^. First, by free gift. Herein take one story of Jf"^ ^^^' 
many: Master John Champernowne ^ son and heir nowne got 
ap])arent of sir Philip Champernowne, of Modbury of st. Oer. 
in Devon, followed the court, and by his pleasant "™^"'" 
conceits won good grace with the king. Tt happened 
two or three gentlemen, the king's servants and Mr. 
Champeniowne's acquaintance, waited at a door 
where the king was to pass forth, with purpose to 
beg of his highness a large parcel of abbey lands, 
specified in their petition. Champernowne was very 
inquisitive to know their suit, but they would not 
impart the nature thereof. This while out comes 
the king ; they kneel down, so doth Mr. Champer- 
nowne, being assured by an implicit faith that cour- 
tiers would beg nothing hurtful to themselves ; they 
prefer their petition, the king grants it ; they render 
him humble thanks, and so doth Mr. Champeniowne. 
Afterwards he requires his share, they deny it ; he 
appeals to the king; the king avows his equal 
moaning in the largess : whereupon his companions 
were fain to allot this gentleman the priory of St. 
Germains in Cornwall, valued at two hundred forty- 
three pound and eight shillings of yearly rent*, 

z Careu-'s Survey of Corn- * Speed, [p. 1053, 3rd ed. 

wall. fol. 109, [ed. 1602. Lady and Dugdale I. ad fin.] But 

diainpernowne is mentioned quuere whether he had all the 

by Strype as having some land, or only the site of the 

charuro of the princess EUiza- priory. 
beth. Grind. 5.] 

F f 4 

440 The ITtMlory of AbUyt 

(rinee Xrj liim or hifl beln tuld to Mr. EUoC.) ftir Ut 

pwtage. Hero a dumb bcfcgBr met with « blind . 

ginr, Ibo mw m little kaowiog wbat ha i 

tbo other «b>t he ivnuitad. That Ung H« 

cufworj eharton, and in Inmtilm I 

buxlx. I oould add how be gave a rvti^m 

«r wimu valuu to Mtntn^m [Comwallis], fiiir pr«- 

M'nliog liiiii vUh a diafa of puddiugi wbieh | 

bia palate. 

mificM thouMuid |M>iiml |<«<r nntiam. Oneo being at d 
~" plaTud with idr .Milco I*artridjB[o {utaking an Ir 
pontKb a^inut them) fin- Jtaiu U-lk ^ I 
steeple uot fiir fntni St. PaiilV in IjiKidun, umI ■• 
gniat and tiiruil)l(i n» tutj in the citT, aiid liMt them 
at a cant. 1 will unl. with soine. bHj^tcit the guilt 
of this net <N|iuil to tluu which e*ut lt4t nm Ckruf* ' 
gmrmmti ; but ntrc it in tio sin to mj that I 
thingB dcaoTTcd more aerioiu and ddibenltl 

5. TliinilT. by I'xrhaiiKf. To make I 
iiont' wi'iv frtpbt«l with tbi* king's power, 1 
tonxl into tbinn \ty tbo apprchranon of I 
profit ; Ibr many hodf of cobjeeta, either i 
bald or newljr iharen of their woods, were eon 
for grange* of ahbeyi. which, like mtjrn or ae 
were all m c ig i o w u with \tw* and timber, ' 
other diadvanlage^ both for i|uantitT an«l vpalBty « 
ground, as enbaneed ftir old rent. Oh, here i 
Royal Exchange! 

fc ewm\ fhmw mT X.mAnm, aib a fiMwifr Md • iW 
[p. JJ7. nU air Miln IW- ■fktfwwAi wtri tfctJ fey 
tfUii*, • MM aatortdDi far hk kMb mljmA^ Sm Sir 

BOOK VI. in England. 441 

6. Lastly, by sale at under rates. Indeed it is Unoon- 

SCI on&iilts 

beneath a prince (enough to break his state to stoop uuder.saie 
to each virgato and rod of ground) pedlar-like to ^^^ 
higgle for a toy by retail ; and all tenants and 
chapmen which contract with kings expect good 
bargains ; yet officers entrusted to manage the reve- 
nue of the crown ought not to behold it abused out 
of all distance, in such under-valuations. Except any 
will say he is not deceived who would be deceived, 
and king Henry, for the reason aforesaid, connived 
at such bargains, wherein rich meadow was sold for 
barren heath, great oaks for fuel, and farms for 
revenue passed for cottages in reputation. But for 
farther instruction we remit the reader to that in- 
fonnation ^ presented to queen Elizabeth by a man 
in authority (though nameless) of the several frauds 
and deceits offered the crown in this kind. But 
the motion rather drew odium on the author than 
brought advantage to the crown : partly because of 
the number and quality of persons concerned therein, 
and partly because (after thirty years) the owners of 
abbeys were often altered ; and though the chamber 
be the same, yet if the guests be a new company, it 
is hard for the host from them to recover his old 
arrearages. Yea, by this time when the foresaid 
information was given in, the present possessors of 
much abbey land were as little allied to those to 
whom king Henry granted them, as they to whom 
the king first passed them were of kin to the first 
founders of those monasteries. 

c Wee ver's Funeral Mon. pag. 115. 


Rioimi. oinr ok the KEVENUeft op dm- 


Wu wttuld iKtt wilHnj^Ijr be •cMmntud 
callt'd the Httiioato-wot amofijfvt tlie 
■" oRirf it WM only to tjiico imtin* of ibr 
bli'inUhtp% thi' ilcfocu nn'] ilcfonnkkn in 
\Vi* would nol weed kinj( llotir)-'* krtions in U* 
diamlvinj; uf nbbt'V!!, mi u otiir to mark 
carriaj^vo and mimlt'tiK^noiin tberrin. 
e<insidt>r what ronimt-iidablc dtwd* thk 
nuM.' oti the niiiM of nirtnaNtf^rif*. 
,rT i- KirKt, lie jKditirly inorrased the 
* the cmwn and <lurtir of Ijaiiautrr, (on 
bestowed the nrh abbey of Foumu* in that eoa^i;j 
with annexing much land ttu'tvto. and 
ooart of angmentatioDa (wbereaf laigdjr 
lor the moie netbodleal managing tberatif ; $km^ 
•laa ! what the crown poMeMed of abbey hod wm 
nothing to what bo pammd away. Kurely bad tlw 
revenues of monastones been enliivly kept and paid 
into tbo exchiM|uer. there to make an 
Mcmm ur |>ublic trvasury, it is questkmablv 
tbv same ha<l been more for the eoae of the 
or nso and honour of tbc nonivign. 

9. Secondly, be (Hotuly founded five 
d> »oro (besidos one at Westaiatter, whiek 
tiniin] iKrt) where nooe bad been before ; for ti 
anciently tht-tv had been ■ biskop'a «nU at CI 
for a nbort time, yet it was then ou better 
■ummer>hooM> of the biftho|i of LichReUf 
daring the life uf one IVter livini; tborc.' 


in Englaxid. 


now was solemnly made a bishopric for succession, 
and four others, namely, 

Ri»hop*i See, 

Dlooete oisignediL 

Taken from the 
B'ithaprie of 

1. Oxford. 

2. Bristol. 

3. Peterborough. 

4. Glourenter. 

5. Chester. 

1. Oxfordshire. 

2. Donet, and tome part of 


3. NorthainpUmshire and 


4. Okiuoestemhire, the rest 

5. Chester, Lancaster, and 


1. Lincoln. 
3. Salisbury. 

3. Linooln. 

4. Worcester. 

5. Uriifield and 


Such who honour prelacy^ must acknowledge these 
new foundations of the king^s for a worthy work. 
Those also of contrary judgment will thus fox forth 
approve his act, because, had he otherwise expended 
these abbey lands, and not continued them to our 
times in these new bishoprics, they had not been in 
being, by their late sale, to supply the conmion- 

4. Thirdly, where he found a prior and monks Monks* 
belonging to any ancient cathedral church, there hetarMdimo 
converted the same into a dean and prebendaries, i******^ 

as m 

1. Canterbury. 

2. Winchester. 

3. Ely. 

4. Norwich. 

5. Worcester. 

6. Rochester. 
7* Durham. 
8. Carlisle. 

I dare not say that he entirely assigned (though a 
good author ^ affirmeth it) all or the most part of 
those ])riory lands to these his new foundations* 
However, the expression of a late bishop of Nor- 

*' [In some copies, "Such who « CJodwin in Henry VIII. 
** are prelatically persuaded."] anno 1539^ 

4M The Hhitwf «/ J bbeyi 

wich'ii enmpbini>4l of u uncivil and ui 
** kinf; llt-'iir)- took nwav the *)\*x\i (nmx ( 
" tlnj, anil iliil not restore 00 much h tl 
" unto it." 

5. Fourtlil^, hu cluritmbl5 founded waay 
faMHhi hr tclioob, (great need whereof in thai age in tl 
^'^ aa in Canterbury. CoTontrjr, Woraeatar, kt 
liberal aalaries to tbo nuuten and tMba 
had they been careftiUjr pnavrrcd : but 
tite gifta of a bountiful master cbrink in tl 
thniiigli tbo hands of a oovetooa steward. 
^M|tad^ 6. KifUiIr, ho charitably beMowwl Otcj Fkkn | 
bmrfHi (now cuiuiiionly calU-d Chrivt Church) and tbe 1 

|iitjU of b)t. llartholntnow, in Londitn. nn that eitT, 
fur tho relief of tbi.' poor then-uf ; for tlm d««Ui of J 
Charles Unuidon. dulie of SuSVilk, (ht> bcknred h>»- 1 
thcr>io-law,) bapjwiiing tho July before, ao ii 
king Henry with n Aerioiu apprvbennon of hb vmu \ 
mortality, (nich tbe aympotby of teui|icn^ i 
of conTene, and uo great diA|arily of age 1 
tbinn.) that bo thought it high time to betfaiiik I 
•L-lf of hiB ciic). and to do tome good work in o( 
thfri'uiito. Ih>n>u)ioiL on the ISth of Januan I 
luwinjT. anno 15-tti *, ho bestowed tbe aid I 
(»n the city : a gift ndeni'anU cnnfitiDedn 
by king Kdward the Sixth. 
«*» . 7. Hixtbly. ho Wll and endowed tbe 1 
SSte eollege of Triiiitr. finishttl Kin^t'ii College i 
■n-'piM Cambridge, and founded pnifeMor*' phe ' 
SJir^ P**K>*> ^y^ l>^"'< A"*' divinity, in both 1 
M in tlie pfoper plac*^' thereof nhall b 

f Shnr'i Surnj of 


BOOK VI. in England. 445 

8. Seventhly, he employed John Leland, a mogtLdand 
learned antiquary, to perambulate and viMt the ruins ^^m 
of all abbeys, and record the memorables therein. JJ^i'^J^^ 
It seems, though the buildings were destroyed, ^DgJSJJJ^ 
Henry would have the builders preserved, and their 
memories transmitted to posterity. This task Leland 
performed with great pains, to his great praise, on 
the king's purse, who exhibited most bountifully 
unto him, as himself confesseth in these his Latin 
verses : 

Ante 8U08 Phwbus radios astendere mundo 

Desinet^ et claras Oynihia ptdchra faces : 
Antefluet rapidum iacitis sinepiscibtu tBqitor^ 

Spini/er et nuUam smUU habebU avem : 
Ante sacrw quereus eessabuni spargere ramos^ 

Fhraq soUicita pingere praia inofitt : 
Quam^ Beoo aKve^ iuum lahatur peetore nostro 

Nomen^ quod siudiiSy portus ei aura, meis. 

The sun shaU sooner cease his shine to shew, 

And moon deny her lamp to men below ; 

The rapid seas shall sooner fishless slide, 

And bushes quite forget their birds to hide ; 

(f rcat oaks shall sooner oeaae to spread their bowers, . 

And Flora for to paint the meads with flowers, 

Than thou, great king, shalt slip out of my breast. 

My studies'* gentle gale and quiet rest. 

Pity is it that Leland's worthy collections were 
never made public in print ; and some, justly to be 
praised for care in preserving, may as justly be taxed 
for envy in engrossing such monuments of antiquity. 
But let us a little trace Leland's Itineraries, after he 
in A\Titing had finished the same. First, his collec- 
tions came into the hand of sir John Gheke, school* 
master, then secretary to king Edward the Sixth, 

7*** Atttoy y jlUiy* mw •■. 

leavfaif tbe msm to Ucai; Cktke, kii flUmi «i^ 
seereUiy to tfcs fiimii Jl fai tW owtk. Hea* ^ 
jnvat antiqaafT. wbo aftenrard* i h ' Mi rih w i BnM^ 
gai a fligbt and made a food oae ibeteoC ■> M«( 
moM tnic, (I LfiamdmM mtm laharntMt^ Camtd^mm^ om 
trimmpiaaaet. Vrvtm Mr. C9idce (t? *ltot tMrnrnm- 
tiona I know not) fear of Ldand't works cbbb IM* 
Uie {Msevioa of William Bniton. as he iiiBfiiB^fc 
in bb doKripUno of L^lirw^l^l■lli^e^ and hj Mm 
wera bestowed on tbe pnbBo librai7 at OzfaC 
where tbe nrifinal remainoth, and eearoe «d wamj 
eopic* of them ait properly may be called wanm m» 
at thu day in private men'* piwewioni. 

9. Thi* I^IukI, afWr tbe ikath of ki^ H«Hi7 
the Eighth, his Umnti^l {Mtrnii, fell dutnctcd, aal 
•0 died ; iiiirertaui whether bin brum wnr IwiitiB 
with weight of work iir want of wages : Ibe Inttv 
more likelr. because after the death of king llewj 
hto sodeaToon met not with projKtrtioDable wirc> 
ngemenL Bj tbe wijr we mar aadly observe tkit 
two of ibo beat achoUt* in this king's reign, lasw l 
and pnTferrcd hy him, died both nad, and bervA 
of their wiu : RirhsDl Pace, dean of St. PaaTs*. 
and this Lolaod ; wbk-h ! mark not oat of ill will 
to the dead, to lessen their memory amongst mm. 
bat of good will to the liTing, to gn«u*o tbeir 
gimtitude to God ; espee'talty tn srholan, that God 
may prraerve them in a aommj miinf^ Ixtih hi tlk* 
afMMtJe's high sense and in the eommun arreptio* 
tberaof : tbe father heeanie tbe tner tbe rtring. tW 
If oTcfstithied, is it biokoo. 

■ Oad«in in H ~ ' 

• Oad«» in llMtr Vlll. k iTin.i.j. 

BOOK VI. in England, 447 

10. He maintained many learned youths, on great inteUi- 
cost and charges, in all foreign courts and countries ;b^b" him 
for this was the fashion in his reign, to select yearly ^°"** ^® 
one or moe of the most promising pregnancies out 

of both universities, and to breed them beyond the 
sous on the king's exhibitions unto them. Sir Tho- 
mas Smith ', bred in Queen's College in Cambridge, 
and afterward principal secretary to queen Elizabeth, 
was one of the last educated in this manner. These 
young men proved afterwards the picklocks of the 
cabinet councils of foreign princes, no king having 
better intelligence than king Henry from beyond 
the seas. 

11. Lastly, he justly paid a great yearly sum of 
money to many monks and nuns during their lives, 
the manner and condition of which pensions we will 
now at large relate. 


It was in those days conceived highly injurious to The good- 
thrust monks and nuns out of house and home, king Hemy 
without assigning them any allowance for their ^'"^ 
subsistence. Alas! many of them dig they could 
not, and to heg they were ashamed; their fingers 
were either too stiff, by reason of their old age, to 
begin now to bow to a manual trade ; or hands too 
soft, because of their tender breeding, to take pain 
in a lal)orious vocation. And although there wantinl 
not some to persuade the king to out them without 
any maintenance, (it being but just they should 

' Caind. Eliz. in anno 1577. 

M« The Hhlmyi^AUftgt 

pmoti«> real who hiul jirofened 
yet the kiiif;, better nntuivil herdn I 
tiory, nllowcd and *\\\\j [«i(l U.* mam 
cotnpfU'i)!, to alt n-iiiiiti antmitit*. 
Sllf^'i!** ^ Indeed thero roimot be au btgbar ] 
ui«r»- atvmtioe titan f<ir a king or atale poUidijr t* ' 
dna*. ^™ proiniie pemioiu to twcewtiHU panow. and i 
peribnn the fane; wo titat poor pfmple dull I 
Mmio hundreds iii common ro|>ort, and 
penny la real and i-flVi-tual lAjnoeot: for, I 
giant niacth and vKctetli tliu ijiirita of i 
^nen for thi> prenmt, whirii aoon after (Ijfi 
to toriuro thorn) sink and Acttlo dovn on \ 
pcrformancp thereof; ■owindly, nich 
ofti<n make (x^^plc pntiHirtion their pmvnt pxpi 
acronllng tti thoao their hope*, to their frreal d 
and doirimenL, jrva, •oaieCfanfla to llidr otter n 
tlunll;. uiclt noise of peaiiuaa Krant«d 
from them tfao charity of their kindred aw 
aa Dccdluai to pcraona premmefl alilo to I 
themwlTM : not lu ^Hsak hov much it I 
reputation of a iitatc, rendering them jostlj c 
able, cither uf Indiscretion in granting pcntinw 
not ilfMmrnl, or ii\fiutlc(< in not payiiig them i 

TWftm ^- Vet all pemita were not ptufflbcuouily e 
J^''^'^ of the king's iM*nH<>n«. Itut nnljr thow nbit wtme 
P"^'""*' qualifiiHl nccftrdingly ; uamL-lv, iinrt, «irli u at tb* 
diiKihttion of their abbej* «-en< n»t prrfiTml to uy 
other dignity or lienefice. By the war. this waa a 
t(>mplaliiMi to the king and clumcellor nfttinn* u» 
pivfer moan men (whirh foniieriy bad 1 
■nd Mm) to DO mvnn living*, becanae 
fnwml want of able miuistcn) mdi inrnmliffc I 

vt England. 


being BO provided for, their pensions ceased, and the 
exchequer was disburdened from future paying them 
any exhibition. 

4. These pensions of the king were confirmed to ■* "njy ^ 
the monks and nuns by hia letters patent under the le'ueri'^- 
broad seal, and registered in the Court of Augmen-| 
tations ; one copy whereof we here insert, having 
seen some hundreds of them, all the same in essen- 
tials, not conceiving it impertinent to translate the 
same, desiring the lawyers not to laugh at us if we 
miss the legal terms, whilst we hit the true meaning 

Hbnrici;s Octayus, Dei 
gratia Anglim et Francite 
R«x, lidei defensor, Dominus 
Hil>erniic, et in terra bu- 
premum caput Anglicunir 
EccleMH!, omnibua nd qtioa 
prKsentes litters pervene- 

rint, salutem. Cum i 

" Urnsy thb Eiobth. Iiy i\w 
" grace of God, king of England 
" ond France, defender of ijje 
" faith, lord of Ireland, and bu- 
" preme head of the English 
■' cLiirck on earth. To all to 
" whom our present letters Hlinll 
" come greeting, Wherens the 

monasterium de Carthus dc " monastery of the Cortbii^ 

Hinton, in com' nostro 80- 
mer. jam di&solvatur, unde 
(]uidain Edmundus Horde 
tempore dissolutionis illius 
et diu antea Prior iode fuit ; 
Nos volentes rationabileui 
annualem pensionem, sive 
promotionem t»ndigaam, 
eidem Edmnado ad victum, 
exhibition em et sustenta- 
tionem suam melius susti- 
nendum provider! ; Sciatis 
igiturquod nos in consider- 
atiunepriuniissorumde gratia 
nostra speciali uc ex ccrta 
scientia et mero motu nos- 
tris, |>er adviaamcntum et 


of Hinton, iu our county of 
'■ Somerset, is now lately dis- 
■• solved, whereof Edmund Horde 
'■ was prior at the time of the 
" dissolution thereof, and long 
" liefore ; We are willing that a 
" reasonable pension annuiil, or 
" suitable promotion should be 
" provided fur the said Edmund, 
" the better to maintain and bus- 
" tain biui in diet and maiute. 
" nance. Know therefore that we. 
" in consideration of the premises, 
" out of our special grace and 
" favonr, certain knowledge, and 
' our mere motion, by the adrice 
" and consent of the cAoncellur 

450 The Hittmy rfAihtyi Mas n. 

nmmmum cwnlkrii M " mJ cmbcU vt dw Caot ^ 
ooMiUl CbHs AiipMiiu- " AupaMUlioM td iIh pot^b* 
Uoonn nvMlimuB eotwui - rf oor <t«wb, Imtc gi i M imk 

(aloB rira ■nrnilUm pea. •• ptwiMi of fovtj<AM> piiH^ 

■Immbi, qvadf^blt' qiutaor •• ocrUaii ; UiM 1^ ^d faf^- 

m, te- .. ^, ^,„_,, mj b. tai — 

^ " .faraaU EaawaL lU la a. 

Mill Mk ■ hrto Aanwida. " ^■mtaAHwi of tW 

doakkUaMiiteriifiaii « Vii(i> May la> pal 

'lib of Ik* aid 

■fanaapn andaiTlia 

dombaallnpnaalidMa " adaiatiall 11 it 1 1 1, » 
■ l ajlf a da* i"^ •^ ■' wiabb pcaMfai ef iW 

■* or upwad^ a wdl by iW I 


«». " atiaa of A* iiiiBWW « 

iilnailli. <U It I am II w». M^jf m, tna 

IM h MMiblH nk 4* t^ - ilmii i 

whatapaUakaa.- . rf u. ma 

■ blikl 

I iliiii fi 

of lb 
oT Iba I 

„j,U„ -oal af Iba aU pnta i 
-aiwaaaiba faal af k 

« England. 


MariwVir^nis, per Kquoles 
portiones. £t ulterins de 
uberiori gratia nostra, de- 
dimus et pro considerHtione 
prtedicta per prKseotes con- 
cedimus priefato Edtnundo 
Horde undecim libras ster- 
lingonunhabend.eidem Ed- 
mundo ex dono nostra per 
moDua tbesauraiii precdicti 
do thtaauro prsdicto, vcl 
per monus dicti receptoris 
de exitibus et reventionibus 
maneriorum. terrarum et 
tenementorum dicti nuper 
monasterii aolvend'. £o 
(|Uod cxpreasa inentio de 
vero valore annuo, aut de 
certitudine pnemissorum, 
(dve eorum altcujua not de 
aliis donis sive concesaioni- 
bus per noB priefato Ed- 
mundo ante bate tempora 
fact' in pnesentibus tninitne 
&ct' eustit. aut aliquo sta- 
tnto actn ordinatione pro- 
visione, aive reitrictione in 
coutrarium inde habit', foct'. 
ordinal' seu provis', aut ali- 
(loa alia re cauw, vel mate- 
ria qnacunque in aliquo non 
obstante. In cujus rei tes- 
timonium bas literas noctru 
fieri fecimus patentea. Teste 
Ricardo Rich, milite apud 
Westmonasterium vicesimo 
septimo die Aprihs, anno 
repni nostri tricwimo primo. 

' Virgin Mary, by equal portions. 
' And furthermore, of our more 
plentiful grace, we Iiave given, 
' and for the consideration afore- 
' said by these presents do grant 
to the aforesaid Edmund Horde 
eleven pounds sterling, that the 
' said Edmund may have it from 
' our gift by the hands of our 
' foresaid treasurer of our fore- 
' said treasure, or by tbe hands 
' of our foresaid receiver to be 
' paid out of the jirofits and reve- 
' noes of the manors, lands, and 
' tenements of the said late mo- 
' noatcry. — 

' any statute, act, ordinance, pro- 
' mission, or restriction to the 

■ contrary had, made, ordained, 
' or provided, or any other mat- 
' ter, cause, or thing whatsoever 

■ in any wise notwithstanding. 
' In testimony whereof we have 

■ made these our letters patents. 
' Witness Richard Rich, knight, 
' at Westminster, the twenty. 
' seventh day of April, in the 
' one and thirtieth of our reign. 



Th4 HUfofy t^AUfy 

dUotn Coriat Aaftnum. 
f tiwinm RflTraiioDam 
CbrooK Ra^M. virtutr 
wamnd n«i. 

" of iba CtawB, \f ti 

Soe we here the jiajmient to tfah Prior soariMil 
of two fonu uf euvoiml nstures or oonttlaa*; 

I The fbrtjr-four ponndi being properij ihm ^m^ 
■ion paid Tcwiy unto him. 

ii. Tb(> aclditiunal eloTcu poands, gimntcd witk •■ 
mUeritu, paid bat once u ndnncie-^nooejr, t* it 
htm with Docewarios at liin dofMUtote out of ike 

Hup is obterrablu in all the patent* I haw Mcik 

Uwt constantly ttie kinj^'i grmtuitj for tbvir fiafe. 

gome nnall ftsctions excepted, bevt the propottaoa 

of a fnnrtb i«rt of their yearly pentioa. 

Il" 5. Suppose, tbt-n. tliu uiir prior pfefatre J lo • 

■ ■w» churah di^iity or liviDg amounting tcij bmt bM 

hfw not to the fuil taIqci of forty-fnur pooadt 

"^ this did not avuid hii« pensinii, but that be 

hold it and bi« living Uigetfacr. W 

WM the doiire and oudearoor of enay 

advanced to beat down the raloe of fa 

llTing aa low a* might be, thereby to 

capable of it and his peoMOO, to wm H 

worlc of tht> king'* officen In the Ai 

Conn truly to utatu the vatoalion of the Uvingt if 

■urb pcraHiinen, that the rruwn might nol be 

dcAaoded: where, by the way, I roucviire Ovl^i 

mn Mthnated not aecording to the bfouiahle hCh 

BOOK VI. in Englamt. WS 

in the king's book, (where few of forty-four pounds 
per annum,) but according to the ordinary value, as 
they were wortli to be let and set in that age. 

6. Here fain would F be Batisfied, from some a ^uere 
learned in the laws, that whereas provision is made pounded, 
in this patent for the Prior to enjoy his pension 
until per nos, by the king's self, or his under-officers, 

he was preferred to promotion of ecjual value, whe- 
ther or no this pension determined, if not the king 
but some inferior patron provided such preferment 
for him ; seeing, in a general sense, all may be said 
presented by the king, as patron paramount of the 
churcli of England, who by virtue of his law have 
institution and induction into any ecclesiastical ])ro- 

7. That effectual passage is inserted in all patents scnioniy in 
of abbots, priors, and monks, that they were in the ndvimuge." 
convent diu antea, long before the dissolution 
thereof; otherwise many young folk who lately 

came in even barely went out, without any pensions. 
Such novices and probationers, whose cowls came 
but yesterday out of the draper's shop, having youth 
and strength to provide for themselves, were left to 
the choice of their own calling, without any other 
amiuity allowed them. 

8. Their pensions, though seeming but small, Mmij' pm- 
being many in number, made a deep bole in thej^''muai 
king's revenue, insomuch that he received from"™"''' 
some houses but small profits de claro until the 

said pensions were extinguished ; as will appear 
(guess Hercules from his foot) by comparing the 
profits arising from, with the pensions allotted to, 
the monks in the aforesaid priory of Ilintou in 




• *« « 

* >J » 

a ■ « 

( ■! 4 
■ *> « 

TW »«1 MM rf «MMh« «i<. ifc fA 

Now whemt8 the prionr of IlinUtn. nt tbe dfai^ 
liitiuti thi-roor, was %-nlucd nt ik» niorv than !«■ 
htinclrtil sixtjr-two pounds twdvc i>hi1Hng«*, if Ite 
ofittnuiit) nim of Tmrlr (lenainttt bi' tlimM dedacto^ 
the rk-or rvnuiiiitler to tbe king ww bat nine^-ctea 
poumU fivo sbilUngi fbtupMioe. But the tromn Im4 
It douhlt! lulTuitagn: one, that pHoiy 1>»I« w«pe 
lactin^, whilst ponriooi expired iritli hmmiIw* hT«»; 
■ad the other, that the fMnriom were bat bnc 
pouijr-rait, whiUc abbey buidi were lowly rated, fi» 
bmaatli their true valoatlnu. 

9- Now beoaoM *mr band is in. and I fcr Um 

' prMunt rma make use of ui autbontic iMiiiMiil|rt 

(once lieitry bamn Htnwdoa's, lord dia»b<vlata| 

• HpMri in hi* CatologM ot RaligiM 


in England. 


kindly communicated to me by a worthy friuiid of 
all the pensiotis in Somersetshire ", it will not be 
amiss to excm;)Uty euch as were lUlotted to the 
several abbots and priors therein. 


R. HamlvQ. 
Johu Ely. 
John Stoneiuii. 

I. : d. 

It I I 

60 o o 

Tbo prebend of Sutlon. 





WilHara Gibby. 
John MidieU. 

I .. a. 
33 6 8 

(. .. d. 
Au bouw ia Bull. 

1 \ \ 



Robert Wiilihe. 

Tl«e two 1 


1. t. d. 

^i 11 

ut vere hopluUj 

16 1.1' 4' 

The aforesaid book reacheth not Bristol, because 
not properly in Somersetshire, but a county incor- 
porate by itself. As for ^Vhiti^g, late abbot of 
Glastonbury, lie was executed for a traitor, nnd so 
bis pensions paid. No mention therein of the prior 
of Michelney, whose j>lace may be prtsuiued void 
by his death, or he otherwise preferred. 

10. We may observe great inequality in these P«u>aiu go 
pensions, not measured as the Jews' manna, by one 
and the same homer, but increased or diminished — 
1. According to the wealth of the house dissolved ; 
for where more profit accrued to the king by the 

by fovour. 

■> Sir. Edward Pc{if e. 

■ BcsiJea tbe capital mcs&u- 
in East Cbynuck. 


The JTumrf ofAU^i 

, I heir larger 


mippriMBiora, I 

tliL> iirior or monk thenof. ft. AeeotdiBf to tt* 

merits of tho man. 3. Aeoordiny to fab ■(• tmi 

im|»>tency nocditif^ ruliof. LmUj, and chicttf, wm- 

corriiug 08 tlic [mrtii>8 were befrieoiled hf the fcii^ 

officers in tbo Anfpn(.<ntatiaD Coort; wheniB. ■■ m 

all otbor courts, favour ever «■■, in, and wffl W b 


^ffjf 11. Out of all pctuioiii, the lusMt b | 

dMMitu ind strongest in ocmrejrance (as |MMwd. oo< as A* 

^''" ifBt, bjr lotten pntcnt, bat by art of | 

were those aalgneil to tbo late lord prior, and thaas 
of the order of tb^ knigbts bospltmllera. 
beinj; men (if higit birtb and bonoumhle I 
tbe king no k*a8 )>olitirly ttuui ririlly th< 
enlarge tltoir allowance, (a main motive i 
them so quietljr to surrender tbdr ttnag t 
hospitals.) as in the printed statute doth i 

V Anno 3 a Hen. VIII. o^ " ind bc^ > iliif*, in tsnUk^*- 

S4. [Tlw^ dU nut ndipi w " atlra a«l of M««j p^^ 

rMdO; M iwtl. AaM»dl«|t W " akw aad ]w at tfc* ^Mtf"* 

Wwv«r, " tbe niigimit cnar " botct for mmm nnar nan 

•• of Sl Joha'a of JiiiimIim. - poUoa ; (m liU Ml •£ 

- wkoM ibM ■Msriiw liiiii— - Un *>od DM i^^ ay 
" WM is tbs mmI w Mi of " tta dMocbt to asriA 1k^ 
-Ca^lnawfa pvUi. wttUs « mI«« whTtMr Mffa mw. 
' tlw osaatf at MUdUmx. - ms^ mfl ^ Msa ^ 

- «OMhtii« of iMllMMB sad " Wit of lfa» slsfi— ^». 

*■ ooldkra of radnt fiwriUoa - taim ^ sfl «lfc« tfdh 

- sai Uriiifiriti. soaU bf as -mMm." lis ika ndte 
" sMHo hs bnM(hl is to ps- |art of ifcs act spisM Ah^ 
■* MM to Ua sMiJMtT sav of Mssd te s M>iH|aMl psA^ 
" thsM poUas IMUom (Wh - - ....-.■ ,^ 

« thsM poUas IMUom Cm** " ' -j -■ - ' ■ ' i< 

" M thaw of Bt. FMoaia la of kslAto ww iliMlirf, ^ 

-StaMfdnDaadpaUkMasib- htmitt aaJarhMTya^^M 

' smnitW^. to MM aST aT lb ta^fe «« 

Utoglvsabar iWrardM. FsB.Maa.f.ii< 


" Bb iIm Mal,li 

in Engfand. 

Cmfnrn. Ptnn 

L I 

Clnnent WeM lOO < 

John Sutum )00 i 

Richard Poole 1.13 

Jnlin Rsmnn 133 

Uila Rii*m41 100 

(>F<ir|^ Aylmer ico ■ 

Edwanllttdlinghunioo ' 

Thomu Pemberttm 80 ■ 



AmbnHie Cave 6 

Richard Broke 6 
Cuthben ladBhtoo 6 
Thomaa Copied ike £ 
Edwsrd Bmwn 5 
M'UliMU Tyrell 3 

To Anthony Rogers, Oswald Massingberd, &c. 
ten pounds apiece yearly to be paid, as all tlie for- 
mer pensions, during their natural lives. In the 
same statute it is provided, that John Ma|ileston, 
clerk, sub-prior of the said hospital ; William Erm- 
Bteii, clerk, master of the Terajde in London ; Walter 
Lymsey, and John Winter, chaplains there, sliould 
every one of them have, receive, and enjoy (the said 
master and two chaplains of the Temple doing tlioir 
duties and services there during their lives) all such 
mansion-houses, stipends, wages, with all other pro- 
fits of money in as large and ample manner as they 
were accustomed to do '. 

■I He 
ham i 

' [In addition to these in- 
stances of pensions granted on 
the suppression of religious 
houses to some of the inmates, 
I mil add one from the Cotton 
M8S.. Cleopatra p. 306: 

" An order taken the second 
" day of March, the twenty- 
" ninth year of the reign of 
" oursovereign lord king Henry 
" the Eighth, by his highness' 
" commisdoners. with the rdi- 

" gious of the late monastery 
" of St. Andrews the Apostle, 
" in Xorthampton, for their 
" annual pensions given unto 
" them only of his grace's cha- 
" rity during the term of their 
" natural lives, to begin at the 
" feast of the Annunciation of 
" our Lady nent ensuing, as on 
" his grace's behalf is to tfaen 
" promised by the said tn 

" First, Francis Leycesler, 
' late prior, and Thomas Betts. 

iS8 Tht mitory y^Uqw 

IS. No mention (n fa otbar patcnti) of mmj p^ 
"tnitiM iu roadj rooneTt givm onto thwm^ sliA 
probably, cut into tbeir penikMU, made Ibea wm^ 
to bif()i. As for tb(^ thouwud pottmls fituAj i 
t(ir WUliam Weston, not one penoT' thereof «i 
he djring the next dajr, (the hoDM of hit 1 
and of hia vorthljr tabeniBcle bcfaf diaohned hoA 
togetber *,) Mul-cmittcn with sorniw : gol^ thowgfc a 

" Mb-pricr of tbc Mdd bi« - of t<mt]r-HlM pai^ tm h» 

** BNMuulvrT, bra (7 dw mU " jawl; pnuiaa, sJL ibL 4A 

"aommfaAam rawiiKJ ttpm> •• Timb— < ihfi . J *■ y 

'* MTtain eMMidflnlMMH till mj "af i wiot y «»t«»yiM^lirl» 

** lord privT mhI'i plcwara " rnrif niiwiiiM. >/. 1 u. 4A 

» dur^ bf known. •' WOlIni Wiiii*iHi. Wife 

** ThooMi SM7t]i,frf Um ■tr* " ifR irf t yrty I— m« In 

"of ftftf-two jrnua, fur hu " Iimt— riy[i«nMn«.iJ.ij*.^* 

** JMtljr makMi. 4i. TI1H ig»i«nt1 b i%iHilf 

•"n«natCoiri«h»s.Wik« Um i ■■■■itaJiiain. BMM 

*'^« of iftr r<nn. lor hb Uyf. lUhwt SMifci ■■. m| 

" Mrir pMHlaa. 4/. TliontM MfUMMy. Tkn «• 

-Rah«tHutln.artbaM |q«»l«ftWyii 1 11 ll |iM 

" of fbctjr-oaa ycum, tot m bkI palil to • ncy fcw yi^l^ 

" jmAj pwMiaB, V- Hneuto la 54/. i^. 4i<. 

J«aMHaiik]m«.afth«it* nmanl hM«M of t 

"of ftftjr-two jmn, fix Ut MriMnwd tniWUnashMfeft 

** nwlT Bin ri o w . 4! wl>bfc var b« Bn aiiiwJ « 

« IUAm4 Bnbvry, at Mm umkm ralWr ihan vw mmA 

" i«» af totj jraaiK (or hb to tejl. ?•. irf. AMtlMr «». 

** jrauhr pMnba, 4JL cnnMlMMi WMt kIm b* a^ 

" Jobn Rot*. o( tW M* of wrvai in rwrd u» tfav* ft^ 

•• tUrtr^s jmn. k mam$m»i rioM. UmI Uwy wvn wak fM 

" by O* Mid conaiWMwn to to all th* iamriM in paniA 

" IM lionnfi of (ft. Giln in mr irt Mcnrding m • tmri 

*• NonlttptoB, hriag of tlw novuL By »bat | lii^fc. 

" yvnriy nint of 7I., and of tlM*. wm th* eamm^mimaam 

"tUclft of UwHid Mo^ Ngshiodr IVy wW hmm 

~ tvy, in i«Mi|MM« of U anOnid tho |iiiiiriip of 

** y<nrlT pMMka. tW* oflMrnfvkno MiniMMflf 

" Jvu lloraU, of tW 1^ mj twd pni7 omI om hmb^ 

" of tUny-tiro ynan, fiv kb b« al Iom to iK*in«.1 
- ywffly ytnrian. 3/. 6«. W. * WwfW. I'te. Men. p. 4}». 

-IVMMaBirlMr.artlMaf* [TIm 71I1 of May. ijfo. hate 

' " ty.OM jmn. tor Ua XaiViMJiMi-^y, Part <rf hS 

-of tUity^ 

^a£Mir«i*,of'ib> 'v 

■tnl im 


4p«te b la 

uooK VI. in England. 459 

great cordial, being not able to core a broken 

peneioD allowed to tlie abbess of Buckland, though n< 

in all essentials very like uuto the former. BuTij^d. 

Henricub OcTAVce, Dei " Henry the Eighth, by tlie 

gratia, etc Cum nuper 
monoatcrium de Buckland, 
in com' noatro Som' jam 
dissolvBtur, unde <]U«EdBm 
Katberina Bowser tempore 
dissolntionis illiua et diu 
antes priorina inde fuit ; 
Noa volentes rationabilem 
annuolem penuoaem, sive 
promotionem condignam.ei- 
dem Katherinx ad victum, 
eshibitionem et sustenta- 
tionem suam melius snsti- 
nendum prorideri ; Sciatis 
igitur quod nos in consider- 
ntione prtrmiasorum de gra- 
tia nostra special! ac ex 
certa scientia et mero mota 
noatris, p«r RdviBomentum 
et consensum cancellarii et 
condlii Curiw Augment' re- 
ventionUDi corona nostne, 
dedimus ct concessimuB, ac 
per pricscntea damuB et 
concedimua eidem Kathe- 
riniB quandani annuitatem 
Bive annualem penaionem 
quinqnaginta libranun ster- 
lingorum, habendum gau- 
denduin et annuatim per- 
cipiendum easdem qutnquu- 
ginU liW pra^/at' Kathe- 
riiue et iiBsign»tiB iuia ■ 

' grace of God, &c. Wbereaa 
" tbe late monastery of Backland, 
" in our county of Somerset, is 
" now lately dissolved ; whereas 
" ont! Kath(^ri^e Boivser ivaa 
" prioress at the time of tlie 
" dissolution thereof, and long 
" before. We are willing that a 
" reasonable pension annual or 
" suitable promotion should bfl 
" provided for the said Kntheiine, 
" the better to sustain her in diet 
" and maintenance : Know there- 
" fore that we. in consideration 
" of the premises, of our spccud 
" grace and certain knowledge, 
" and our own mere raotiou, by 
" the advice and consent of the 
" chancellor and council of tbe 
" Court of Augmentations of the 
" revenues of our crown, have 
" given and granted, and by these 
" presents do give and grant unto 
" the said Katherine a certain 
" annuity or annual pension of 
" 6fty |K)uni]s sterling, that the 
" said Katherine or her auigns 
" may have, enjoy, or yearly re- 
" ceive the said fifty ponnds from 

M>ri«Vir|iiibdtlmop««- - of Um UMMd Vi>|ti* Maf hN 

B tmiUk. ^ icmiram fits " pMi far tb mm af th* M rf 

' ' I KMbntea. um p<r " tW nU Kiilmiwi, n «d M 

la ll ■■■■■>{! MMri "th»l— fcrf— r I ■ «f 

itfaaUB n^nralalio- " tW MigMNCatiMi of Am ■*»> 
n cn w BMtrK fttMct' ** ihh of «v cmw* Ipk As ^* 
roUBpnn«XMl«B*,dellw- " bri^iMlitfflSrtnM^mvAiA 
«ro b nuubw mi* - JuU h*|t«" <■ »■»•■■ ^ ^ 
mvBtlaoAu pradict' - liMidftantirfdMtvtHaiKdhav- 
raiMMn wthy', fDMi ■• mM, m by ilw hami^ ^ ^ 
pir — ■» f twp U f'griWpa '■ noinf of tha pufci —J isi^ 
■t ntMtlona aiAT a«pw •- hm* oT tk mU kM ^MMf 
— wti Hii llptoiia p i — gk- " far tW tin* Was MC ^ *• 
' ♦—'.Ja r lw lM Wit'iH n it*. "wMproteaW ii iii m^ 
- I ad faMu Snali •■ faHt «f St. UkkMl A* vA- 
I MicbMlb afohuiell. et " Myl. — d tU A— f l" rf 
I AanantfatioaiihcMaHarla » Un biMid Vogte Itey, ■» »» 
Tiribda. p>r «|m1« par- » paU bf a^ [wtiiM Ab< 
tkaaa aolnadnm. Et nlte- •■ (utbaraMra, af mu- Boa* yla»> 
itna da nbarioti gratia so*- " tifnl paea, «mI fur tW aaa*- 
' tn, daann at pr» conaido- •' Jat i lJiMa a fcw i d . w ^t^ 
I >|kM imriieta par ftm- " aad bf iWaa yaMa[lad»y» 
la t a d l w iii y iifc l ii -to tfaa ifiiiiwfi tT ll ill i 
Katbwiw *i|lMl ^vIb^m •• twcotj-lt* povMb aaaai^ §m 
\ Br* alariii«or' habamr «i- - iha aid KathaviM »> ^m ^ 
imt KMbarba «■ done - mt |npv (ift. by ite ha^ 
atra pv Mma diat' tb»- ■• atwn fawtd li i iiw — af 
wi da t b aw w ii pfdhio, -oar traaawfy ali rtmiA. ar If 
I p« aaMa dkl' raaap- " ow aid laraitar tn b* patf «M 
) iwit da adtlbn at man* - of tba pradli and iwuhm «f 


' MB. laa^ni lotiM- 

TmH Meada Rich. mU 


MWta or tba Hid lata ^BM. 
tarj. baaana Ihal npM« MM^ 
Om. &c U iilfi stavil 

"Thiir-TPfrf-nll"'rb b«^<_ 
" at Waaft—lar. tba ^aA 
■ mt Mar, >• ^ iMiiJ fcw 

BOOK VI. in England. 4C1 I 

There are but two conaiderablo differences betwixt 
this and the former patent: 1. ^Vhe^eas ijensions 
allotted to priors and monlfs were conditional, as 
determinable upon their preferment to ecclesiastical 
promotion of equal value : thia to the prioresa (as to 
all nuns) was absolute for term of life, women being 
not capable of any church advancement. Secondly, 
whereas the gratuity allotted to monks generally 
amounted to a fourth part of their pension, this to 
the prioress was double as much as a just moiety 
thereof. 'Wbether this proceeded from the king's 
courtesy to the weaker sex, or because mimdus mit^ 
liebris, there was such a world of tackling required 
to rig and launch them forth to shift for themselves 
in a secular life. 

14. But as for ordinary nuns, we find that four Y«ith tod 
pounds pension and forty shillings gratuity was|[cc^n,aiK 
generally their provision; and that only for those |J^"" *" 
qualified with a diu anfea, that they had been in the 
convent a long time before the dissolution thereof; 
otherwise I meet with no portions to those that 

lately were entered into the houses, being outed and 
left at large to practise the apostle's precept, / will 
that the younger women marry, bear children, guide 
the house ', &c. 

15. The vivacity of some of these pensioners is sieihu»»kh 
little less than a miracle, they survived so long; for 
though none nill say they lived out of despite, to 

anger the king to pay their pensions, surely none so 
highly aft'ected him as to die in duty to exonerate 
his exchequer of their annuity. Isabel Sackville ", 

* I Tim. V, 14. whom she appointed her pxe. 

u [She was cousin to Tbo. cutur. See Weever, ib. 41Q, 

mu Sackville, lord Buckhnrat. who has preserved her epitaph.] 

The Uiitory ^Abkty fa Emgtmul 

ladj prioroM of CIcrkpnwpIl, U an 
of longevity in thlti kind ; fur. 

i. In tbo ono ami twentioth of king 
Seventh, she wis a nun in ClarkcowaO 
wboD a li'gsey wu betjoeatbed bv aa 
William Hackrille, caq^ and moat be Ibia < 
flftem yean of age. 

H. She was tho last prioraM of 
the diaaohition tb(>rccf. 

111. Sbo died in the twelfth of qamn EliabHl 
^)p««i« bY her e|>itapb In ClerkeaweU Cbmha 
1^ coin[iutiition nrnift be alloved elgbqr j« 

nut far older was that monk ra nun (I aa ai 
of the storj. Dot the acz i) to whom, liriiig 
near IlampRhIre, Mr. John Pjinme, than 
in tliL> excheqacr, [wid tho last pajmcot 
pion about tho fifth year of king Jamaa. 

la. lloa. p. 4M. 

r AM— la by Mr. Ptmbm'i 

. Wwrar. Ml.] Uibip < 




Mulli tunt prtsprepmri hcrredft, qui nitma parentum viwt- 
cUate cruciantur, Bi. hn^vitia ^atpectatume ntacrvgcunt, 
postqttam rv,ra pateraa fpe vana tUvorawHnt. 

At tu e amtra, vmenmdi palm tui eanUitm (H fieri posset) 
immoritdem r«ddere tonaria, cum earn perpeim obiequfo 
humillime colas, quo ejp'caciiu cardiacum ad tentctvitm 
ejus eUmgandam noqtiit cwifici. 

Nott in palrU sed mum/i ncm'scenlif annoB ittquirit, mm 
hi»/oria phirimum d^lvcti-rin, cnjia ojtf, « j/rceterita cum 
prasentihui cm/erantur, fOHjeetura tU futvrit ataiui poteal, 
quo mmiine, hoc opvx nogtrvm ftbt bom inymtvm fore 

" [Anns. Party pei-bcnd, Midtllesei. He was miule one 

sinister, ermine and enninois. a of the knights of the Buth at 

lion raoipaut, or. Sir Thomas tlie coronation of Charles 11.. 

Trevor, bart., only son and heir and married Ann daugliter of 

of sir Thomas, descended from Robert Jennor, esq., of Loiu 

the ancient family ofTudorTre- don, and secondly Mary diugh< 

vor, earl of Hereford. He was ter of 8umuel Harbig, esq. ; 

created a baronet on August but. dying without issue in 

1 1, 1641, being then described 1676, die title became extinct, 

as of Enfield in the coonty of See Brydges' Peerage,*!. 395.] 

464 71< lli-liri ifAUf, 

(OM priwuto t ' 


■URTNG the leuflBiig for kbbc^ I 
\ tite twenty-flerenth jrtt of Idng' I 
tlie Eighth, the Court of j 
tion WM set up bj art of I 
to bo ■ court of raeonl, utd to baw* i 
autliimtic groftt teal, betidea a privy seal, aod •■•■ 
ofiiren ti)ipoitit4Ml fur maoa|fcinoat tl 
{vvm sllou'i'd tiiitit them. I find the ■ 
in a fair roUum nunuscript, viiiefa I 
bishnp rarkt^r's; sinco the lord Cok«*%j 
tmiiwrilKHl ns foUoweth : 

" Sir Kichanl Sackvillc, rlianceUoft I 
" |Miuiids rcarlr f(><% forty pouMb diet, a 
*• linj^ oi^htpcnoe (at vrvrj tad. 
" Kir John Williamii, treaaurcr. 
** twpnty pounds foe. 

" Sir William CaTondtah, tmrnnr of the I 
" chaniWr, ntii.- buudrod poundx fee, on« I 
" |K»uu(ls divt, oiiil ten pouiub boat-hire. 

" SirThomaa Moylc, rir WkIut MildmaT, <^ 
** ncdveiB,) to each two hundred |kmiiw1i I 
** twenty pounda diet. 

*■ Ridurd Ooodridi, attonwy, one h«D4i«4 
** he, and twenty mariu diet. 

** Joaepb OoaDall, aoUritor. eighty | 
" diet twenty marka." 

» and ■arreyun of the v 

BOOK VI. in England. 465 

keepers of records, ushers, messengers, assistants, 
carpenter and mason to the court, auditors, receivers, 
surveyors, woodwards for every county; the total 
sum of their fees yearly amounting unto seven 
tliousand two hundred forty-nine pounds ten shil- 
lings and threepence. This catalogue, by the per- 
sons mentioned therein, seems taken towards the 
end of Edward the Sixth, when the court began to 

2. It belonged unto this court to order, survey. The em- 
and govern, sell, let, set all manors, lands, tenements, SS^"" 
rents, services, tithes, pensions, portions, advowsons,^^ 
l)atronages, and all hereditaments formerly belonging 

to priories, and since their dissolution, to the crown, 
as in the printed statute more largely doth appear ^. 
All persons holding any leases, pensions, corrodies, 
&c. by former grants from the convents came into 
the court, produced their deeds, and upon examina- 
tion of the validity thereof had the same allowed 
unto them. And although providence for them- 
selves, and affection to their kindred, prompted many 
friars and convents (foreseeing their tottering con- 
dition) to antedate leases to their friends just at the 
dissolution, yet were they so frighted with fear of 
discovery that very few frauds in that kind were 
committed. The court was very tender in continu- 
ing any leases upon that least legal consideration. 

3. But after some continuance of this court, theMoUvetfor 
king's urgent occasions could not stay for the slow tion or tids 
coming in of money from the yearly revenues of *^'*' 
abbey land, insomuch that he was necessitated to 

sell outright a great part of those lands for the 

^ An. 17 Hen. VIII. cap. 27. 


t the I 

. adTsnco of trvonirr, uwl ihrrely i|ideU]r 
• CoiiTt of AufHiH'nUtioti dimiuisbnL T^ 
\ thcrpfnrv took inin rottoidenlKin to dkaolw H 
llpcrfluoll^ wbcn-tn tlio offirtT* wrn* m&ny. tMr 
■kma fcrvtX, cniwn profit* Ilifirbj muUI. weak 
musra thcrviii tU-]>cii(lin)^ fi'w ; m that it ww Mol 
worth the while to kti'p up a mill to ^nA thai 
grist, where the t«ill wnuhl uot quit CfwC. It wa* 
thc^^foR• rt-wtlviHl to utop up ihit hy-stn-Ain. that 
all rativM therein should run iti the ancient rhaaoH 
of the fnrtnrr rouitfl of WnAmiMler. 
*- 4. Iiidet^l, in the WTratb c^ king Edward V'L. • 
doubt did ante amungft the learned to the la«K 
whether tlic Court of Anjrmi-iitaliou, the eomineiie»> 
mcnt whereof wait fin4 liad hr anfboritjr of |Mrii»i 
numt, wimid legnllr ht< diMolvnl, extioffvbbed, ■■4 
npMled bv the ktiig'ti leuer* patents! KvA tlw 
oAoen thereof (wonder not if they Miekled far 
their own ronremmL^nbi) did n-altxudr enjcagr ii* 
the neffalive. Wherefore it wim etiaetrt] W parii»- 
nient. " That the king, during hi* natural liA*. liad 
" prexent |>r»wer lir hi» lett(>r« imtenlA lo alter, uaate, 
** annex, re<luo«>, or dinoUe anv of tbnac nuw-vivctorf 
*■ eourtx bv bia own letters patrnta." And tlM mmm 
art was eouflmied in the firrt rmr of qiicea Mhj; 
when the Khnrt-liviHl Conrt of Augmentation %Ma 
dtnolrctl ; aa which, fmin the tnrth then^Tf. 15SA, to 
the vxtinguithing. 15A3, nirrived but etghtceo 


King Henry the Kighth hia cxpeniM, Uke 
grooad. anddetily sucked up the largo 

BOOK VI. in England. 467 

abbey lands, and little sign or shew was seen thereof; 
yea, such the parching thirst of his pressing occa- 
sions, that still they called aloud for more moisture ; 
for whose satisfaction the parliament, in the thirty- 
eighth year of his reign, put the lands of all col- 
leges, chantries, and free chapels in his majesty's full 

2. This king made three meals, or (if you will) King 
one meal of three courses on abbey lands, besides three meals 
what cardinal Wolsey (the king's taster herein) had i^d§. 
eat beforehand, when assuming smaller houses to 
endow his two colleges. 

i. When religious houses \ 
under two hundred pounds 
a year (anno 1535) . . . 

ii. When all greater jnonas- 

were granted to him 
) by the parlia- 



teries (anno 1538) . . 

iii. When colleges, chantries, 
and free chapels (anno 1545) 

The first of these were most in number; the 
second richest in revenue ; the third, in this respect, 
better than both the former, because they being 
spent and consimied, these alone were left to supply 
his occasions. 

3. The universities were more scared than hurt Thfinn^^^w^ 

titiei* fcan. 

at the news of all colleges put into the king's dis- 
posal. Tliey knew that barbarism itself had mis- 
chievous natural logic to make those general words 
reach far, especially if covetousness of some ofHcers 
might be permitted to stretch them ; whereupon 
tliey made their humble and seasonable addresses 
to the king for his favour*^. 

^ Lord Herbert in Hen. VIH. p. 537. 

H h 2 

MB Tht UiMtoty efAUtyi m 

*illft 4. None ever nibbed the mum wbo vm 
Avai|^ aci|uainttf«) witli them. Kinj^ llrarr liwl too ■ 
MM. Khulontbip to wTUDg M-huUn. Eitb«r uaivi 
wu BO far from beiD^r impnirL'd. that both 
improvud bv bis bountr with (mnfiniw ftir the | 
of thdr public proft'Mon ; yvm, the I 
In eitbt>r uniTcnitr. in effect, acktiowied^c* 1 
its rounder. 

vtM A. Such coll^et as werv hirr* of draoe* (ant « 

««.««(«. bees, indnstrioualjr adraurittfr leamiojr i 

wero nov intended to be suppreaKd, with Ire* c 
pcbi atnl cbaiitrie*. 

i. C'luuitrivs con<ii8ted of BaUriea aUoirvd to < 
or mora pri«»ta to mj dailjr nuui for the KMab 
their dooeuad foandera and their fkieode. Th 
wen iiOectiTea, not able to Mand t)i I 
and theroforo united, for their bettor aopi 
aome parochial, coUegiato, or cathedral cbiuch. 

ii. Free chapels, tboogh for the Mine oea i 
ierriee, were of a more tahrtanttal and finn a 
■tltuUoo, as lodependent of themMlTe*. 

ill. CoUegea were of the Mine mture wUk i 
former, but nore eooaidefable in 1 
nnBher of prieiti, and oodowmenta. 

But the mm^ death of king Hmof ft* I 
for a thnei pwe c rfe d the life of these I 
were totally demolished by art of peHiamcnt ia I 
Snt jrear of king Edward the l^izth. 
JmiT" ^ ^^^ ^^y ohaerre that the two ■ 
*»?ri fnr the HmoMng of theee heoaei wen hilBwrf i 


in Engkmd. 


Statute 37 Hen. VIII. cap. 4. 

Cliargeth misdemeanours on 
the priests and governors of the 
aforesaid chantries^ that of their 
own authority, without the as- 
sent of their patrons, donors, 
or founders, they had let leases 
for lives or term of years of 
their said lands ; and some had 
suffered recoveries, levied fines, 
and made feoffments and other 
conveyances, contrary to the 
will and purposes of their 
founders, to the great contempt 
of authority royal. 

Wlierefore, in consideration 
of his majesty's great costs and 
charges in his present wars with 
France and Scotland, the par. 
liament put him and his suc- 
cessors for ever in the real and 
actual possession of such chan- 
tries, &c. 

Statute I Edwardi VI. cap. 14. 

Mendoneth the superstidoos 
uses of these houses, consider, 
ing that a great part of errors 
of Christian religion hath been 
brought into the minds and 
estimadon of men by reason of 
the ignoranoe of their very tmo 
and perfect salvation throng 
the death of Christ, and by 
devising and femcying vain 
opinions of purgatory and 
masses satis&ctory for the 

Wherefore, that the said 
lands might be altered for 
better uses, vis. erecting gram. 
mar.schools, augmentation of 
the universities* and provision 
for the poor, the parliament 
bestowed them on the king, bgr 
his council, to dispose of the 
same accordingly. 

7. To berin with chantries, their exact numberPocty. 
in all England is unknown; but if Hercules may, sc Ptai'b 
by a mathematician, be measured by his foot, a pro- lqimIoi^ 
bable conjecture may be made of them, from those 
which we find founded in the cathedral church of 
St. Paul's in London; for on the nineteenth of 
April, in the second year of king Edward the Sixth, 
a certificate was returned by the dean and chapter 
of Paul's to his highness* commissioners appointed 
for that purpose, aflBirming that they had fbrty-soTen 
chantries within their church. We will only instance 
ill the odd seven, enough to acquaint us with the 
nature of all the rest. 



Tht llntory o/Abbey» 





t. John Hlmarlf In 
Brstt- I hUllfc. 
thAin|i,! Iia»«. 

s. Mir John 


of I^n- 

Hi* ii«n 

mroi. In 3 1 
uf i:it«»n[ 
th« Thlnl 

ilukr uf I 

Irr. t 

I 4 W^trr 


I riii^ufi. 



:' >i»c. 

I ••■iiir 
' tiinr 

.If Wl f 

I '•' 


I!.. ti» I 

II »ir! 

• '■ I 
. ' 1. I 

r«fl uf 
rarl vt 

Irr. rir« u 
tur* li* the 
rfiihr n. 
trliM^l tiy 
IV. ID thr 
i^tlt of l>ia 

Thr rirt-i 

for* i>t ttia 


lit rlivrit 
l'« k.|l« 
II. IM \ I 

III ll.r i4lh 
I r !,:• 
irif ' . 

ill* r iri •! 

t r* 






Tb« •*l<l air 
John wi<t 
thr souU ' 
uf the pro. 
gmttur* u^ 
th* rvl of 

' III- own. 
m4 mil 
( hrUiiMi 

I miuIb. 

In • rll»' 

balll «■ 
•hir of 

t Lap- 

Kinf Hcttrf 
thr Fourth, 
anil thr 

•«H|I uf ihv 

iluhr of 
l^ni Mtrr. 


In «rhn 
of th« 


I Mr 


J. Sir 


« *• • • 

I 'S • 


t fi«p 

mm Bii-t 



t«l«tr iif 
kinf Itmry 
tLr oiilh. 

U aarr 


In • ihn. 

(«i tmill 
fur hlH 
•t ibr 
iliM>r i>f 
t biir^ b 

Mr Tho. 



t t 

Mt Jwho 

• ■ • 

rhr •■•III i>f 
ir r ••hi 
M rr. Mil 

In ihr 
« hapri 
.r ait 

'^iflbihwJ « 

i i.aiM I 

Hir IL>t«*t 

«lf U^ 

ri- r 

• :« f t, 

II • rirr . 


P.r •••ul •■} Al M 

Mr' r, IIID. «»• i> 

I :ri •■ • . • •! 
! «' « t .• i> 

■ :»•!. rr. li 
I'r ■ ilh . ' 


\ 111 

n : •.«! I 

! i*ii«ip • ( 


' t».| l»r«l» 1 t ^ 9^ 


II .1 W ;« « 4 « • 

4 4 


Kiikw, n'a<icT, I niii lH>li«>|iliii:f for niv i*xart inu>l« 
ligriit*r hi-ri'iii to inv uortliv friciicl Mr. Thomas 

BOOK VI. in England. 471 

Hanson, who not only lent much light to my lamp, 
out of choice records, (some in his possession, moe 
in his custody,) but also hath given much oil there- 
unto, in his bountiful encouraging of my endeavours. 
It seems the chapter would not go to the cost of 
true arithmetic, some of the sums being not rightly 
deducted ; whose mistakes I chose rather to follow, 
than to vary any whit from the origin[ftl« 

8. Observe in these chantries some were not, ChintriM 
some were, licensed by the king; for before thob^^ 
statute of mortmain, made by king Edward thejglia, 
Tliird, to be able and willing was all the license 
requisite in any to found a chantry; since which 

time a charter must be obtained from the king to 
pass lands of such nature and value to persons so 
qualified. Observe (call it the religious complement 
or mannerly devotion of those days) that the chantry 
priests (whosoever their founders were) prayed first 
for the good estate of that king living, and his soul 
after death, who first granted leave and license for 
that foundation. 

9. See how the church of St. Paul was be-altared Tha altar 
in that age, wherein we find no fewer than fourteen, mh«» to ba 
witli their several dedications, viz. "^ ** 


i. TUeTriiiity. 
ii. The Virgin Mmry. 
liL MirhacI tbo Arrluuigvl. 
W. The Af)Q«tk«. 
V. St. Andrew, 
vi. 8t. John. 
vii. St. VmoL 
viii. St. Thomai. 
ix. Mary MagHatoiw. 
X. Martha and Maiy 
xL St. Erkenwnld. 
xU. St. Chad. 
xUi. Sl Radlgund. 
xiv. St. Silvmter. 

And it is observable that aliDoat every ooa of tfe^ 
furtr and wveii chantries foaDdi.<d in ^k. PteaTi 
rhuivh had their priest ofBdating. ottb<» in 
chajii'ts or at HCTenl altan, ptuhoUj ooC to 
each other in their priTate celebntioM ; bat [1] flfti 
not aiiy tbantrr priests assigned to da acrrice mt Ik* 
hij^ altar iodeed, either becaase that ptaca wwm 
n>served as proper to the difnitariea cf the 
or because the aolemnitj and i 
equally extcDsivo to all souls b gonocal, onflt to he 
cunfined to any particular partk* deceMed* bow 
great socTer. 

10. Such prieiU aa bare the addition of lir hetam 
thob- Christian name were men not giadoated ia tks 
unlverwty, bctog in ordcra, bat not In degiMit 
wbibft otfaen entitled nMSli>f« had 
the arts. Note, that gvnendly fnundcrt ofi 
prororred priests not bem-ficetl to tbiMO 
beet at Umra cootaiitly to attend the hum ; 


tit England. 47S 

did their dead founders so engross the devotion of 
those priests, but that by general and special obits 
for other men, procession-pence^ and other perqui- 
sites, they much bettered their maintenance. Single 
priests commonly had the greatest salaries, (more in 
proportion than when others were joined with them 
in the same society,) because tied to daily duty, 
having none by turns to relieve them; and the 
greater work deserved the greater wages. 

11. Many deductions and resolutions were made i^uciiocui 
by the dean and chapter out of the lands wherewith dbanoy 
every chantry veas endowed, besides the salary paid 
to the chaplains, as for quit-rents and tenths to the 
king, pensions to choristers, &c. ; but one general 
expense was for an anniversary potation, (seldom 
exceeding ten shillings,) founded, as it seems, on 
Job's words, (Job iv.) as Bellarmine citeth the chap- 
ter without verse, Panem tuum^ et vinum tuum super 
sepulturam justi constitue ^ : Put thy bread and thy 
wine upon the sepulture of the just man. But no 
such words appear in the place alleged, though some 
such like are found in the fourth of Tobit * ; where, 
notwithstanding, no mention of wine, which the 
Jesuit adds of his own, that it might not be a diy 
(as some since have added wax, that it might not 
be a dark) feast : bread, wine, and wax being the 
essentials of every potation. The chaiges of an 
anniversary obit were also deducted, whereof forty 
shillings the market price; though some were so 
free they gave more, and some so fitvoured they 
had them for less. 

d De Purgator.lib.].cap.3,pag. i375,edit.Liigduiii«aiinoi5S7. 
e Ver. 17. 


-rfu Hillary ^Mbtgt 

rharittb^ 19. Some ilcdacUowt w4-r« mado hy tlie «91 «# 
t>Tih«rer. ttii; fimmU-rK, to uhm mrivly i-hariUblu, maA no wMl 
ni)wntitious, out ot tlio mirpliua^ of tlio 
lattdts (tlio prie»t or pncntn therein first paid); 
IliL* iiiTi'ssarj' n-'litif of nianjr |ioor iiooiilo, a 
uijK (if Brliolon in llic uiiiTenities. Hut ■• 
in i\\v. fnblf, found ainoiifr»t tlio rnuin 
tliR roni of the liiutbnnilnian. in ruin pi 
own {liulr to bu imroDta, bring killed for 
nko with tbose binh amiiDffvt whom be wi 
Ro it is mora tlttn nupicioui that tbew 
wcrr uttorljr oxtiiigaiihed it the 
ibbejTB, to teach men's charilka benaltor (tf 
out a lemon now loo htte to be li-anicd) tn b cW Bl g «f 
too bmitiar coiin-rw* «-itb ntpcnitition. Nor da I 
speak at gurw hcn^in, hut rrora tlio complaiDla «f 
cRdible oiiil un]iartiiU outhon, of which (hia ooa I 
will insert, 
u 13. Thi_-iv wu a maid bnm in Cornwall, filled 
Tlinniasine niHiattiitun*: and well did sbe bivak 
tho BttiDe, vhicli fruDi a kee[>rr of lifaccp eanio at faM 
to be the wife of nir John Perdval, lord marar «# 
Loodon. In h<>r widowhood sho laid oat b«.>r caCaMb 
whtrb was very Rrenl, in rhoritahlo iisn, and anwMglA 
tlie n«t fuiindiil a cbajitry ami n free school M 9U 
Mary Wikc in Cornwall '. (tbu plari- of her vatiiAlj^ 
with fair lodgin)[s fur the schoolniaslcrv. irhnlit^ 
and ofBrers and twraty jmund a Tear, besides llMir 
lalaries, to support incident rbargr*. AikI bov cW 
bnt j^thmten's sons in Devon and Coruwall ««■• 
viftouadjr traioed ap tuider ooe Cbolwell, a 
teacher, antil tho aald school was nipprcaNd. 

' Ctfrw'* Hurtrf of CorawsU. t. i 

uooK VI. in England, 475 

reign of king Edward the Sixth, only for a smack of 
popery, the chantry being annexed thereunto. And 
I suspect the like happened in other places. But to 
return to St. Paul's : all deductions discharged, the 
clear remainder belonged to the dean and chapter of 
St. Paul's. 

14. Note, that the dean and chapter aforesaid odafui 
assumed this power to themseWes, that in case (to the numbor 
use their own terms) the exility of the lands orpHestt. 
rents bestowed on any chantry were insufficient to 
maintain so many chaplains as were appointed in 

the foundation, then they would reduce them to a 
smaller number. For instance: the executors of 
Adam Burie, sometimes major of London, founded 
a chantry wherein seven priests should pray conti* 
nually. This I may call a college chantry, equalling 
Katherine Hall in Cambridge for the number therein: 
but the means not holding out in full proportion, 
these seven were shrunk to four at the time of their 

15. Another help the dean and chapter hadroaiiifui 
When the maintenance of any chantry fell short, bySJ!^'' 
uniting two or moe mean chantries together. Thus 
Margaret Bigod gave a marish, called Bichemess 

in Essex, with a stock of eleven score sheep thereon, 
to found a chantry with two chaplains, which, not 
sufficient for the same, was annexed to a small 
chantry of Richard Greene's; and one priest, sir 
Christopher Bricket by name, efiectually no doubtt 
discharged both. 

16. And yet, notwithstanding all these shifts, the Thwjb^ 
dean and chapter of Paul's, in giving up theifiU, 
accounts to the king^s commissioners, pretended 


476 TfuOukw^^jm^ Mw«t 

themMlTM yearly loaen by kudo of 
fSor generally tboy were fiianded oa 
(booHH aro London's hnd.) which vcte 
euaalty, reporntioni. and \-uatioDi. In 
nla, thougl) the bousu wbt-rcwtth tbe 
ciidowixl wiuited a tenant, rut tlie ebantr^ 
w&Qt a cbaftloin to officiate for tbe tlesd. Y«^ m 
cbariiabk' was tbe dean and chapter in 
aa aomotimes to allow landi in a uyiu e ttti i— «f 
maintenance, and aaaign houaea of tlieir own fcr Ifcn 
babltoUon of euoh dtapbuns oh wanted a 
Tlio kiiiff thurvfnro mar U' mid In moiv aoi 
dorii' Q courtcy to llic cbnptcr of RuilV ' 
pmiHitiji !iuf-li |H)or chantries, fonneriy not 
but burdeiuouie uiitu ibum. 
N^Atac 17. By other cliontriea tbc^ were only aavet^ ■• 
r*M. g^nen^ bavinig only tbeir kbour for their pnn. ia 
Mcbig things perfonned aeeording to the will of Ika 
I in bishop Fitx-JuDo and mat 
t, tho t>rif*t (loitl uiid otlicr allowancca 
i mil, aa th(>y brouj^ht in the rDekoniiy 
iMoipt* and disbuninncnt*. 
noUce that beiviu the dean and 
wan both their own aecountanta and 
nmHt ooukl dhfirove their rechouinga than 
grant that among forty-aevai chaotriea tw« 
of them were unitrofitable Krvuita, returning an 
■■liiluinmt unto them ; yea, Mppoae t» nuuiy ptv^ 
dfgal children. wMtin^ tho ■toek of their 
inndcntonit tbo rhun-h wbercjn they were h 
yot bom tbv foUcclivc body uf them altaggUigi 
gained a gnuid rvvontK*. And it it 
in thia thtrir audit tboy uiJy bnwgbt in thalf 

uooK VI. in England. 477 

annual rent of houses, their fines not being charged 
on their account, but swallowed in silence, to the 
great commoditj of the chapter. 

18. Vast was the wealth accruing to the crownThegmi 
by the dissolution of chantries. Many a little, suth cm£ ^^ 
the proverb, make a mickle. These foundations, ^^JJj^^JJIJf 
though small in revenue, yet being many in number, 
mounted up a great bank. There was not a cathe- 
dral or collegiate church in England but some chan- 
tries were founded therein, as in many parochial 
churches. Thus at Oldwincle in Northamptonshire^ 

the village of my nativity, a chantiy in the parish 
church of All Saints was endowed with house and 
lands for a priest, at the cost of sir John Oldwincle^ 
knight, about the reign of king Henry the Sixth. 
Yea, let the model of countiy churches be well 
observed, wherein such excursions of building as 
present themselves beyond the old &bric (from 
which ofttimes they differ, as neater and newer) were 
since erected, and added, as intended, and used for 

19. Free chapels succeed, not so called from theFkwduu 
freeness and bounty of their founders, but because S^ 
subsisting of themselves, as children of frdl age, 
whose parents are still alive; for though chapel 
speaks a relation to a mother-church, yet fi^ee, avow- 

eth them sui juris^ especially so fiur forth that right 
of burials belonged unto them. These were greater 
than chantries, having more room for priests, and 
moe priests for that room, to pray for the souls of 
their founders. CoUeges come the last (as the 
heaviest and best laden with land) into considera- 
tion : these, though fewest in number, were richer 
than both the former ; insomuch that the college of 

Tit /futory 

FoUionnghaj iu NortfauBpUiMhiTe wa* juai ^ «itei 
at four hiimlred tihiet«ea pomdf c lp ^w ABh^ 
ttvpctirc luUfjxnuiy ; and no WDoder. liaee tfeh a^ 
lego had the nro ba)ipitie« to be endowed hf iht 
luDf* botb of Vurk and Lancailcr', at SemMw mmbmi 
moiiiT. Tft jointlr igmnag in their boonty to chi» 
't SO. Ilnw tnucb the jtarij nmaat of all them 
a rInuitTtea, frae ehapeK and eeUegt* mmontttmi t^ 
' God InKnn, for tbe king knew m little M eoBM fa 
oar Bgc ; indeed, aone of bla ofBrerF did. bat wt^i 
Dot koow, ai wiUhlly ooaoealfaig tbw kon«4»4pt 
hi*n*in. Voa, some o^ thaw chantries may be ^i 
ht a donblo aenae to be Pi|ip w» d . aa not onhr pM 
down, but aba eoocealed, never vauiag bio «W 
exrhciqaer, heittfi MlcntW podceted op bv private hii 
pottntt p«Tt»tix. True it is tbe rouitirrt wvrv ^hbo 
npacidUfl to catrb niid Torarioos to airallow chae 
rbantrieq thui abbey luiidf; fiir at the firaC wmaj 
irere mtu]iiiIou« in mind or modert in ommmh^ 
doubling llio arrcjitanre of abbey land tkim^ 
nflured unto them, till {irofit and emtoai ft«« v^iy 
able ronfeMon) liad br di-grecs nUiiBcd their eo^ 
■rieneca, and abaolvcd tbctn from anr fiwlt lhM«^ 
Now, all arruplen n'moved, rhniitrr land went iamm 
witbont any rvfrrvt. S'va, mrb wbo mannerly mt- 
pected till the kiiiff carved fur tbttn out of ah hre 
land% acranibk**! for tbcnlJH^lrc« nut of cbantrr iw»- 
nnai; aa knowinfr thii* wa« the hut ditb of the IhI 
rooiae; and after rhantriM, at after cbreae, 
to be expecte<l. A§ fur Ihoae who lUrly 
them of the king, they had anefa good 

r Sm Spml'i C«liik«M te Smhamfttmkm. 

BOOK VI. in England, 479 

therein, that thereby all enriched, and some enno- 
bled, both themselves and posterity. But for satis- 
faction herein I refer the reader to his pen ^ who 
never spared any that came under it, and seldom 
such as came near it ; who speaks more bitterness 
than falsehood in this particular. 

21. The chantry priests, by this suppression outed Pensions 
at once of all their livelihood, were not left to the chantry 
wide world to shift for themselves, but had, durante^^ 
vita, pensions settled on them by king Edward his 
letters patent. I have seen, in the auditor's office 

for the north part of the duchy of Lancaster, the 
account of William Mallet, esq. \ particular receiver 
of the rents, colleges, chantries, &c. in the county of 
York, viz. of so many of them as were in that shire 
annexed to the duchy of Lancaster, which parcel 
alone amounted yearly to seven hundred ninety-six 
pounds four shillings twopence halfpenny; out of 
which sum was deducted one hundred twenty-six 
pounds two shillings fourpence, for annual pensions 
to chantry priests and others, (five pounds apiece 
the general proportion,) assigned them for term of 
life by king Edward the Sixth. 

22. The parliament, at the same time, put hos-Sometwi- 
pitals also into the king's possession; yet surely hotpitab. 
more tenderness was used to hospitals, and I find 

very few of them finally suppressed : indeed that of 
the Savoy at this time was much abused with " loi- 
" terers, vagabonds, ^nA strumpets, that lay all day in 
'' the fields, and at night were harboured there ^.'* 
In which consideration king Edward dissolved the 

^ Sir John Ilayward in Ed- and Mary. 
ward VI. pag. J 55. ^ Stow's Survey of London^ 

i ]\fnde in the 3 ^' 4 of Phil. p. 344. 

480 77>r HUiory nf JbU^ 

liatpital, but ftavo the UnA tlicreo^ 
ilrt^^ [loiiiiil [MT annum, to the ritj of 
cntlow Uriilcwell tbcrcvritb '. Tbiu ho did 
tinfruidh cluiritT, but only rfguUte and 
Trotn tlio Strand to Flc(!t Street; or. 
annv vrith nnc band what «u Bboard. aod 
it with tbo otber tn sucb a» wtidd 



Queen Mvj (a prinrca more M«toii«. i 

to bor dcTotiDii. tbnn poUtir) molTcd, I17 
. mm; uhI trial, tn n-fftori' rertain dusnUed 
■nd endow tht'in «'itb c-omiK*t4.>nt 
order hereunto f\iv mll(<d four of bvr |tritirit«] 1 
mUots uoit inU>n-5ie<l in mcim-y-mattorK via,' 
litun inan|UU of Wjncbt-ster, Ion! trvMarer; 
HoU'rt llorbefitcr, rontroller of bcr bouic ; air WB- 
liant lN>trr. M-cn^taiy ; and rir Frmnns 
muter of the wanU : oiid bj a long •(Kveh 1 
them with her inlontiuni therrin. Now the 
lord I%ulct itK tn'SfUrvr (much being tb<' 
mon<>y at tliin prvwnt) might dislike the m<iUa«i. jot 
u rourticr bo romplii'd with the queen** 
the rather Im><^um> it wm in vain to witbatand 
NO milljr strong wi-n' hi-r rrM>luiioiu. Bat it b 
our attontion tu iK-ar her oration : 

** Vou are hero of our council *. and wv Iwo 
" willed yoD to be calle<l to us. to the bitcBt ym 
** might hear of rao my etmacience. and tho 

' 8I0W at priuK, p. 4i)t. 

* HnlliMfcid M Qmm Uty. m 

BOOK v[, in Eiif^taml. 481 

" tiun of my miud, coticeming the lands and po^sett- 
" sions, as well of monasteries as other churches 
" whatsoever, being now presently in my possession ; 
" First, I do consider that the said lands were taken 
" away from the churches aforesaid in time of scliism, 
" and that by unlawful means, such as are contrary 
" both to the law of God and of the church. For 
" the which cause my conscience doth not suffer me 
"to detain them; and therefore T here expressly 
" refuse either to claim or to retain the said lands 
" for mine ; but with all my heart, freely and will- 
" ingly, without all paction or condition, here and 
" before God I do surrender and relinquish the said 
" lands and possessions, or inheritances whatsoever, 
*' and do renounce the same with this mind and 
" purjiose, that order and disposition thereof may be 
" taken as shall seem best liking to our most holy 
" lord the pope, or else his legate the lord cardinal, 
" to the honour of God and wealth of this our 
" realm. 

" And albeit you may object to me again, that 
" considering the state of my kingdom, the dignity 
" thereof, and niy crown imperial cannot be hononr- 
" ably maintained and furnished without the posses- 
" sions aforesaid ; yet notwithstanding I set more by 
" the salvation of my soul than by ten kingdoms, 
" and therefore the said ]x>ssession8 I utterly refuse 
" here to hold after that sort and title, and give 
" most hearty thanks to Almighty God which hath 
** given me an husband likewise minded, with no 
" less good affection in this behalf than I am myself. 
*' \\*herefore I chai-ge and command that my cban- 
*' cellor (with whom I have conferred my mind in 
•' this matter before) and you four, to-morrow, do 

ruM.BB, VOL. iir. T i 

The ISatary ef Abbtgm MM* 

t lofieUier to the mtmA femrond la«4 lai^* 
** aail do rignifV to Uim the pnnmae* in mj hbh 
** and ^Te ynur attciidanco apnn bim far lW»i« 
I decfaumtion of Uie Mste of my kk^di^ «rf 
** of the afoiroud \iom am am aeconiu^gly, am jm 
*' rounelTps do uiKlcnrtaiid the 
" itifurm bim in tbo nme." 

fi. In this titatt«r the words of '■ 
a bf bB observed, prummiiij^ hiin best knowinjf' ia tW* 
acts of rf«lilutifni then peHbnni<d hj tN-T 
and that be woald InvD nothing for the 
which uiijiht tend to tb<< qtiera'ii rrvdit. 

BflaMtctawnm* CwuinM- 

itimioruni, Obtvrranttu 
kliorum fHdinnm n deviMii 
ptTKNUi r«*dificBnlar ; C«- 
tholWa Htgibtu ia hoe fp. 

Now, leein; thU p u wgy is the bnt tncfc «• 
meet with to direct tu in this daric nblect, w« i 
•everallj weigh bit wwda, and impwtiall; «««■ 
upon them: 

L BemtdiOiMm.] Wbeo Wertmivter OnmA i 
tamed Into an abbef* and John FerlunbMB hi 
abbot tberaoC imtalled thenjn on ibe Sirt N«m 
her, 1557: tnit thlA wa« dotM^ without any eurt 
the crown, onlr br altfriiig the proportj of the fk 
from a late-made rstbedrml to an abbcT. and 
the prdieodarin into sixteen blark mookih «UA 

• Urn Mis. Aac- lik a. pi(. sa9»tA». 


nooK VI. hi Kn^land. 48.'i 

were ail at the present could be found having that 
order and willing to wear that habit upon them. 

ii. Carthusians.'l These were fixed at Sheen, nigh 
Richmond, in Surrey, over against SLon. 

iii. liriffilteans.] At Sion, in Middlesex. This 
indeed, with the former, cut two good coUops out of 
the crown land, though far short this second endow- 
ment of what formerly they possessed. It was some 
difficulty to stock it with such who had been veiled 
before, it being now thirty years since their dissolu- 
tion, in which time moat of the elder nuns were in 
tlieir graves and the younger in the arms of their 
husbands, as afterwards embracing a married life. 
HowHvcr with much ado, joining some new ones 
with the old, they made up a competent number. 

iv. Dominicans I] These were seated in Smithtiehl, 
in London, The best was, they being niendirants, 
(little stock would serve to set up beggars,) their 
restonng couUl not be very expensive to the queen, 
besides the site of an house for their dwelling, and 
some other necessary accommodations. 

V. Obs&iTaiits.'\ These were friars, like the former, 
being Franciscans reformed, and therefore not over 
costly their restitution. Their house was at Green- 
wich, founded by king Henry the Seventh, plucked 
down by king Henry the Eighth, (as largely before.) 
one of the first of all other convents ; because the 
friars therein were so obstinate against the king, and 
such sticklers for the legality of queen Katherines 
marriage : in gratitude whereunto. and honour of 
her own extraction, queen Mary reseated them iu 
their habitations. 

vi. /( ud other orders.'] Sanders, for the more credit 
of the matter, politicly winds up all these indefinite 

W4 TAf Autory ofAhkg^ 

words, thou)(h in the n'muninf; urdera 

nioiiy aH to makL' ujt a tiunibor; %>( wfairk tW 

eminent wen* tlit* t)of>|i)tallfTs rtr St. J(>ha*« of 

■alem, in Clprkenvrull, ■ piuo tn ■ pttiM | 

when utiw tbej wen* lint rcatonKl; for tW 

tower of the church wu imdenaiDed mad 

with gitnpowiler. that the MoDd tbereof ■■ 

Soiut-nu>l liouiiu in the 8tnnd. Now i 

BtecpU* wu Hhutlcrt-d, the rhurrh 

shakc-n ; ah hen* th*.* Uxlr and ride 

wcn> bj lliAt fatal blow Anally confoiuM|«d* 

part of the- choir n-niainin^. with 

wbifh i-nrdinaJ FoIl* cnuwd to be d 

the wt^ end and n'pairud ; and tUa 

fao«{iitalIt->r« for their derotioiu the tboi 

ooutiuued then^n. The quuen made mr 

Treibam lortl-prior of thia onler. who, tbe 

of Novembtir, 1557. rvcvlved the order of tke fi 

at Weatmiufltcr, lod v» mtemnly indneted iato 

place. He vaa of an aitcient fanily and largv Mti 

and had done the qoeen knight'a Mrriee; 

ber in the hiffhest rontest with quevn iwae. If 

dimcuaittn of hi* ImmIj may he fpicMid by fata S^ 

1 hb flnf^r l>y hi« rinj;. (whiirh I bare ami hi 
■ion of hit kia«ninii, William Treehan, <Bf 
Hvwloa in Nonhani|>toii»hin'.) ho ww a little 
and hr gmt«Tr than htA portrailarp on hi* dmb 
ment (atmoat dcaioliMhed) in Itiutitnn Churrh, ia t 
) eoanty. Bat Alexander* •oldien «erv not 
1 ao big aa tbeir ahielda left in India; ai 

Bible that ring of atato, Mrving fur a «r*|, « 
nther borae aboot him than worn on hk fioftw- 

* HiM<r*« Hurvry uS LmnAw, |*. 4S5. 

1 Eiiglaml. 

vii. Ite-cdified % devout perxmts.] It is out of 
doubt that pajiistH contributed many precious uten- 
sils unto these orders, as also that they were boun- 
tiful in repairing their decayed houses to fit them 
for their habitation ; but, by Sanders his leave, no 
\-isiblo refunding of land doth appear; which if he 
had known of, no doubt he would have told pos- 
terity, as tending, according to his principles, so 
much to the credit of those persons. I say again, 
though queens' examples carrj" a kind of mandamus 
in them, yet herein Iier best subjects and servants 
were so unmaiuierly as to suffer her grace to go 
alone by herself in this a«t, without any attendants, 
as to the restitution of any entire religious house to 
its former order : no, not Anthony Browne, ™count 
Montacute, (though formerly solemnly employed in 
an embassy to the pope, to reconcile the church of 
England to Rome.) would part with his rich abbey 
of Battle in Sussex, or poor priory of Bamewell 
nigh Cambridge, &o., but kept all his pluralities in 
that nature, though otherwise we believe him most 
bomitiful to those of his own religion. 

viii. Th catholic princes.} Meaning Philip and 
Mary ; and surely, though we caimot insist on the 
particulars, that king's inclinations are sufficiently 
known, zealous for the promoting of his own 

However, it is almost incredible what a qualm on 
this occasion came over the hearts of the stoutest 
abbey-land-mongers in England, fearing in process 
of time a reverting of them to their former use ; the 
rather because ciirdinal Pole, in that act in this 
queen's reign to secure abbey-lands to their owners, 
(without the passing whereof, to pacify so many 
B i 3 

rht Hittanf of Ab6ty, warn ^ 

ftnam «ngen>a d , pspbtO' ""^ i*°* ^** ^b"" 
iwUn pd ill tfamt parliament.) did not, ■ 
■banlw their roiMwieneei tnm Rwtituttoa, I 
made a palliatr euro; the rhurrk Intt i 
that power which in duo timp the migi 

Ann) 9. Thifl made manj mvipeet that Hirb < 

S^ ^ abbcp which still were extant, 

*'^'"' kivingly on their ■adent ownon, in bopa to W 
natomd unto them : (n proveatioa wimaaC mA m 
fomamed thorn for the preaant phteked oat 4alr 
ojea, hj levdlinic them to Ike gtiHiiid. and i 
from them, aa mneh ai thmy etrald. all Mief c 
Mmt l U i gu iii iig than as madi m mi|rfat be i» « la^ 
haM^ malfhiny and mingling thtin with laa^ in 
anothnr teanre, becauae on this rery moticai alAaj 
butds Btmk two yean' pnrrhaai in the 

M"'*M> 4. Nor miiitt I forjret one pan 

mm. <B riTtaJn infonnatinn whereof I have i 

that skilful antiiinarr and m,T rcapeeted ] 

Sanud Roper, of IjinrolnV Inn.) hnw c 

bring fnWEMid of Rtiiinffdon Abbey in 1 

•laramed with this news that queen Mary bad i 

theae abbeyi again, and baring h<iw Urge i 

■Ddh a preoMlcsit might have, npon a Stt 

the better day the better deed) called i 

cnrportcm ami mMooi of that county, i 

down in one day (ehmds-worfc is a cripple t 

np. bnt rides poaK hi eoming down) a rooal I 

eharrh belonging thenmnlo, adding, be * 

•stray the neat, for (ear the birds Atmid biM^ 

" therein again." 

5. And now. when s |«piftt have li 

I England. 

setting up the hospital of the Savoy was a better qi 
work tlian any instanced in by Saiidenf for tlie relief "^' 
of poor people : first, berause poor, r/ua poor, may be 
said to be /arc dimno: The rich and pom' meet foffe- 
t/iir, nnd the Lord maketk them both P, not only as 
creator of their persons, bnt assipier of tJieir con- 
ditions. Besides, the poor is a continual order in 
the church by the words of our Saviour, The poor ye 
hate always with you "i : but more properly hereof in 
tlie reign of queen Mary. 



leen Elizabeth, coming to the crown, was notvioimt 
rer-busyat the first, but for some months pemiitteddi 
all things to remain in statu tfuo prim ; insomuch 
that, in the first parliament of her summoning, she 
sent her writs to the aforesaid lord-prior Treshani 
and abbot Fcckenliam, to make their appearance 
with the rest of her barons in her great council: 
whither they repaired, and wherein they took their 
places accordingly. 

2. Sir Thomas (as lord jirior) above, but the abbot 
beneath, all the temporal lords ■■, being the lag of the 
house, and placed WKler Oliver lord St. John of 
Bletuetsho, lately made the second baron of queen 
Elizabeth her creation ; but they had hardly set 
down on their seats before thoy were raised up and 
dissolved, with all the rest of the late-restored 

P Pmv. %x\\. 1. ' Sve li Hit nf tliuin, Hitliii|,>. 

q John xii. 8. in nir Thos. Cotton's Libnirv. 


488 Tk€ Ui»tory4^AUn,M w ^ 

A Twn >■ 3-1 liavc not met, to my bait ranenfanonb *<>^ 
tab*. any statute cnartct] in tbe reigti of qaeca Mwt. 
whi-rvbr itbu wv legmllj vnipowered lor Ik ■» 
erection of tbew mnventu, done, it M!c<n% hj kv 
pivntgatiTf-, by ciHiniTanc«?, nut coacurreaeff ti Ikr 
parliamoiit ; nor can I find, in tliv first yw of ^hmb 
Elizslioth. on; iiarticiilnr HUtuttr whrnrtn (■■ m <k* 
reign or kinjt lit-nr}- tliL- l-Iigbtb) Ibnw < 
noMimatim ^ujipnwed ; tbis probably beui|[ t 
needletv, as i conceive, (witb MibiaiflBoa 
Icuned in tbat |in>f(i(Hioii,> tbdr borne* hsvins "* 
legti settlement : or elM\ vrbcn tbe genetml i 
«gtiiut BupeKtition »(?n* bud like tbe «xe to «k» J 
root of tbe tree, tbeee orden, H ita 
teW of ibeDutelvoa hy virtoe of the qw 
siou fur tbe aunt*. 
Antefw 4. I intended, br war of ■ rarewdl oomllMy, to 1 
im oun |irv«ent tbe n^uler witb a Ust of tbe lord*fwiat» af I 
''°~* St. Jobn'n, from JorJauuit Bri«§et, tbeir firrt fom 
hut tbeir reconU Xtc'iiif; all bunil in that fire « 
was kiudled hj Straw in IUh cotntiKitioo. it it in 
rible to omiplete tbe catalogue : at and mnot m 
diflHter. HKih ■■ we can reoDVer are no! emMf 
in timoa, and diitaneod wMi nmaj ytmn hg fttt 1 
tbem, thuoKb pcrfaapa not nimiBfnl to be ini 
i. Rir Robert ISalna. lord-tRNMorer of 1 
tbin in the tumult of Tyler, anno 1380, in A* 
fourth of king Iticbanl the Si<cond : at wbieb tla^ 

ii. Next him. m John Lnngitrotber, (I mj waa^ 
fnriatm al hmgo ym p ro ,rim m t m krMiio,) ^^'^"K 
with tbe houae of Laneaater: be waa lakeo iviaoMV 
in Tewkrflbary battle, anno 1471. and by kinjr 1^ 
ward the Fourth )>ut to dmth in mM blood, cwfk- 

in Hugh, 


trary to the promise of a prince who had assured his 
life unto him. 

iii. Sir Thomas Dockwray is the next, not of all, 
but in our discovery : a person of much desert, 
expending hitnaelf wlioHy for the credit and profit of 
his priory, as who re-edified the church out of its 
ruin, finishing it anno 1504, as appeareth by the 
inscription over the gate-house yet remaining. 

iv. Sir William Weston succeeds, (of whom lie- 
fore,) dissolved this list on the very day of tho 
dissolution of this priory. 

v. Sir Thomas Tresbam was the first and last of 
rpieen Mary's re-erection. There goetli a tradition 
that queen Elizabeth, in consideration of bis good 
Reriiice done to herself in her sister queen Mary, 
whom be proclaimed, and their titles being shut out 
of doors together, both were let in again at once, 
(hough to take place successively, allowed him to 
I»e called lord-prior during his life, which was not 
long, and the matter not mucL, deriving no power 
or profit unto him. 

Flere I purponely omit sir Richard Shelley, wliich 
family T find of remark for worship and antiquity at 
Michel Grove in Sussex. He bare a great enmity 
to queen Elizabeth, especially after she had flatly 
denied Philip king of Spain, (whither Shelley was 
fled,) to consent to his abiding there, and to his 
quiet receiving his rents out of EIngland. However, 
the Spanish king employed him in an honourable 
embassy unto Maximilian, king of the Romans', 
wearing the high title of prior of the order of St. 
John's in England ' ; a prior without a posterior. 

' Cnmd. Eiii. a 


1560, p. 46. 

490 Thr Itutmy of AkU^ (■ Emglmmd. pms • 

bBTing none ooder him to obey hk pawn; mr iflM 
him to miweed in his place. \Vc beliold Mm «■! 
■■ the «Tj-«Croke ginm in bjr oi oat of enwiw; 
wb«n th« gmme wis op bernn*. 

5. The lite of ttie priorv of St. JohnV «« ImmI 
the poflMMioa of miliun aai of Bxetar. «%« 

tnten, EUnlxMh Dniry, wu ver^ fcmvd i 
repair tlie ruinod choir thereof. Doctor Joaaffc 
prPAched At tlie mliftnn remnrilinfr lhen>aC <■ 
Sh-pben's Day. IfiSS. tak'itif^ for hb tuzt, flay. 
7'A<- ^iiry itf thf tnttrr hm»e tludl he frmttr lAa 
tif fortner, .*aith du Ijord of HoaU*. At Aaa 
though (-■oarctatcd. haritig the iddo 
(jet so that their uppvr patt is admitted, 
eonTeniendes for attcnticHi,) it is one of th« I 
prirat« efa^wla in England, diaenedj enbfaeiaf 
mean nf iteaaej betwixt tha wtw w of 
profimeoeH aad gaadjr aup wa tm oci, aad 
at tUa pmaant to tlto iralv noble ~ 

•[Prbtad in UiWariu.V. ite, •d.iSj?.) 

I St 





I find Sir Thomas Doektoray imeofihe lati lard prion of 
our English HospiiaUers. To say you are dsseendsd/irom 
him tcouldfiw a stain on your extraction^ seeing none might 
marry who were of his order. 

But this I will say and justify^ thai you boA are descended 
from the same ancestor^ as by awtheniie records do&k moet 
plainly appear. 

Besides^ some conformity may be seen tn your commendaNe 
inclinations. He was aU for buildiskg of a fair diurek\ 
according to the devotion of those days^. Your bomnt^d 

A [Arms. Sable, a chevron 
engrailed argent between three 
plates, each charged with a pale, 
gules. There are two pedi^ees, 
at the leasts of this famuy, in 
the Harleian MSS. in the Bri. 
tish Museum ; but I cannot 
satisfactorily identify this per- 
son. His rather, if I am not 
mistaken, was Ralph, second 
son of Thomas Dowcra, of Fnl- 
borne in the county of Cam- 
bridge ; he is called of Hinton, 
Cambridge, in 1634. The fa- 

milj occupied various manors 
in Herefordshire.] 

^ Stow^s Sorrej, p. 483. 

e [The belLtower of this 
church (St. John s of Jemsa* 
lem, Clerkenwell) was under, 
mined and blown up with gun* 
powder^ that the stones misht 
oe taken and used in the buSd- 
ing of Somerset House in the 
Strand. It was a building of 
remarkable beauty. Stew's 
Sunrey, by Stnrpe, vol. iL p. 
63. See this Hut. 484, 489.] 

mtdtJ*. Urn i/fomn (a JrMr /dine, am Ud wf fmfm 
wmlit) may. If G^§ httmi*^. Ltn Urn I 
hm^ nutinma»et. 


i|M('S wi-n' afl monki. (ran, uid wmm 
I loultj nmltMl b}' the cooui^ u «f 
quufii I-Uiza)x.-th. I fiod D»t tliat m^ 
, ptfiuiunii wen* allotrr«l U> Ummb ToCata* 
' who nt till* timo wnre oatcd ihfJi ao^ 
Tpnttt, though targv nniiiiitioa wen* iMigned to I 
who Wen- fjt.'ottNl tlii'ir munwUTie*. nrflcgts, < 
eltAiitri€«. iu ttic rci/rru nf kin^ Hrarj Uw ! 
and EdH-mrd the Sutb : where»r tUi vaaj ■ 
reucm. beeauie iiow, Mmt/ tt^rmtor, be 
might bewaro who mteriKl an abbejr, be it at I 
owu |M>riI, DpeinfT thcj ftinncrl; had m (air a i 
ing : tbongli in(lft<d •oniL' of ihina, who had 
frifniU to brip th4?tn. were Ml in no Terr 
conditHin, and dird in much want and diftneM. 
8. But now. in the bejpuning of tbi« qoeeii'a n 
I a complaint did artw, thni " prmion* wciv i 
" fnim inanv fji<cto<) out of abbcn in her I 
" bruthf r lii* reign, wliu Iteing poc 
•* tfint, aod reiMUrii^ to the queen'* oAcen t 

' pewioin, wen, fnatea*] of i 

I alhxita^' 
with the truth heroor. 

' language and i 

117, paM 

Her ma^mty, 
took itriet order both lfe« 

' Mow's amtrn u LomImi. p- 4*i- 

i Ellwand. 


their arrears for the time past ehouhl be satisfied, 
aud their annuitiee for the time to oome effectually 
discharged, which much advanced her honour in 
pecuniary matters. 

3. Hence grew the proverb, (crossed in the dayschequer- 

all who, in this queen's reign, had sums due unto"^"'' 
them from the treasury, had no other trouble than 
to tell them there, and take them thence. Thus it 
came to pass, that by her maintaining of the ex- 
ehe(iuer, the exchequer maintained her ; having 
money at most, credit at all times, on the reputation 
of so good a pajTnistress : insomuch that she was 
not only able to lay down her stake, but also to vie 
ready silver with the king of Spain, when he, not- 
withstanding both his Indies, was fain to go on bare 

4. As for popish (religious) persons flying out of^"""')' 
England at the coming in of this queen, our [len oU titt 
shall follow them as fast as it can with convenient 
speed. We begin with the nuns, partly because the 
courtesy of England alloweth the first place to the 
feeblest sex, but chiefly because they seem still to 
continue an entire body, and successively an immor- 
tal cori>oration ; being, with the Carthusians, the 

only stump that remaineth of the huge tree which 
once overspread and shadowed our whole nation. 

5. May the reader be pleased to remember, that t*" po- 
king Henry the Fifth founded one abbey of nuns atnunifnun 
Sion in Middlesex, peopling it with Brigetine nunisi^j^,. 
and friars, and another at Sheen in Surrey, over 
against it ; so ordering it, that all the day long alter- 
nately, when the devotions of the one ended, the 
other should begin, that nothing should interrupt 

Tka Hillary ttf 4bUy* 

sicknLtw— >l; 

in Norl)inni]itiinfthin> 

mfMt portable trrasurt' lieyond tl 

in ZL>alnii<l, tlioiin- in MiTlitin in hntnnU I 

Roacn in NoniiuidT, Ihic fotiiid do eertBtn ptaae t 

abmlc till they cuiir to IJaboo in Pu rtuy J. 

6. For here they hml a AaAy peniiaa of f ve crovi 
firom the kinfr of S|iain. and w)ti«t ararp titan arf 
' rieot whilHt Lisbon was hi»: and I doubt not ^ 
the praseat kin^f of Pnrtufrnl pcrfonnetli Uw «■■ 
They hare vinoynrdft, idivL'.ficldi^ eam.^rvtaA^ «■ 
hottma, to tbe valup of four liuodrvd milraa* % ywr* 
whioh wan the portion of a Portugufla* (aole Mr ft 
her wvalthy Intbtir) who. bvrcimtDfc a jgUgioi dM 
in thU coQTent, eooTeycd h«r inberltaner bmd fe 
Ho that, by tfaeir boxes In Indian and FtiaiiUaii dUpi 

• rnw Hihrtanc* nf tltu ami ImIi BrifMuM mmm tl«t«. fe 

tba mr Mlmring (wrafratilM ww pfltMirfad l» «■■■» ^ 

ia laka (noi • |MBpUM Mii- lwb>t.wi<»WflijiJfcyifc 

thd " TW AaMoay of tW wfcriOT, ■■nag othar onq^ 

"EMliiliNnaa«nr<uLiituB,~ tiaa*. la MMlac the n#Mwrf 

l7TkMinafaiM«i.«mM>b- lUrhnw. Alk« mm ^ 

UmI IB t6ii.r«|naled akwi W m aw^, mA. r^mnm^^ 

twaty Mu* aftwat A. and KagUa4. gat* aa aa^«aa rf 

JMliJfcyMurpaiaMiPfcia- lUa aaaaary is ik inaii*«a 

all Pfilawiiww. Tlw aatlMr, ■la l i il iifciitii mj i— l 

h MfM. lUiAia al CMBhridpi aarf a« VHy wriAcf i «i^ 

hat. (DJiif abraarf bb4 fiUli^ « to biawnr or nmA U^ 

ia wiU btker Setli. otkMwiN T irj Jlr ■ i iiiiha^ 

J«aMih FiMUr.aa Eagiiifc Mar. Ui» rfmiaw narBatt. 
ta LUna, MafcMor to tha Ba«- 

in England. 495 

ue of maeseg, and other perquisites, they are said 
yearly to lay up six hundred puuuds. 

7. Indeed, they bemin with a imod hank; and-^P"'*"'' 
hereon hangs a story worth reporting. When doctor dm por- 
Lopez, a Jew-Portugal, undertook to poison queen 
Elizabeth, he would not (to shew himself a Jew 
indeed) do his work till in some sort secured of his 
wages. The sum promised him was deposited with 
these nuns b, whilst as yet they lived at Rouen in 
Normandy. But Lopez his design failing, the same 
halter which bereaved him of life endowed these 

nuns with a liveUhood ; for the king of Spain, either 
out of scrupulosity not to resume the same into his 
treasury as the price of blood, or out of liberality, 
conferred those monies on the nuns, which since 
they have well housewived and increased. 

8. AVe need not repeat what we have formerly TWr ran 
said of the Brigetine nuns (first founded by Briget, ^^^" 
queen of Swedeland) having friars pennitted to live 
under the same roof, though disjoined with w*alls, 

for their better consolation. Some thirty years since 
father Joseph Foster was their confessor, having two 
other priests and a lay brother to assist him, wliose 
names I am less careful to insert, because they 
change them as often as snakes their skins, botli 
what they took at the font and fetched from their 
fathers, truly called by what they are not known, 
and commonly known by what they are not truly 
called, Elizabeth Preston about this time was ab- 
bess, who being outed as in disgrace with father 
Foster, Barbara Wiseman succeeded in her place. 

I TLoG. Robinson [Anatomy of tfae Eogtiah Nuds at Liiiboii], 

400 Tbt Uhtary «/ Ablmi' m« ■ 

9. Surti lu <li<8tiTi further Mtnfiwtion 
"ooiiMitt the Anatomr of Uil> EngUik Ni 
Lisbon, made by Thonms Robintnii, 
aiithorilT, uid lately reprinted. I enofew it 
spptn cnielty U* cnt up tbt> Hritijc, and t^e l« 
mortalfi would winot- to puqxi«e if dijpertcd 
but Tm- tnurh of tnith is Wtievrd in hia 
tolling iiH of n jrnilp bctwHxt tlioM> friara 
r ■ometimeH Mk rlturlMi a« In divide tbivi, ' 
1 90 clinriiAbk- ox tH>n<t<-iitin;: to hty drawn tifv «* 
to admit tbem to a mutiwl MtHwy : «o tlMt if 
friar calk'th, t)ie uun roniftli inroatiaently ■! 
coinniand. I have htitn) nnce ttiat tbvtr < m ig< 
Utv buth i-aBually U^-n burned down, wbMi, tf a 
doubt, not but ibfv an< able to n'boild it, ■• 
tDorc by water (tlio ^mtuitiea of Bmrlianta) tftai 
tbejr have Icwt by firp. 


They are of the order nf Si Benedict, i 
aolely under the inii|M>etion of the Jrwoito; « 
•eema improper, Meeinft it would Mound like i 
eonfllrDction that BeiwdidiDe Duns »b«iuld be • 
to BeiH-dirtiiie noaka. Hie truth ia, that at iht 
St«t founding hereof th« Jcattltlral aetirity fot lk» 
itut of the Benclictine dalneaa, and tbrae mmb if 
iMting OKtal (aa itoiwl at lenj^h aa at haa4) kay 
the adTairtage which once they baw gottc*. 

d. DD nana emne Utber tait Mcfa aa an la 
'ported by the Jemita' fpedal wcoBwaepdallei^ i 
therrfore it is but equal ihry i»fa4MiM drc 
the rinen of their own planting. 1 i 
place io loo enatly for my daUfrhter to be i 

BOOK VI. in England. 407 

there, seeing they receive none into their abbey and 
habit unless she have a thousand pound or two for 
her portion K 

2. The abbey is very rich, having purchased whole Tfaair gmt 
manors and lordships in Brabant, with many thou- 
sands of pounds at use in the Lombards and else- 
where, all which the English Jesuits do dispose of 
Father Gardiner and father Waldegrave,a/ta« Flower ^ 
were, anno 1630, their overseers ; being some sixty 
English damosels under their abbess, then the sister 
of the (aunt to the present) earl of Northumberland. 


Don Carlos de Colomna, governor of the city and Ounbity 
country of Cambray for the king of Spain, and some- "™**^* 
times ambassador for England, was so allured with 
tlie beauty or affected with the piety of our English 
women, that (as it is generally reported) he gave 
them a cloister within this city, where now they live 
and have an English congregation, erected according 
to the order of St. Benedict. Lately they had no 
lands purchased, though possibly since they may be 
endowed ^. 


The family of the Gages, at Furle in Sussex, were onmiiBn 
their principal benefactors, (whereof John Gage, 

b Lewis Owen his Running bon, but the wealthy nuns were 

Register, p. 1 02. [The same is removed to Brussels. Anatomy, 

stated by Robinson, who ob- &c, p. 339, ed. Morgan.! 

serves that such as had no por- ^ Engli^-Spanish Pugrin. 

tion were sent toGravelin, those p. 72. 

who had little property to Lis- ■ [Lewis Owen* ih» p. 104*] 


P^rfryMnirMellnr, n» I lakt> it, tu queen Mm^ 
[ WtrioA tliP Inni) ami his own lar]^ i<cCata aC 1^ 
begiiininj; of i\\\vvn Klixalx-th.) u appnu* hj esiiii 
tabli-tH to bo Rot-ii in tlunr chitrrh '. Y«< B* ikif 
the pmmwt of oil rnrt-'igii ninvenU. bciiig tlw Aa^ 
orated nuiw of the orUt uf Sc CImiv. 5iar cafw 
I mre »pnt tn BnixclU, twrraiw wJtAj bora or ritM^ 
dowriod ; qvahtr trajf bi Lisbon or Qunbiaj, i wj w^ 
ing thiMO of a miildle rank ; wliilit ^wir mm, ji^ 
amet ooc, aru wut to (irnTL'Uun, tlir 
other eonvpiits. Cum nemini nitnuti 
Ace. Such whti c«inie over with t-mptr 
br iiuiw al f iravi:-liiu>H with lukcd fivt. 
S. Here I piirpnwl^ omit tho nuns of 
, Braljanl, iMxsuae not xjMvking pare Kn^tdi, tmt 
Rrarrflv mnlirtairm tiuytue, \Mag a hniljp^ P"**|" ^ 
Fhitch Rtitl Kti;r)iMh, nnd the formtT it thb dn* ^uri 
niimeniuB ". Vfo. nftentiran the two nitin— htm 
Btrivi* for m|>erioritj; uid tbuufrh iintarv inrfioMk 
me in thb contention to favour idt rountrrwnvM^ 
yei I conoeiTD it bcttvr to lean* thi-m aloii« u* afHv 
irith UmhmItc*, and proceed tii tlw J< 


.. The«c began at Litko or Ltegv abool lUrtf^ 
linrt! ". MistrcM Mar; WopI and Mirtn^ Twiwr ' 
being the fimt beginnen of tbrin. Tlti>T i 
confined, aa other nun*, to a clektet, bat 
Ubeitj to go abroad wbt- n> tinj plcwe, to < 

I [Ow'iNnrShrakAf.p. 11.365. 

it$. LvwkOwM. ». loj.] loj. TWt u« 

- [Lewfa Own, ib. p. 104.] ovfamM «' ' 

« CA.D.1A30. BMRiTfH. SLUnak.] 

BOOK vr. in England. 499 

people to the Catholic fidth. They wear a huke 
like other women, and differ but little in their habit 
from common persons. The aforesaid two virgins^ 
or rather viragins, travelled to Rome with three the 
most beautiful of their society ^ endeavouring to 
procure from his holiness an establishment of their 
order ; but no confirmation, only a toleration,' would 
be granted thereof. Since I have read, that anno 
1629 Mistress Mary Ward went to Vienna, where 
she prevailed so far with the empress, that she pro- 
cured a monastery to be erected for those of her 
order, as formerly they had two houses at Liege p. 
Since, I have heard nothing of them, which rendereth 
it suspicious that their order is suppressed, because 
otherwise such turbulent spirits would be known by 
their own violence, it being all one with a storm not 
to be and not to bluster; for, although this may 
seem the speediest way to make their order to pro- 
pagate when Jesuita shall become hie et Jubc of the 
common gender, yet conscientious Catholics con- 
ceived these lady errants so much to deviate from 
feminine (not to say virgin) modesty, (what is but 
going in men being accounted gadding in maids,) 
that they zealously decried their practice, probably 
to the present blasting thereof. 



We will not so fisu* distrust the reader's memory ^icRiii. 
as to repeat our prenused distinction betwixt monks Bew 


o Mistress Vanx, Fortescue. 4 [The sabstanoe of this pa- 
P English-Spanish Pilgrim, ragraph is taken from Owea'% 
p. 3 1 . Running Ri^giitiVy p. 84.] 





' unUenttioal < 


mid (riant; »tily know that the ] 
R'lmrt, that towanh tlit* end of qnem 
tfaoro WIS but one Knjrlmh monk { \ 
living iu the wfaolo world': tt thinf 
to mich wbo eonxider monks fci-iK.fnlly 
befon* ndmitu-d into tlioir nnlcr, aad I 
iixty yenn wen> [)Cf«<.<d frum tbe 
Bbbo>~n to the rnd of quMm I 
KVeral Colhotiftt of the i 
doctun OifTonl, [kfihaw, Stophiiai, I 
the Jomiits, on feUiiT MauraV death. « 
of kwAiI suceewon to the old 1 
nonkt, tniter ujmn all tlitr abbc^ lamb t 
■oUeit4.'d maiiv Knf.'Hth t^udenta then livtB^ i 
fmlleffea and iwniinarics to hecooic i 
order nf St. ]W<nai<t, ppimadiiif them 
tbev ••houhl uititle theinielra to s Iwfi 
of land now likely to fiUI tmto than. 
kMribf S. Here am I pat in s dooble 
Tmi wh«nwa thb fMp'uticai eooBdenee «« 
■* the «per«!T restitution of abbey bod i 
both her dt«lb, Hndinjc no vtNibIc p 
■ame; K-oondly. I a>hnirc bow JMnllac 
(in default of Item-dictino 'mfito) UMnMlml 
these lajtfiieil or mrant landii, i 

far more anrieni, mijtht lay a bettw t 
except ther emireivc »ueh Enjrtiah abbey I 
in b(tnruf;:b- English, wbcMfin tbe yonngeat, ■ 

' [PWdMkHi imI %<b«t IWfrkrwiMnV 

BbUm wmthMkatHftlw aOU fa «»1 

-er; ud wUa tb. bnMr l«w<iv»Mn^l^bCV 

i,wmmjymn»)»fMihHm» v Haw. ia bt^mttrf 

uooK VI. in England. 501 

to the cuBtom of Bome manors, is to inherit ; and so 
by the same ndrantage this last and newest of all 
orders possessed themselvea thereof, 

S. However, to prevent them, at the instance of 
the aforesaid secular priests, many English students 
got into foreign convents of Benedictines, an<l took 
on them the habit of St. Bcnnet. John Roberts, 
first a lawyer's clerk in London, then a student in 
the English college at Valladolid, first led the dance, 
nmning away to a neighbouring convent of Spanish 
Benedictines. More of the flock followed this bell- 
wether thick and threefold, leaving the college of 
the Jesuits in despite of all the care and caution of 
their father prefects. Father Augustine (if that is 
his true and not assumed name) was the second monk 
of note at this time ; a name very active, I am sure, 
in propagating superstition in England ; and Roberts 
and Augustine, the two revivers of the new Bene- 
dictines •, These obtained leave of pope Pius Qoin- 
tus aud the king of Spain to build tliem a convent 
at Douay; and though Roberts, coming over into 
England to procure the catholics' contribution tliere- 
unto, had the hard hap to meet with Tyburn in his 
way, yet the design proceeded, and was jwrfected. 


Eor the lord abbot of St. Vedastus {An^fice, St. Dmia^ 
Forsters) in Arras, a wealthy man, and great favourer"""^ ' 

> (The reader will find o in the text,) AtbeoK, II. $. 

complete account of the restor- Reyner compiled hia work 

atioii of the Benedictine order from Baker's pnpera.] 

in Reyner's Antiq. Benedict, p. * [Founded by the exertiona 

347,iind A[)p. I..and in Wood's of fntber Roberta, who is men- 

iJfe of Augustine Baker, (the tioned above. Owen's Running 

^^^ I whom F'ulier refers Register, pp. 90, 94.] 

K k 3 

of the English, joa. goncmllj gixxl to all f 
buitt thrm n rIoiMter. nnil tino rburrA i 
bb own imiiMT c<»t ; to wbuin, imd bit i 
tbc Eiifclieh iiioiiks mv bouiKl to paj i 
first of Febmary, a wax canilk' weij 
IMiund, by w-ay of homago and acknorwk 
their foamier. 

, Dortor Giffonl. d4>an <>f (he ct>IK>gimtc ■ 
St. IVtcr's in lUtwlt. alia* Inntb, 
crectod « tmall ooagreg»UoD of 1 
St. Malo's iu FiHucv, whereof be I 
prior. Hero ho rcmaiDcd loiDe je>i% I 
raiftniDf; it t» another monk, he reiDOTod I 


PMbmn. Which the afoTcmd doctor (but Dow i 
*'"*' and auj^i'iiit-d with Ibc honour and | 
archhiiilio]iric of Rbeiuu) buUt and < 
own oxpciwc*. Minftwrlng thenMo i 
ffd fmm ht« orcbbUioprie, oa the ] 
the duke of Uuiao was i 
Twc^ 8. PUa wo now from uur KoglUb i 

M ai fmn, and begin with the OuthimiaM : Um^ 1 
onled of Sbaen in Sonnjr at the eoninf la «f ^ 
KUaabeth, waftod tbeinaelfca over the i 
much wealth aa bought them a eloiiter« ' 
to maintain it, at Mccblin. Tba 
to be tito moat viaiblo church of I 
ooatimiing an nninterrnpted • 

BOOK VI. in England. 608 

up with hopes of regaining their old lands, that when 
])rince Charles went to Spain thej sent two of their 
friars into England to take possession both of Char- 
ter House and Sheen. Say not one of those places 
had been fair at first, seeing to save double pains 
and charges they did well to claim them both toge- 
ther, as likely to possess them both together, as no 
doubt they had done long ago, had not the rightful 
owners then and ever since detained the same. 


Some report this erected by count Grondomar ; Dooay. 
others, more probably, by the charity of English ca- 
tholics for recollect friars of the order of St. Francis. 
Tliey have a strong fancy that Christ Church in 
London shall one day be theirs, at the next return 
of times. The best is, being to go barefoot by the 
rules of their order, they are well provided to wait 
for dead men's shoes. Here I omit the little cloister 
of Benedictine monks in the dukedom of Lorraine^ 
near Pont-^-Mouson, as also some other nunneries 
and friaries since erected at Pftris and elsewhere; 
for surely these orders have spawned much since our 
late civil wars, Protestant confusions multiplying 
popish foundations. 

2. Yet I cannot believe what one reports of two Tiro 
convents in London^, setup about the year 1640 ;pQrtBdte 
one at the lord Gage's, near Queen Street; the 
other at Westminster : for, finding no person who is 
properly termed the lord Gage, I suspect all the 
rest. And though I confess catholics then arrived 

V [See an interesting account Hist* II. 158, ed. Tierney.] 
of this college, in Dodd*8 Ch. ^ Mr. F^ne. 



i boMMM !• imUurr to dan tham dn«4 i 
lU teiw g ty , joC it •oemrth fanpfoliable ut 
■bide tliere, mw only to wut eonvoiiewy of i 
partatko. AdJ ao aneh for Eiyikh e u nw u lit 
tte MM^ wUck diMxmtse lei nooe eenm 
and not IMrtaiB^( to the Urtory of Eagind; 
wobU vUfiagly b« eondcauied for a neei 
dan on the conditioii that thej balai^ad Mt i 
onto m, vho iloiljr fot«fa over too Burh 
hoDee. and <In mutuallr bring l«ck ton mad 
diief hither. 


Af ^ fc It yrvn n wtttk iilm<i*t impoMiible for our | 

to^ 1^ punoo till* lands i>r twh n'ligi*Mu hone, ftnai tfa 
SHaSr time that they (■arU'd frotu th4^ crown to tho pfCMT* 
ownen tbiTPof. Vea. iwirh a taak, wbon mde^ an 
eodlev, of no other ufo than the aMkfoetiaa 
mrioiitj. A^ thiTcfurti. tho heit ■ 
hunt not thp deviationg of erery pfttT vciB. <« 
ing Bvvcral rouracs in mndry bodlM.) but abandaal^ 
aeqaK their skiU and induatiT' if trvly disoov«i^y 
the tmak-Teiiii, (obacrving the aame diaimab ha aft 
iwople,) kephalical, haifltcal. Ate, ■» we coneafw mm 
dutT dbchaigct) to any raUooal trxprirtation, if i» 
■tannng only (oot of the original n-ronk) m tfc* ! 
ath.« <^ the mitTMl abboy*. marking their fl 
ffncr paHrd from the rrown into the | 
Mvccal aul^ti. 

a. Heiv 1 iDtcndeil to proKnt thf rpaihrr ^ 
particolan of all those ownen tlm<ugfa w bn ea I 
thveo mitm) aMwy* havi* pa«cd. from 


in England. 


whom king Henry granted them, to those who at 
this day are possessed thereof; a thing with very 
much difficulty (such the frequencies of the ex- 
diange) collectable out of the several fines paid at 
tlieir alienation ; but having tired out mine own 
modesty, though not my good friend Mr. John Witt's 
officious industry, in being beholden to him above 
my possibility of requital for perusing so many 
records, I desisted from so difficult a design. 

I Abbey. 

Granted by 


In con- 

Tenure and 

TaviHtock, King Henry |John lord Of his faith- ! In capite, by 



in Devon, the Kighth, ' RuHtel, 
in the 3 1 8t i Anne hit 
of his reign, ' wife, and 
July 4. (x) their 

heirs, &c. 

ful serrice 
and counsel. 

ton, in 

l)iiry, in 

in Hunt- 

I ingdon- 

ScH)y, in 

biiry, in 

King Henry John Tre- 
the Kighth, gunwell, 
in the 31111 , knight, 
of hiH reign, do<tor of 
23d of Fe- law. 

King Henry .William 
the Kighth, Stampe, 
in the 3iHt 1 gentle- 
of hiH I man. 

reign, t) 

. — . «, None, ,WilUam 

knight's service, i but still Russell, 
of [cum alHt] '■ pos< > earl of 
one knight's fee, sessed | Bedford, 
paying 36/. by their 

I heirs. 

Of a pension 7n rap{fe, by None, John Tre- 
i of 40/. per I knignt*s serrice, but still gonwell, 
of the tenth part pos- esq. 
of a knight's fee, sessed 
paying I a/. 4«. by his 

annum sur- 
1000/. paid 
down, and 
his good 

.King Henry 
' the Kighth, 
in the3iBt 
I of hiH reign, 
I 4th of 
I March, (a) 

Of the pay. 
ment of 

Richard lOf his good 
Williams, service, and 




the pay- 
ment of 
4663/. 4«. 2d. 

King Henry Ralph Of 736/. paid. 

the Kighth, Saclleir, of 

in the 3Jd j Hackney, 

of hiM reign,' Icnigbt. 

2Hth of Au- 1 

guut. ;b; 

King Henry Thomas 
the Kighth, ' Stroud, 
in the 3bth 
reign, (c; 

In capite, by 
the tenth part of 
a knight's fee, 
payings/. 8«.ob. 

In capita, by None, 
the tenth part of pos- 
a knight's fee, sessed 

Earle, and 

Of 3283/. 19s, 

paying 39/. i6«. 

In capite, by 
the tenth part of 
a knight's fee, | 
paying 3/. I0S.M. 

In capite, by 
the twentieth 
part of a knight's 
fee. paying 

by his 

Joy, esq. 

Sir OUrer 
well, the 
most aged 


ley, esq. 

^ I parte rotulo 29, (for- 
merly Osborn's) Remem- 
l)rancer's Office. 

y 1 par. rot. 95. 

« 7 par. rot. 147. 
* 3 par. rot. 293. 
^ 1 par. rot. 140. 
c a par. rot 26. 

TUJIMnyifJiUf •»•«. 




■rtlTtfif^ •« — ■ — -- - -^ 




* 7 ptf. rat 44- 
- 4 p«. IM. 13. 
f I pw. rai. 

• ) pr. roL 95- 

* 3 pr. nA. 17 i 
4 Mt. nt. 77. 

fiOOK VI. 

in England. 



Granted by 

I miind*! 
i Hury, In 
1 Suffolk. 

! in Hert- 
. furdsblre. 

Queen EH. 
labeth. In 
the necond 
year of her 
reign, Feb. 
14. (k) 

Queen Eli. 
labeth, in 
the sixth 
of her reign, 
May 6.(1) 


John Eyre, 







ton, gent. 

aider atioo 

Of the pay. 
mentof four 

Of the pay. 
ment (for it 
lands in the 
grant) of 
1703/. IS. 4^. 


In flree soeagt, to 
be held as of the 
queen's manor 
of East Oreen- 

In f^ee and cmn- 
mon socage. 






Hitherto we have proceeded on the most authen- 
tic authority, out of records ; and although we are 
confident of the truth of such as follow, yet, wanting 
the like assurance in the dates, tenures, and con- 
siderations, we thought fit to rank them by them- 

2. Battle Abbey, in Sussex, was bestowed by king 
Henry the Eighth on sir Anthony Browne, knight 
of the garter and master of his migesty's horse, en- 
joyed by his heir-male in a direct line at this day. 

3. Thomey Abbey, in Cambridgeshire, was con- 
ferred by king Henry the Eighth on John lord Rus- 
sell, and is possessed by his abnepas^ William earl of 
Bedford, in a lineal descent. 

4. St. Mary's Priory, in CSoventry, was given by 

king Henry the Eighth to Hales, esq., clerk of 

the hanaper ; at this day in possession of one of his 
name and lineage. 

5. Evesham Abbey, in Worcestershire, I find not 
to whom first granted ; but by a long lease it was in 
the possessicm of one Mr. Andrews, father and son, 
whose grandchild, living now at Berkhampstead in 
Hertfordshire, hath better thrived by God's blessing 

^ 2 par. rot. 13, 

1 4 par. rot. 53. 

on bis uwn indintty ttrnn hb bther and 
dill H-ith Erniibnm Abbey; tbu mic of the ^tmm 
wbunvir bu imputL'tb a cuue of their ill wmtt^ 
Latvly it wu dr Williun OnfteenV aod I know ■■i 
to whom hb wm iold it. 

6. The sblK>y of St. ikonet'c b the Hohae. m 
N'orfolk, niu novrr vobl, Irat tmly diangvd ia the t«» 
atid tbirtiftb of king llvury tbo Bglilh. wHk tW 
btfibnp of Nonrirh, oit ap{)eiifvth br tb« prinlvd fl»- 
tuU', whicb affirnietb, " That tbe landt •eUM by iJbr 
" kiiif; on tbi* biflbo|iric woto of m gutar JM^ 
" mine tban tbe Innlnbipi ind muum fti 
** grace:" wbirb migbt bv m>, scunjt >ll 

ts not iu unnoal n'VL>nuo, but murb in 

* of fino ; indoctl, ffciicrallr comtK-ts did 
mitxcs toao, iu tbcir cxrhongn with the crown. 

• 7. St. Mary'H in York (with Selby, the «^ 
mitnxl nbbcT Ix-Tond Tn>nl) wu kept in the cm^ 
to bo tbe kiuji'n palace, wbfn rcfiairiii)^ into tkmm 
[iaii« ; rinre collol tb«' Manor, wheie the iotd ff^ 
ridcnt of tbe rounril in ttio nortb beld hit ivUnm 
At tbifl day it in in tbo bauds of the Mata^ m 
cxro|it(>d liy nanio in the act fiH- the «le of 

, hndo, and ouo waa allowed a foe br tb» 
Itocpinjf tbc^reof. 

8. My inquiry cannot attain to whom 8t. 
in Sbn'Wftbury wai pawed. As for 
Cauterbury, I eonccire it nerrr aliened 
crown, nmling in my worthy frieml* ' 
[ * remainiu}^ niin» tbereof are made avtiiect lo 

laca." And tbux Wf< have a perfioet aoeoitBt of al 
the nUtmd EngUah ahbejra; tbe raadar well 

r, !■ Ui Aaliq. of Ckw Ulf . f. <■. 

in Engl III 


bering whut we Iiavu formerly written at large of 
St. John's of Jerusalem and WaltUam, as also of 
(iloucester, Peterborough, and Westminstor, od- 
vanred into cathedrals; save that the last was after- 
wards altered into a collegiate church. 

9. W'e may observe that the greatest abbeys, countrj 
founded in cities, were of the least profit, because so UrgM 
strait-laced with streets and houses round aljout'"'' *■ 
thern tliat they could not grow to any extraordinary 
bulk for ground continued thereunto; so that the sites 
were but sites ; as in St. Alban's, St. Edmund's Bury, 
Hyde, &c. ; whereas monasteries in country towns, 

let loose at more liberty to dilate themselves, had 
generally a large manor and ample demesnes annexed 
unto them. 

10. Wise men have informed me, that had suc-Prwont 
ceeding princes followed king Henry's pattern, gene- jJi^ 
rally granting abbeys only /» capitt; that such lands 
(though passed gratis from the crown under small 
rents) would notwithstanding in some part have 
returned thither again, as attbrding respite of homage, 
rclieis, wardships, fines for alienation for a constant 
revenue; whereas being afterwards granted in free 
socage, whilst the tenure only advanced the present 
sale, the crown was deprived of much emolument, 

and more obligation, 

11. Kiohard Williams, aliafi Cromwell, esq. (toAwimm 
whom Ramsey Abbey was partly given, partly sold)ci«ine<r^ 
was one of the five who, in the thirty-second year of 
Henry the Eighth, made the l>old challenge at jousts 

to all comers that would, in France. Flanders. Scot- 
land, and Spain. Here it waa expected that some 
of our Knights Hospitallers (whose house, by act of 
parliament, was dissolved but a month before) should 


TV HiHory if AUn^ 

apppftr valiantly in tWir vindiatfioii, if eaoBiM^f 
Hiiv it^UKticH* niR>n*tl unto tbnn ; but tliey fcift 
tboniM'tvcti clo4c. pmbablT not wt mnrh %tm (fair ^ 
all Iho Rhalteiip.*P4 u of one of the i|wiIiIim<. via. 
kuifr II(.'iiry biiimcir, a» mifp, U* couqoeror*. o^ th» 
king'« anjicr nnti otliem' envy ; if wonted, of cMr 
own iKof^mcc. Ik-sitltt*, lir tlte lawi of tbrwr MilMt 
tlier wfrc not to tilt ajrainit Cliristiaii*. but miStj to 
spend their H|icani a^ininiit |mffaiu and inMela. I^rtlf, 
the rhalU-njie Konint nnly eonfiiiMl X*» forg lp ma. 

> IS. Thin Uirhanl WillianiN nlm» rn«nwf41. nmm 
iDt4> till! |>lan> an (^guire, liut tlf|>aned a luiigkL 

, duhhcd bv thi> king fnr his raloiir, rkarlj ruiv«f 
away tho cmlit ; oTcrtbrowinfr Mr. Pkhncr Iq <kt 
field at jcHUrta ooo dar, and tho neit m.i li^g Me. 
CuljK'itper at barriers In the iwnc manner '. Il«n>- 
Dpon tbun' gneth a Inulitinn in the* fiunilf. thsS ksif 
Hcnnr, highly plea«e<l «-Jtb hi* prvwra^ " Kiici^orii . ' 
iai<l be. " tbou waM my |)iek, but hefvaftcr 
** mv Diamottd ;" and Ihen-at let fall hi* 
ring unto htm : in &vo»nnre whereof IheM 
wellii liave orer Hineo ftiveu for tbeir cnal ■ Kb 
holding a diamond ring in hii for^-paw, 

> 18. 8otne coDceiTc thcae abbej hoda OMtv i» 
'^wiceaM fti l than any other, and Infprtioaa to the lIM 

feDcnUiuD ; Tea, papfait* wnald pprttade <a^ tkat m 

Btwefihaluii cart all his ridera till liaeked br Aln^ 

der, Itb lord and roa«U'r, to tbrae *kitt»h laiiAi «■ 

[^dlmount all that bcatride them, until foraoock tki« 

» (at they hope) reatofed to their proper o«bh»i 

I thb they Impute in the cone of their %maAt^ 

I to tneh who ihould alioMte tbem ftaa 

BOOR VI. in England. 511 

their first institution. Others maintain that no cer-« 
taintj can be concluded from such casualties, but 
that all things come to pass alike to all: as die 
abbey lands, so die other lands, when in the hands 
of a riotous person. Thus lands as well as goods 
and chattels are movables, though not from their 
centre, yet from their owner ; yea, our draught lately 
presented doth prove that many mitred abbeys have 
survived the dangerous climacterical of the third 

14. For mine own part, my tongue is so far from Sir H«i7 
bespeaking such lands with any ill success, that Iobtenr». 
wish to all lawfully possessed of them (either by the Mbg^^oOa. 
bounty of their prince, theur own or ancestors* fUr 
purchase) that peaceably and prosperously they may 

enjoy them: et nati natorumy ut qui nascuntur ab 
ipsis. However, it will not be amiss to insert the 
observation of a most worthy antiquaiy in the county 
wherein he was bom and best experienced, who re- 
porteth that in Norfolk there were an hundred 
houses of gentlemen, before the dissolution of ab- 
beys, possessed of fair estates, of whom so many as 
gained accession by abbey lands are at this time 
extinct or much impaired ; bemoaning his own fiunily 
under the latter notion, as diminished by such an 

15. Hear also what his son saith to the same Hiii(m%«i 
purpose®: "King Henry exchanged abbey lands, 
'' and by this means, like the dust flung up by 

Moses, they presently disperse all the kingdom 
over, and at once become curses both upon the 

o Clement Spelman, in hia Prefiace to his father's book, De 
non temerandis Ecclesiis. 

" bmiUM and MttUit of tho ownen ; tbcy 

** vieioosly apending on tbinr printe n ecMi Bw 

" WIN piouily iotundMl for public devotian 

" much ih&t, within twenty ;uv* next aft«r 

** aolutiuii, moe of our nobiliiT and ibsir 

** lure been attaintcHl, uid diixl undtfr tbv 

** jmtioe, than did from the ('<)n()m«t t« 

** Itttimw being alraont fivo Uuudnx] jtan 

** thou cxaniino the list of tW Imrom in the 

" mciit of the iK'ttity-wTiiith of llimnr the 

" tlinu «halt find wry fvw of tbvm wfaoac moi 4a li 

~ this day iidu-rit tlu-ir falhi-r»' titlet aad oMaiak 

" and of tbew few many In whom tbo lunft** fata^ 

" bath leatoivd what Ibo rifiotniu law of atlainJw 

** took, both digiuty, loniU, ai»] [MMtnity. AbJ 

** doubtleai the r«)mmoiut liavo drunk tleep in thia 

** eup of deadly « inv ; but they, boing Bwire mob^ 

" ftxm and Iom eniiiu-nt. arv not to obviovi to oha^ 

16. Aa for tbu n-jmrt of Ueynenur. the nad 
mar bcltcve the Im tkerfuf for bia known eap^ 
mont to Home, thus i>iprv«inj( himarif: "At t 
" diiKolulioD. Wvnrj \hv fjftfath diridcd part of t 
** f^orrh H}Miilfi among two hundml and tixty fi 
** tlemon of lauiilic* in one |wrt of tjifflaud ; 9mi 
** the MUiif timo, Thonuut duke of Norfolk 
" the aerviro of twenty of bis p-nlkmcn with 
" {rant of forty pounda a ymr out nf \\n own i 
" ritaoe« ; and whilo not lixty of tbo kin^'a 
" had sona ewtdng their ^ktbeca' catal«ik ewry «m» ef 
" the dukca hath a aon of bw own VJam, flooiiAhv 
** in hia &tbcr'ii inheritance : and I ronld hare art 

9 ApMlnkUM HiiaiiTi ia Ai^.. fat sij. ill. 

ROOK VI. in EnglamL 51 S 

** down their several names, had conveniency re- 
" quired it." 

1 7. But it is high time for me to put a period to The oon- 
this subject, lest, as the abbeys were complained of "*'^' 
to grow so great that they engrossed the third part 
of the land, so my discourse of them, infected with 
the same fault, will be condemned by the reader for 
the tedious prolixity thereof; the rather, because 
this old and trite subject is now grown out of fashion, 
men in our age having got a new object to fix their 
eyes and observation thereon, taking notice how 
such church lands do thrive, which since have been 
derived into the hands of new possessors. 










Pahia est ubicumque est bene; 
Jiette vixitj qui bene ItUuU, 









T HAVE formerly in this History presumed to 
trouble your Honour, and now adventure the 
second time. Indeed this treatise containeth the 
description of your large demesnes, and larger 
royalty and command. Should I therefore present 
it to any other save yourself, it would be held as 
a stray indeed, wandering out of the right way it 
should go in; and so (without any thanks to me) 
would fall to your lordship, as due unto you by 
the custom of your manor. 

Your Honour's most obliged 

Servant and Chaplain, 

Thomas Fuller. 

'^ [Sec Church History, voL ii. 311, and Pisgah Sight, p. 273.] 

► ,1 

i" f 





]3R()VIDENCE, by the hand of my worthyThe«u- 
friends, having planted me for the present atsi^.' 
W'altliani-abbey, I conceive, that in our general 
work of abbeys, I owe some particular description 
to that place of my abode ;• hoping my endeavours 
lierein may prove exemplary to others (who dwell in 
the siglit of remarkable monasteries) to do the like, 
and rescue the observables of their habitations from 
tlio teeth of time and oblivion. 

Waltham is so called from the Saxon ham^ which Wnitham 
is a town (whence the diminutive hamlet) and weald^ZMm^. 
or wealt, that is, woody ^ (whence the weald of Kent,) 
it being anciently overgrown with trees and tim- 
ber. Thus Kiriath-jearim^ or the city of the woods^ 

* [See the Life prefixed to vol. i.] 


in Palcstiiir ; Ihudrns^ k\\ island in Pelo|iooDr*c« . 
,St//rifir/nn, ;im nnrifnt city in lk*lfria. p»C ihnr 
nanirs from Xho like* Moodv Mtuation. Scinif w/.I 
liavr it calliMl Wn/fAtnn, huxm H'rntiAjj^am: I «Mk. 
they vnuUl niaki* their u'cmls ^inhI, in n-«{«-rt •-; 
the |H'rsoiixi living: tlit*n*in, thim^rh in n*pml of ibe 
Miil itself. in(I(*<M] it is rii*h and ph*iitiful. 
Tiir«itiiB. The town is M*ate4l ciii th«* vn>i ••id** nf clit- r.vrr 
*li<*a, whirh not only parteth lli*rtfnnUbin' fr<:i 
Kss4>x, hut also seven tinH*s partt^th fmni itM.df. «h'<«r 
S4*ptenithiou>stri*ani in roinin;: to the toi^n i« rmfttrj 
a;:ain with so many hridp(*s. (In the ono »i«I«\ tiir 
town itself hath lar^re anil fniitful nuiifluv», i«h*.«9^ 
intrin>ie value is niurh niiM*<| hr the vicinity ^V 
London,) the •;m'i*< \« lu*n*of u hen tir>t p*tten an L*-^! 
is so sw(»et anil liiS4*iou<« to eatth*, that thev dit'C iLv?.. 


at tlie fir»t entrrini^ then*in to half an hf»tir a iU«. 
h>t otlirrwise lln'V o\er-eat theni'^Ui'^, uliirh *«.tn- 
kine yi ariy do. ami i|uiekly dit* f«ir it, ni»iwith>taxi<!.T ^ 
all thiir kn prrs* ean- to the ctmtRiry. (In th** 
oiIh r sjilf :i «*|iariouH fnnM •*pn'ad«i itM.'!f, mht'rt-. 
fonrti-t-n ^e:ir>i sinci*, one nii'dit have M-t^n mh«'I«* 
lu-nN of ri'd am! fallow di'cr. But theM* late lin-r.- 
tiou«* vi-.'irs lia\e het-n >\w\i a NininNi, Mirh an Lunttr. 
that all at thi^ pri-«Miit an* ili*«*tniyi><|, thi*u^h I 
muid \^i**h till** wtTe the wuiNt etFi-f't whioh i>(.r 
wofii! Wars Ii:i\i* |irtii!ui*i*il. 
ik>iiM«i Thi* air nf the lawu \h eniidcnineil hv nian« f^r 

o\er-nitii-t :ind ai:iii*<h, eauM-il hy the depn-«(«««{ 
kitii.'itiiiu tlii-ri-iif. In 4'oiit'utatiiin of whieli ceii^urv. 
we proiIiH't- tie- nian\ aceil |Hr>*(»n** in our l<>«n. 
ialHi\i- tliii • ^•- -r aii'l ten, HJnee iii\ roniiii^ li&lh«*f, 
alNi\i' il.p • ^i-'ii' :inil tin «i-.m>« of a^e, ) i^o thai il 
M*«'nis Wf an- Hutlieientlv lit*althful. if ftuflMenllv 
tliankful fur the s;inie. Sun* I am, wliaK i» 

The history of Waltham-abbey. 521 

in good air in the town is supplied in the parish, a.d. io6a 
wherein as many pleasant hills and prospects are asconfenor. 
any place in England doth afford. 

Tovy**, a man of great wealth and authority, as Firttfound- 
being the king's staller, (that is standard-bearer,) ^ ^^' 
first founded this town, for the great delight which 
he took in the game, the place having plenty of 
deer. He planted only threescore and six indwellers 

Athelstan, his son, proved a prodigal, and quickly Faiii Uack 
spent all his father's goods and great estate, so crown, 
that by some transactions the place returned to the 
crown ^. 

Edward the Confessor bestowed Waltham, with Bestowed 
the lands thereabouts, on Harold his brother-in-law, Harold, 
who })resently built and endowed therein a monastery, 
whereof nothing at this day is extant save the west 
end, or body of the church. 

A structure of Gothish building, rather large than The modd 
neat, firm than fair. Very dark, (the design of those modem 
(lays to raise devotion,) save that it was helped again ^""^' 
with artificial lights; and is observed by artists to 
stand the most exactly east and west of any in 
England. The great pillars thereof are wreathed 
with indentings, which vacuities if formerly filled up 
with brass (as some confidently report) ^ added much 
to the beauty of the building. But it matters not 
j>() much their taking away the brass from the pillars, 
had they but left the lead on the roof, which is 
but meanly tiled at this day. In a word, the best 

^' [Probably the same per- ^' [De Invent. &c. ib. 227.] 

son as Thoni le Preude or le ** [And rightly as it seems. 

Proude. See De Inventione See De Invent, ib. p. 232, 

S. Crucis Walthomensis, &c. where a complete description 

p. 2 39. ed. Michel.] of the church will be found.] 

522 Tkt Autoiy »/ iralliam-iMUtf. { • 

A.i>. I-40 (•(tniiiH'iKlAtion of tlie church in, that on I^irf*. 
rniifl-^V <iuvR ^mernlly it is HIUhI with a grrmt mnd atcmCHr 


.M.iruliiy To tlu* SOUtll-sidL* of tllC clllirch IMJoilR-d ft chafari, 

cniiiii|.h. f„|.|m.|.|y our lindv'H, now a sc*hool-housc, and uoir? 

■iiii. » ■ 

it an an*lieil clmnifl-liouMs the fairt-fit that ever I 
saM'. Urn* a pious fancy rouhl niake a ftraM v» 
itKi*lf on those* (Irv iMini-H \iitli the iii(*«IitatK»tj -Y 
niortahty: ulirn* it is hani, yi>a« ini|M»Miible Co ■{»- 
ciTn till* skiilN of a rich fnmi a |KM>r, witn» fnta 
a sinipUs n(»Mr fmni a inraii |Hfr«on. Tliut LI 
countci> an* alike* wlu*n put up tof^'ther in cho Uii 
or ha^ ; thou;;h, in ra**tinj^ of arcuunt, of far ditft^rvct 
A cImiimmI Kin^ IIan>I«l clodiratiHl th(*nioiiaKti*nr t«> the hi»D«^ur 

f^^^iidi^M ^^^ "" '***')" ^'^"^S fi'untl far wi-^iiwanl, and bnniirit 
M'idiJiMfi. liitin-r (:is thrv writf) hv niirarU**' ; nhmce tht* lomii 
hath thi' athlition of Wnlthnm-lliJif-t^niSM : but xh^ 
chun*h wi* find in aftrr-a);(*s alM> diMiicatiH] to >c. 
I«:iun*n(*t*. \\\s foundation uaa for a ^rttm. a:>i 
(*h*\i'n Mvuiar Idark cani»n«i. Let n«»nc rhaHi^nir^Ml^ 
uiinN of iinpn»pri(*ty, s«vin); a t/mN^ in l«atin ^rv>9. 
//r/«. Iiatli \\'\s nanii* fptni tWa tm^ o\i*r wliich numt^rr 
hi* i«* pni|H'rly to Ih' pn-poM**!. Fi»r nothinfr ni«ir%* rocD- 
nmn than to uran uords fnun thrir infant and tiri^oal 
M IIH4-, and l»y ru*»toni to rxtriid tht>ni ti> a lar^-t 
si^iiiticatioii, as than aftiTManU plainly d4*n«»t«*«l a 
^u|M rii>r nMT iitlu'r>*. ^ihi'thcr ffurr tlian t«*ri. a» tK^ 
**i\ pri-lH*Mdarii-*» nf |{iN*lic*?«t«'r ; <»r nitM*. a« th«* thrw 
and thirty of Sali**litirv. Tin* tlf*an and •*lfVt-n ra- 
nmi** \\(Ti' pli'iitit'iiilv pniviilrtl fitr, cat'h ranon lia«n;^ 
a nuiUMr. iiml tl.i- i!t a'l ^ix fi»r hi- n.aint« nanrtv 

\'*%T ill (lit' i-liartiT ••!' i*Miitirniation nia«lo by kin|( 
Kdu:iidihf i ont*i->Hi»r.lH-sidi ^ Nurth-lautl in Waltham. 

' s««* \'iU lUrtiUli. ill |i 15;-. 

The history of WaUham-abbey. 523 

(now called, as I take it, North-field.) wherewith the^-^,'^i 

^ ' ' '' 20 Edward 

monastery was first endowed, these following lord- Confeeaor. 
sliij)s, with all their appurtenances, are reckoned up : Seveiitcen 


1. Passefield. 7. Wodeford. 13. Wormeley. ^th^ 

2. Wiildc. 8. Lambehide. 14. Nithelswelle. theCon- 

3. Upminster. 9. Nesingan. 15. Hitche. 

4. Wtolthfare. 10. Brickindon. 16. Lukendon. 

5. Suppedene^ 11. Melnhoo. 17. West-Wealtham. 

6. Alwcrtowne. 12. Arlichsea. 

All these the king granted unto them cum sacha etA.D,io66, 
socha^ tol et teaniy &c. free from all gelts and pay- 
ments, in a most fiill and ample manner; witness 
himself, Edith his queen, Stigand archiepiscopus 
Doroboinimsisy count Harold, and many other bishops 
and lords subscribing the same charter. 

Afterward Harold usurpeth the crown, but en- a. D. 1067. 
joyed it not a full year, killed in battle-fight bycooqueiw. 
king ^^"illiam the Conqueror. Where either ofHaroW 
their swords (if victorious) might have done thekiUedand 
deed, though otherwise both their titles twisted wdthMi. 
together could not make half a good claim to the 
crown. Githa, mother of Harold, and two religious 
men of this abbey, Osegod and Ailric, with their 
prayers and tears, hardly prevailed with the Con- 
(|ueror (at first denying him burial whose ambition 
had caused the death of so many) to have Harold's 
corpse (with his two brethren, Gerth and Leoswin, 
losing their lives in the same battle) to be entombed 
in Waltham church, of his foundations^. He was 
buried where now is the earl of Carlisle his leaden 
fountain in his garden, then probably the end of 

f [Leland writes this name also De Inventione S. Crucis, 

Tippedeiie»and spells the others p. 230. ib.] 
with some variations from the f? [De Invent, ib. p. 245.] 
text. Collectanea, i. 101. See 

524 Tk^ history of WaUkam^iMff, ( 

.\.i» lo'r. thr (|iiin\ or mtlier hdiiu* easteni rbmpei brj^^od 
('.rtM,!Jrl!r. His toiiih cif plniii, but rich paj marble, mith wi 
soonictli ft (TDss-rtcin-o (Inil iiiiioh di*iirmnt««tl ••n w 
art > ii|M)ii titr sjiirir. swp|M>rt(*<I with pillan*?^ • 
|KMlr>tal wlicriMif I liavf in my liou<iv \s fi»r 
n*|M»rtiMl ('pitnpli. I |iiir|Mist*|y omit it, not «•« n.\ 
lH*c*:itiM* harlKimiis (M'an'o niiv lN*tt«*r in chat aj 
liut Ih'i*.iiim' nut attfHtnl to my a|iprvhc>nM«*r. « 
Hutliricnt autlioritv**. 
iMoniiiii^ A pirtiin* of kinu' llaruM in ^lasA was* lat«-!v 
** " br si-rn in th^ north uin«Io\v of the rhurrh, til! ' 
years sinre snnir barbarous hand lx*at it dnwn un 
tlic n«>tion of **u|>rrstition. Sun*Iy had nurh i|ni«'^r 
|ifr«onxi b('i>n cniplnvtMl in tin* day<i of llt^zt'kia}. 
pur;:*' thr tt'nipli* fri»ni thi* funnor idolatry : ur^ 
tlu» pri'trufT thiTi'nf th«'y would have n'ndt*«l cfl" \ 
iily-Mitrk friini thi* piilan*, and tin* lionsi^ oxen, a 
clicrnbini** f'min thi* ba?4t'** of braMt. Il«iw>i 
tluTi* i'i *«till a piart* ralh*d llaroldV|iark in • 
parish liy liini •in d<'niiininatf*d. Ix't not thtn-f* 
till* \ill:i*:<* of Ilarolilon. thr north «»ido of tlu«4* x^ 
lif'dt'nrfj, i|<rM|iiTl\ llarrWfNifl, nr lland^wix-!. 
vnL'ar Lrr'Miihlli'-s truiitionj rontiH*t with W'alti.i 
for thi- kiiiLr- intrrnn-nt. 

/ 'h * I'* 'U tint f /// / / » i/j » * / ' II 'nbh 't m -^i/Jtf u Ai/ //ot rw 
\\;.M'^. Hu*' uill cri^ih bclirxe, that at tin* di^lh t»f k: 


.li.'.V ^ ll:ir"M. \\ altliarn-ablH'V, f«iiindi*il b%" him. wa.« ir: 

''*"*' ^w<nin. ;i!n| tljt- ran>»n<* thi*n*in mnrh di^hfartfM^ 

lliiu«\i'r iht\ lia'l <ini' help. Mhirh ua« thi« : t( 

lv|u;irtl !lii' ( MMt'i'-^iir \*a.*» tlit- rtinKnnrr of th 

^■\*> L ii.r .•u« .lirntmi i-l 4 «tt|i|ii«M*«l was ihml o# k 
ii>iii^ r«iii!ti1 tirii! iijK m-i! .it ll«niUl i 4*^7 ] 

The hiikny of WaUham-aibey. 525 

foundation, whose memory was not only fresh and a. d. 1067. 
fair in all men's minds, (bearing a veneration to his conqueror, 
supposed sanctity,) but also king William the Con- 
queror had the best of his bad titles by bequest of 
the crown from this confessor. So that in some 
sense Waltham-abbey might humbly crave kindred 
of king William, both deriving their best being 
from one and the same person. 

Know, reader, that whatever hereafter I allege The in- 
touching the lands and liberties of Waltham (if not liJi.luiier 
otherwise attested by some author in the margin ) Ijj^^'^Jj^*^ 
is by me faithfully transcribed out of Waltham 
leger-book, now in the possession of the right 
honourable James earl of Carlisle. This book was 
collected by llobert Fuller, the last abbot of 
Waltham ; who, though he could not keep his 
abbey from dissolution, did preserve the antiquities 
thereof from oblivion. The book (as appears by 
many inscriptions in the initial text-letters) was 
made by himself, having as happy a hand in fair 
and fast writing, as some of his surname since have 
been defective therein. 

Not long after the conquest, Waltham-abbey a. D. iio«. 
found good benefactors, and considerable additions ' i. 
to their maintenance. For Maud, the first queen ft*^ . 

-* Mead gives 

to king Henry the first, bestowed on them the millweithem 
at Waltham, which she had by exchange for Trinity- mm. 
church in London, which I take to be part of the 
Trinity-priory, now called the duke*8-place. 

Adelisia, second wife to king Henry the first, a. D.i 130. 
being possessed of Waltham as part of her revenue, i. 

gave all the tithes thereof, as well of her ^J^'w^sii®^ ^2rfe 
as all tenants therein, to the canons of Waltham. ^ti 
Meantime how poorly was the priest of the place 
provided for ! Yea, a glutton monastery in former 

A i>. M-'i-aLn'** iiiakt*s an liiiii>rrv iiiiiiiHtn in mir 'ia^* 

- "••"«^ 111 ■ • I 

II lihlicv anil a ]iars(iimi:<' iiiiiii]|ini|inat«* in th*- ^ 

plarr, an* :ln iii(*(iii>iNti*iit ln;;i'lli»'r. a> j?*-"! w • 

ami an iron mill. Had m»t Wnlthani rliun^K U* 

iiirt witli a niitili* fiiiimlcT. ihf* n]iiii!»ti*r tht*n*«*f r. 

liavr kept ni(H* tasting; rlav^ tlinii «*\i-r wt-n* ( :*. 

tlir Uditiaii i*alrn<lar. 

A.n M.X5. Kin;: Sifphi'ii, tli(iu;:li In* ranu* a wnni;: »a« 

Kinir *"** rmwn. vrt dnl all ri;r!it In tn»* nM>iia«t>n 

su|.iirii»ii*^Valllia!n, {us wlm i:»'nrnillv siiii;:Iit tlit- c«--! » 


tlic 4'I«T:^'^v tn **ln*ni:tlirn liirnM-lf, i anil ci»rifirm--»! 


tlirir lantl**. |irntit>. aiMJ priviii*;:!*** imiIm iIi«mii 
All. Ml'.. KiuL' llt-nrv tin* M.fnn«l nttt-rlv ili^^tMih.^) 

2 llfiiry ^ ' 

II foinidatinn nt' dean and i*li*\i*ii canon** at \\'al:K] 
Hr.'rrviii^. ''*** dflianrln-dni'-- of tfn-ir li\f^ !•• n-mlt-n-^l :r. 
^.iir^iiM- ^.jiartiT a> tin* (N*ra«*i«>n ihrn-of. fuM m r.j ,>j/,^ , 

tli-sii: .iiiil 

rniMi-.^ .11 vh riritint' fnhtfts n/i*iin%t' rf tiuunlitrr ri^nk** ti\ 
t/Nntf itiffimtfi rnhr»'r\ttfitthi% ulnrum ;iif#//*«% *«»:ft'r 
.\ti%%0f, WliftliiT llir^' \nTi' n-iilly nr only n p'.r 
viriMiis. (mh! kniiuo. M-i-jn^ all iIhim- nniHt 1^- j*. 
ulmm piiwt'r i«» plfa**!*!! to ppinounri* mi'. **?!!> 
i**. kinir Ilfnrv iiiit«-il tlii*< ili-an and i*an<*r:x a 
|dai*«'i| :iM aMiitt anil ri*::idar .\nLrii**tiniano iti ;* • 
rimm. iniTi-a-iui: tiii-ir nnniiNT ii» i\ifnl\-f«iiir. A 
|ifi*:ii|oi' iiii iiM- ilii- kini;'- n\in \iiird*»t it \ia* fir *.':, 
Cliri^i iii«* **|Miu**t' •«liiiiili| liaM* a n^M ilnur^. ).« - 
iMiU t'i»ntirmi'il in tlii- ni«»!ja-tiTv tin* prnr* 
|i:itrim<iii\. mi-nii'iiird in tin- C '«inf'«'*^ir * i-i.a.**- 

' <i.'.'.i^'j* i ifiiNri?.^* 1.. ' h- ■ •• r\ !• fit*-* lK'lr%t-" 

iiV'i'* *.!rirV. •.:!■*! ^".^ Pr-.i,. ■. 7 MaI l'ir:% 7- 

l!irir\ J-r t*. - i. • ::. • t •■ in i:. M-- I? r. ::*• *» .-^ 

I 1 uf I .^'. ■■ ,* '.t I I. ■*• r i*'!i" fi"*»i-'! Kii^n'iir ti. k( ncH*- 1 

*!i*.'. r!ij. .r ■! I' ■!!:. r tl, •* ..!.■ '*:tJ. \)ir k r.^ * 

•I ■• ■ J •: .: !:.. .,:■:. ". .1 l(.n! *[%• \*.c*\*> .n Tw 1 wWr 

.1 }.i'.\ .ini! ri'jui ir lil'r. ili C'^^ 

.iiil:ijii<> «iii^iii.iriti-r i*( «i.iiu'(« 

The history of Wakham^bbey. 527 

cum pedis tei^roiy with many pieces of land, andA. d. 1156. 
tenements, which their benefactors since bestowed u. ' 

upon them ; but also conferred the rich manors of 
Scwardstone and Eppings on this monastery. 

The whole charter of king Henry is too long to Augutti- 

, - nianf tub- 

transcribe, but some passages therein must not bestitntedin 
omitted. First, the king had the consent of pope ^ "**^' 
Alexander for the suppression of the canons ; the 
rather moved thereunto, quia prcpdictis canofiicis 
suffici enter promstim fuiU because the aforesaid ex- 
pelled canons had sufficient provision made for 
them. For, grant them never so scandalous, this 
was to add scandal to scandal, to thrust them out 
of house and home without any means or main- 
tenance. Secondly, this charter presents us with 
the ancient liberties of Waltham-church, that, 
semper fuit regalis capeUa ew primitiva sui funda- 
Honey nulli archiepiscopo vel episcopo^ sed tantum 
eeclesia: Roman€B et regue dispositioni svbjecta. And 
though since the reformation the church hath been 
subjected to the archbishop's jurisdiction, (as suc- 
ceeding to the royal power,) and sometimes (with 
grumbling and reluctancy) to the episcopal power, 
yet it never as yet owned an archdeacon, or ap- 
peared at his visitation. 

The mentioning of the consent of pope Alexander R«n©J«id 
to the suppression of Waltham dean and canons, and Iham. ' 
substituting Augustinians in their room, mindeth me 
of a spacious place in this town, at the entrance of 
the abbey, built about with houses, called Rome- 
land (as Peter-pence were termed Rome-scot) at 
this day. It is generally believed, that the rents 
tliereof peculiarly belonged to the church of Rome. 
Thus the pope would not be so bad a carver, as to 

SM Tk§ kittiHy o/ IVaUAam aUtf. [ ^9ru% mi 

cut all away to otlirrx, aii«l refHTTe no rorner to 
A.i). 11H9 Kill)? Hirhanl the tint (though ipenerally not too 
I Ridwni i^^YJ,^^ I,, ^ii^ clerfry) amply confirmed his &tlirr'« 

Fics. fuun<lation, and ^vo landn to Richard Fits-Anrber 
aMM M in this parish, to hold them in fi*e and herpditahly 
(o|*.n^. ^f ^|j^ ^,j^^^,|^ ^^f \Va|tl,ani-llolv4.>os». This Kiti- 

Auchcr Hxeil hinitM*lf at (*t»pt*llalL a stately htiu«r 
in the |»arish. Whether m> calletl contrartedly, 
yuaxi l\JJ»inifJhall^ fnuii ('ohhinjr, a rirulet runninf 
not far otF, or fn»ni tuo ancient ami i'ssi*ntial turrrts 
of that houms which are copied and covered with 
lead ; or fnmi (in my mind mosit prrdiable) an bi|rb 
and shaq) hill (thuH (%»|K*land m called in Cumbefo 
land) whereon the house is founde«l^. 
iiiMdiN>rii In or alN)Ut this king*H reipi, Hugh Nevil, with 
\m!!!*Luw. the consiMit of Joan his wife and John his Si>n, b^ 
stowed the manor of Thonidon on the monastcrr *•( 


Waltham, of wh<mi largely U>foro'. 

King llenr}' the thinl, to %\mxe court keefiing. 
came oftrn and lay long at ablM^ys, mi that Waltham 
(the ni^arest mitn*<l abbey to London) had much of 
hio comimny. Ik>ing a religious prince, grest wcr^ 
hi!< d4*sin*}4. but withal necessitous, small his dt*<eds 
in <*Mdowing chim'hef**". However, what he vmnt«d 
in giving hiniM*lf, ht» Mupplied in confirming the gifts 

» jllii* mi»%t ooiupli'to AC- '*' [ In hi* rri|tn. k«>*VT«^. tW 

ctmiit iif thi« t'litin* tr.iti«artiitn churrh wba lirdirmlvil mt%\ 

will U* fduiid til liriifii|iCt>n, grrat •olmmitT. ua tkr ^t 

p I I iS.; aftrr thr fr««l of M. Mickftm . 

^ 'Vt*t thi* i-t\inf«lt»i;> *"»!' hv Win. dr IbigrW. hiilwiy a/ 

Ki*fttril in tlio Worthi«*« i« mcirr Norwich and cmaoa of $«t. 

pUu«itili« " (\>pt.llAll. in n*. Pauls immediatrlv alW tW 

" Cf«ril« ( 'oppici*. II a1 I. fn »in th«* deduationctf St.Panl'a. 

** hiiikI* thrrralMiut ' 1 4«^5' Mai. Par. p 51^5. tasa. 1&4S ' 
' [In \\\% (h 1 1 lit. p. a 1^- 

The history of JVaWiani-ahbep, 529 

of others. And finding it the cheapest way of-^-i^- '^46. 

. ,. 30 Henry 

benefaction to give liberties than lands, he be- in. 
stowed on Walthani a weekly market and a 
fair (so called a feriando^ from people's playing 
tliere) to last seven days; which now is divided 
into two, but of shorter continuance, the one on 
the third day of May, the invention, the other on 
the fourteenth of September, the exaltation of the 

We now have a market on Tuesday, but cannot Waithmm 
boast of much trading therein. Indeed there is"^ ^ 
plenty (»f flesh, but little com brought thither : and 
bread is the staff, as of a man so of a market. Nor 
let us impute the thinness of chapmen in summer to 
husbandnieirs having no leisure, as busied in tillage, 
hay, or harvest: or in winter to their having no 
pleasure to repair thither in so deep and dirty ways, 
seeing the plain truth is, no underwood can thrive 
near the droj)pings of so great an oak, the vicinity 
of London. The golden market in Leadenhall, 
makes leaden markets in all the towns there- 

In the first year that Simon was made abbot, BroOt be- 
( which by exactest proportion we collect to be about ^bbot and 
the thirtieth year of king Henry the Third), the^*^ 
men of Waltham came into the marsh, which the «»>"*«*•• 
abbot and his convent formerly enjoyed as several to 
themselves, killed four mares, worth forty shillings 
sterling at least, and drove away all the -rest". The 
abbot was politicly pleased, for the present, not to 
take notice thereof. The next year some men of 
Walthani went to the abbot, the Tlmrsday before 

•• i\IS. of Edward Stacy, written (as appears by character) 
140 yt'urs since, fol. 42. 


AJ>. 114^ Kastrr. in tin* iiuiik* <*f tlit* ulioU* \illairi\ and «ir- 
III. ' iiiaii<l(*c| oriiiiii to rrin<i\f* his iiian*<« and colu out ^4 
till* iii:ir*»li. TIm'h till* aMiot ri'fuM-«l to d«i. adding 
\Mtlial, tliat if lii^ iKiilitls liu<i |>la(Hil Iiih caltl«* i*(lK-r- 
wlii'n* tliaii rlirv nu;;lit. tlirv niii:ht do woll to liavrit 
aiii«'ii<l«w|, vrt Ml an to 4|«*f«'r the iiiatt<T till Tii«-«iav 
afitT I'ia>ti'r. 

Thrn.irdi On that Tiir^lav, Kirlianl, hmtlirr to thf kmr. 

kmimiif^i. ilnkr of (^l^ll^\all. raini' to Waltharn, at what lirnr 
Ixith thi* ini'ii and \«oiii('ii of the to\%ii n*|<iin-«l !*> 
th(* irat(* of tilt* afilN-v to ri*(*f*i\i* tht* ahlMftt'« linaJ 
a^»i^^<T. llr t(»l(l thciii tliat ht* r(»iild not »|K*ak «ith 
thcMii for tip* |»ri'«i4iir. an ]irovidiii)f him««*ir fi»r a 
loll); joiiriii'V into Ijin<*i»iiiHhin\ thru* to timI th<* 
Jii.sfitt \ ifitwmnt ; hut l»y IiIh prior and other canons 
\\v 4lrsin*(l thrill to li«* |iatii-iit till hiA n'turru «hrti 
ill* unuhl iiH*n«I \\li;it wzv^ \u he iiiend«'<l. N<i( 
sati^^rird thrrruith. ai.«l iifitlif*r rt'^iiertiiii; the *|«t- 
ritual lioIiticsN of the* ahhot, nor ti*m|Miral ^rreatiMHa 
i>f tho (liik«*. niih'il at au^l rvvilcd him. Then inti« 
th(* I'a^tiin* til* V p*. aii'l in flri\inir out the ablmt'* 
mart- and t'nJtN. «Ii^\\ni'«l tlmN* worth twrntT *faii- 
liiitrs <^|Hi!lr4| ti'n mot*, to the* value of ten mark*. 
ainl Krat thtir kri.|M*rH who n.H»iHti*«i thi*ni. even ^> 
tin* **htM|iIin:; of IiIimmI. 

Ti>rnh«t Hnt. attiT tilt* ahlHii n*tunu*4i fnmi Lineoln^irr. 

cnU> firu jIj^. i,,x\i,'*!nfn, irarinLT ihrv >htiiihl Ik» tn>Dncv>d foe 
thfir ridt, tli-virr<l a lnvc-duv, snhmitttil thetnuadvr* 
unto iiini, ami pMiIiTtMl to pnv him dalnaf^^ Uot 
ii<\t fla\. uhrii tlii- prrftiniianrt* of the^io |«roinwa 
Was I'.xpfrtiij. a\\a\ wfiit thi* Waltham-men. witli 
th« ir \M\i*H ami rliiliin*ii, to thi* kiiiff to IjotHloo, 
fiirajiti,- liMM. :l<* imm. Ii a^ in thfin lav. a(^n>t the 
aMn.r :.<-'..'< , Lr:. that lii* \\t»uhl tllMnherit tl 

The history af Walihain-ahhey , 581 

of their right, bring up new customs, take away a.d. 1248. 
their pastures, and (to use their own words) eat ' iii. "^ 
them up to the bones ; and that he had wounded and 
abused some of them, who stood defending their 
own rights. Which false report ^Tis beh'eved of 
many, to the great disgrace of the convent of 

The abbot would not put up so great a wrong, but The abbot 
having episcopal power in himself, proceeded to the conqueror, 
excommunication of the rebellious Walthamites. 
But the townsmen went another way to work, 
namely, to defend their right by the common laws 
of the realm. Whereupon Stephen Fitz-Bennet, 
Simon of the Wood, William Theyden, and Ralph 
of the Bridge, in the name of all the rest, implead 
the abbot for appropriating their commons to him- 
self. But in fine (after many cross pleadings here 
too long to relate) the abbot so acquitted himself, 
that he made both his own right and the towns- 
men's riot to ap]>ear: who at last at the kingV 
bench were glad to confess that they had done 
evil, and were amerced twenty marks to the abbot, 
wliich ho not only remitted unto them, but also 
on their submission assoiled them from the ex- 

Tlie brawls betwixt the abbot and townsmen of?^5"**, 

betwixt th« 

Waltham were no sooner ended, but far fiercer *Wiot of 
began betwixt the said abbot and the lord ofaud the lord 
Cheshunt on the like occasion. This Chesbunt is hunt, 
a large parish in Hertfordshire, confining on the 
west of Waltham, so called, saith® Norden, quasi 
easianeium^ of chestnut-trees, though now, I believe^ 

o In his sliort survey of Hertfordshire. 

M m 2 

Lonc linrdl^ n|ipi>iini in tb«> whole InrMip. la iftb 

^ fuit, 

~ /*taiNlif.—Vctvr doko of Satoy. the kinf'i 4mr 
nnrlc, (flnt f«tiiitlrr, I take it, of the Havojr in 
don.) on whom the king ronfunv)! mvtj l<j 
anil ChL-sliuiit ftnmnfprt the itvt. 

JndyM. — ltal|>h Filx-Nici>liw, John of 
Pliulill IVtikt »eneM*lial, llenrj of Bath, 
Caxton. Ilciiryde Hn^tton. 

DrfenJaMt — .SjmoD the ahbut, ■»! tbo 

Solicitor. — Adam Av Alvprton. 
Tkr 6W.— Tile plniiitifT etMluivaaiwI to 
that the Ktream »f Uy. (cnlli>d the King"! 
iJiviiliiifr IIiTtfonUhin- fmrn l->iirx, nui tl 
tuvrii nf Walthani. all the land wort tbcTMkf 
ilig tu the manor n{ C'hmhuut. Tlii* vaa ifonied I7 
the (lufeiidant, maiutainittft that Small- LF]r-«CrcaM. 
runninf; wrllnigh hair a mile we»t of WakhaM. the enunlic^; all the hiterjaceat mmtJtamm 
pertained to Walthani. 

IVnuinfT the name* of tbcae the kfaiy't Jitk— M 
\Ve»tmin»ter. who would not mpect but Ibat tffa 
Ueutj of ttath wa> bishop of that fee, 1 iirfjwlig 
how maiiT cleiyynirn in that ago wen empicyj m 
placei of Jadiratiirv. But the Mii|iicina b 
ftDftii^ none of that name in tlw 
Otben in like manocr may appnhmid that 
bere mentioiml. waa that learanl lawyer (1 
bUiop nf Ifen-ford) who wmtn the Umiok f *- Tii jjn 
AmfUcauis, and who HouriMlied in the latter ead «f^ 
tlia nign of thia Idnjf Hutuy thf Thinl. Bvt lite- 

The history of Watihamrobbey. 533 

name being John, not Henry, discovereth him aA.D. 1248. 
tlitterent person. in. 

Not long after, this suit was fully determined, 
and Peter duke of Savoy remised and quit-claimed 
from him and his heirs, to the said abbot and his 
{successors, the right and claim he had to ask in the 
same meadows and marshes of the said abbot. Tliis 
is called in the instrument finalis Concordia^ though 
it j)roved neither final nor a concord. For soon 
after this palliate cure it broke out again, and the 
matter was in variance and undetermined betwixt 
Robert the last abbot and the lord of Cheshunt, 
when the abbey was dissolved. 

Many accessions (besides those common prolongers 
of all suits, namely the heat of men's anger, and the 
bellows of instruments, gaining by law) did concur 
to lengthen this cause. 

1. The considerableness and concernment of the 
thing controverted, being a large and rich portion of 

2. The diflicultv of the cause, about the channels 
of that river, which, Proteus-like, in several ages 
hiith appeared in sundry forms, disguised by deriva- 
tions on different occasions. 

3. The greatness of the clients ; Cheshunt lordship 
being always in the hand of some potent person, and 
the corporation of Waltham convent able to wage 
law with him. 

Hence hath this suit been as longlived as any in 
Kngland, (not excepting that in ••Gloucestershire, 
betwixt the posterity of viscount Lisle and the 
lord Berkeley;) seeing very lately (if not at this day) 
there were some suits about our bounds ; Waltham 

Q Camdeu iu Gluucosterbkirc. 

M m S 


Thf ki$tonf vf M'aUhttu^-ihhff, \ Arrt-^ Mt 

A.h. ii4'< nieailows )M*iii^ vrry rich in frra^s and haj, bui too 
III. rniitful 111 roiit<>iitioiis. 

For mine own |mrt. that wmimi which I raiii>-< 
heal I will not wiilm : and 4(*i*ui)? I niaj mt «ick 
the |w>ct, 

S*tn fiostruM ufier ro* tanttn rompumerr lii^M, 

No pou'cr of mini' m) far extends. 
Am fur to make l>oth |>arti«*s friend*. 

I will not turn, of an impartial hiHtoriaii, an cn^^^i 
pers4iii, who nn a nci^hhour wish wril to Cht-^hant. 
Vi» a |»arisliioiuT lirtti*r to Waltham, a.*» a Chri^tiax;. 
Ix'st to iNitli. And tht*n*fon* so much for matter f>{ 
fa<'t ill onr n*eords and !e;;t*r-lKM»ks leaTiti/f all 
matters of ri^ht for otheni to decide. 

Meantime, whilst the ahbot and miiiiL« i^f 
Waltham wrn» vrxetl with the men of I'he^hunu 
they found more favour <if public fame bplit-« tbnn 
not) fn>m some hivin;; W(»nit*n in that |«arisb, I \\w%ii 
the liolv sisters in dit^hunt nurinerT, wIicmk* hiKi^r 
(wh«*iirvrr fouiuh^l) I find some ten vt*arv »inrt» tkit% 
continued hv roval autlii»ritv: 


ffutnnr, A*/uitiifntr^ tt i'i'mrt Antlryaruf \c, IV4 
Mvni*tlt'$ fvfam terfiim Ik>m. /meant rum 

thitum itpUil If'fj/. .rj. JtM. Jtlfitt Itrynt fiostrt XT»U/^ 

But tiii«i >nl>ii (*t lN*^ni}« to swell lN*Tond the bi>aiHl» 
inteiMJctl untn i: ; \r%i therefnre wlat wr intetHkni 
hut a tract **li<iulil sywW to a tome, we will h«-nr 
d(*M-eiul to inattrrs **( latrr date. 

thilv Ik.* it preniiMMl, that siime Vi*ar>> lMT*ir\* tUr 
disMiliitiiMi. UolNTt. tin* last aldNit of Waltham, 
' iia»-«'d **\rT till- fair *M*at of Copt-hall unto kiiy 

*• f l*ritilr«l riitirr in Unirilalr. I. 51 S. 3 

(«i|rt hall 

Tfio history of IValtAa/u-abbey, SS5 

Henry tlie eighth. Tlius as the castor, wlien pur- 
sued by the liunter, to make his escape is reported 
to bite ort' his own stones, (as the main treasure 
sought after,) and so saves his life by losing a limb : 
so this abbot politicly p.arted with that stately 
mansion, in hoi)e thereby to preserve the rest of 
his revenues. However, all would not do, (so im- 
possible it is to save what is designed to ruin,) and 
few years after, the abbey, with the large lands 
thereof, was seized on by the king, and for some 
months he alone stood possessed thereof. 

77ie eatractum^ charter^ death and issue of sir 
Anthony Denny ^ on whom king Henry the 
Eighth bestotced Waltham-abbey, 

At the dissolution, kin"^ Henry bestowed the site a leaie of 
of this abbey, with many large and rich lands be- abbey giren 
longing thereunto, on sir Anthony Denny, for the^J^^^ 
term of thirty-one years'". Let us a little inquire ^^®*^y- 
into his extraction or descent. 

r find the name very ancient at 'Chesterton in John 
Huntingdonshire, where the heir general was longgreauoidiOT 
since married to the worshipful and ancient family"* *^'*"**' 
of the Bevils. It seems, a branch of the male line 
afterwards fixed in Hertfordshire; whereof John 
Denny, es([uire, valiantly served Henry the fifth in 
France, where he was slain, and buried with Thomas 
his second son in St. Dionys his chapel ; their inter- 
ment in so noble a place speaking their worthy 
performances. In the reign of queen Mary, a friar 
shewed their tombs to sir Matthew Carew, together 
with their coats and differences. Henrv, eldest son 
of this John Denny, begat William Denny of Ches- 

r [\'iilued at IKX)/. 4*. 3d. » Speed, or rather sir Rob. 
per annum. ^ Cotton in Huntingdonshire. 

M m 4 

limit ill llrrtfnr«lshir«'. wliioli William «&» L /t 

8lirritr nt* till* rouiitv in tin* %'«*ar 1480. k-m«i«^r 

Kciiiinnd DtMinv to iiili«*rit his iMate. 

FJiiiiiiia Kdniiiml Dt'nriv \m\h our of tin* Innin* •/ tr- 

i^fiiiv ' 

iiHn.ii'iiriiic*L»xrlir(|m*r, in rn^ilit nii<! favour with kiiiir K'l»^r' 

'** **'*""^" tilt* fourth ami Ilonrv the M'Vfiith. Il«* trnkm^-*. 
Mary, tin* <lau;rl»trr aii«l heir of |{olN'rt TniutU<k. 
e8f| , on whom he lM';.nit Thonia^ lK*iiiiy. from n^- r:. 
the Deiinii'** in Ni»rfolk are ih's<'»Mi«!efl. 
Aiich«N.\ Anthony Denny, mtoihI ••on to Immn lK-rin%. »*• 
iviiiivh.^ linijrlit,.,! |,v kinir Ileiirv the ei;:hth. iiiaile i:\Mith-Tr v^ 
uinHUuoii».|)f lijj, lH-iU*h:iinhrr, privy enuiicillor. ninl i»ii«* Mf :..• 
exeeutor>. I eainiot >av he wa<* hn**! aii% ct^^ 
M'hnlar. hilt liml him a Mt-e.ina^, ainl ^rraini fa^**ur\-f 
of h*arne«l men. For when the M*h<Mi| of 'S^ni.*rj*. 
in the north, ht'lonj^in;; toSt..Iohn\ in Caiiiliri-ij**. 
waN mil to ruin, tin* Jainli* then*«>f lN*in^ ««iM an-I 
niilN'jczieiK ^ir Anth<»iiy |iriNMmNl the njomtion ..f 
the sehooK and n**«titutioii of their ineaii«, finii!v 
si*ttlin^ them tn pn-Vfiit furthiT alieiiatinn ll'-ar 
uhat eharaeter " Mr. AM-hani iri^e** of him: /^A«y» ". 

lit 9 rfnt fm.s fn.s ;•#•* uulhtm f»'m/»tt% ri#i/«wwi'M: ■' |{«-i:- 
;;ioii. h'aniini:. eomniMiiwealth, m» (iii|i|or all thi 
ean-». that lie^iiilrn th«'M» thnv thiii'js \n\i ^\K:tu\ xr« 
utlii-r time.'* I^ct th«*n the iMiemit*^ (if aiivi ^^f i % 
iiieiiitirk ahate i»t tlii** eliaRieti*r to what pn*|>iir::>*:i 
th<*y |»Ie:i«ie, 1 (in'tfinlinir it hut the nrator'* rh»'«:i! 
hv|Mrh«iIi'j tl..- \rrv n-niain<li-r tin': of. wJiK-h iJieir 
maliei* mn**t l«*a\i\ ^«ill hi* **Ml!ieient tti «|«"ak •^f 
AnthiiM\ a x^ortli^ ain! nifritin:; •gentleman, 
iflttruiuiiii I tiipl an «\ri-lli-nt initapli inaili' nii him (•« t-r.* 
ih^i.^ii 'ht )■ :4riii'«K -r "f iM>)»!i-ineii. rhr imhliV nf K-arTH^i 

A ■■ '• '• * ' K| i«! i«ii .1 I ; ' 

11. r- . f..l . s I :., ■ 

The history of Waltham-aibey. 687 

men in his age, viz. Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, 
and eldest son to the duke of Norfolk, worthy the 
reader his j)erusal. 

Upmt the death of sir Anthotiy Denny ^. 

Death and the king did, as it were, contend 

Which of them two bare Denny greatest love : 

'V\\v king, to shew his love 'gan far extend, 

Did him advance his betters far above. 

Near place, much wealth, great honour eke him gave, 
To make it known what power great princes have. 

But when death came with his triumphant gift. 
From worldly cark he quit his wearied ghost, 
Free from the corpse, and straight to heaven it lift. 
Now deem that can who did for Denny most : 

The king gave wealth, but fading and unsure ; 

Death brought him bliss that ever shall endure. 

Know reader, that this lord made this epitaph by a 
poetical prolepsis ; otherwise, at the reading thereof 
who would not conceive that the author survived the 
siilyect of his poem ? Whereas indeed this lord died 
(boheaded 1546) in the reign of king Henry the 
eighth, whom sir Anthony outlived, being one of 
the executors of his will. Nor was it the worst 
piece of service he performed to his master, when 
(all other courtiers declining the employment) he 
truly acquainted him with his dying condition, to 
dispose oFhis soul for another world. 

Sir Anthony died about the second of Edward the Hm issue 
sixth, dame Joan his wife surviving him. Daugh- jj^n im 
tor she was to sir Philip Campemoun of Modbury''*^'^ 
ill Devonshire; a lady of great beauty and parts, a 
favourer of the reformed religion when the times 

* Weaver's Funeral Monuments, p. 852. 

5S8 Tkt kiitvry of IVaJtiutm' a Ufm, I Am *.« 

wero most daiifremuH. She M*iit eifrht Uiillinr^ v« 
lior man, in a vloIi»t cmkU. to Annt* AvM^iUjjh' »> , 
imprisoiiod in the rountiT; a small Mini, xt-i a r>a: 
gift, so ha/anlons it was to hi'Ip anr in h« r «-•<.-:- 
tion. This lailv Joan lM»u;:ht the n'verfci*m ::i rW 
Waltham from kin;; Kdwanl the ^i\tl^ |«\'« 
tlirrt* tliuusaiul and luindnMl |Mniii<N f^r !£-^ 

saint*. ])nn'hasin^ then'wiih lar^ri* priiili-tf*** r 
Waltham forest, :ls hv tlu' letter* |mt4>iir« »}**i\ *:- 
|H»ar. Shf bare two sons to ••ir Aiichiiiiv. ||.f^ 
Dniny, (*s(|nin*. of whom hrn*after : the ^•■•"••n'! •w- 
Kdwanl, \«h<». hv (hhTs h^*^<•ill^^ <|iu*(-ii Kli^alMt:. t 
b<iunty, and his own \ahinr, arhievetl a fair t^ta:« .:. 
the enuntv of Kcrrv in Ireland, which at tht« ■!&« 
is (if any thin;: in that wofiil war-w-a^t(*«l rt^urtri 
ran h«0 (*nJ4iye<l hy his gn*at frmndrhiM, Artt-- 
I)eiiny. eMj. nfTraliH*. 

7%!' vnnditinn of' W'nithmn vhurrh f'ntin thr rfni- - 
fntinn ttf' f/n' ti/Jtru until ihf diath uf kinn ll"%rm 
thr Hitjlith. 

Ila\in;r tin* |ktu>:iI of tlu* chun*hwanlfn'« ju*» 
counts, wherriii llu'ir ancient cX|m'|i*i»^ and n«cti|<* 

ar4M'.\:ictl\ tak^n, fairlv written, and can*fiillv kt^i-:. i 

• • • • 

shall si'liM't th«*iit*r Hiiine lih iiinrahle i(»iN*. to sc- 
<|ti:iint UN with (In* ;;i*neral di'\ntiiin nf thiv^* «Ia^«. 

Kiit»w thru, tloTi* wrn* six urdinarv ciliit% «l^H-h 
tlu' churchwarilfiis djil aniniallv ili«M'han:«-. \i/. f.wr 

Ilii'in.i'* Si:i:tli. .Tuin h^s \\\'*-, ■■!. •!'.» •;!•• ^ ■ ; . ! 

J.lllU.ll V. 

I )ii>IIl.l*> I' [i4 ltd. .1" <i. .llid JiM!-. I. J- m;\i». ■•:! t!'.r *^\ 

t< < «•!' 1 I Li ii.ii\ . 

II ■'•■• : ! I'ri • ».•. ..!.il .!■ ir. I.i* u ilt , -i. ''.i U :;•!* til .\;tu 

) Fm\ .\ct« ami M«iiitiiiu'itt« ful. liUt ,S«Tt«il ii p 577' 

The history of Waltham-abbey, 689 

Thomas Towers, and Katharine his wife, the sixth and 

twentieth of April. 
John Ereges, and Agnes his wife, the one and thirtieth 

of May. 
Thomas Turner, and Christian his wife, the twentieth day 

of December. 

The charge of an obit was two shillings and two- 
pence ; and if any be curious to have the particulars 
thereof, it was thus expended. To tbe parish priest 
fourj)ence; to our Lady's priest threepence ; to the 
charnel-priest threepence ; to the two clerks four 
])enco ; to the children (these I conceive choristers) 
thrcej)ence ; to the sexton twopence; to the bell- 
man twopence ; for two tapers twopence ; for 
obhition two])ence. Oh the reasonable rates of 
AValthani ! two shillings twopence for an obit, the 
price whereof in St. Paul's in London was forty 
shillings. For (forsooth) the higher the church, the 
holier the service, the dearer the price, though he 
had given too much that had given but thanks for 
sneh vanities. 

To defniy the expenses of these obits, the parties 
])rayed for, or their executors, left lands, houses or 
stock, to the churchwardens. Thomas Smith be- 
queathed a tenement in the corn-market, and others 
gave lands in Upshire, called Pater-noster-hills ; 
others ground elsewhere, besides a stock of eighteen 
cows, which the wardens let out yearly to farm for 
eighteen shillings, making up their yearly accounts 
at the feast of Michael the archangel, out of which 
we have excerpted the following remarkable par- 
ticulars : 

Anno 1542, the 34/A of Henry the Eighth. 

Imprimis^ For watching the sepulchre, a groat.] 
This coiij^tantly returns in every yearly account. 

540 Tie AiVorr o/ HV/Jkrw d&by. [ aft^ ^ ^i 

tliougli wliat iiiuniit tlicn^liy I know not ; I n^ii 
i<UKi>eot Hdiiie ct*rcni(»nv f>u I'^ter v\'t\ (in imitA: c 
of the s<»MuTs watHiin^' CIlri^t'H ;^vi\) hut am Ka:i 
to r)iar;^4* tlint ^gv Midi ni(»n* sii|H*p»titii*ti ihai^ : 
was cirarly piilty of. 

//r;/i, Paid to tlie riuf^orH at the Cduiinjr of iL-^ 
kiii^rV ^^raco, six|K.*nc«\] Yet Waltham Ik-IU u'^\ 
no taK*s every time kiii^ Ilenn* (*anie hithrr, ha«.*x 
a small h4»UM* in Itonir-larnl, to whieh he i« ^oial >^. 
privately in ri'lire for hi** pK«a«4un». 

Ih'M^ Pai<l unto two nu*n of law for th«'ir oKit-^r-i 
alNiut tlie einireh leases, ^ix sliillinpi ei;rht|ionrtv 

//'7/I, Paid the attornev for hin fet\ twentTiM'tin 

//'//I, l^aitl for riii;[in;; at the princi* hU cnniiri*. 
a |ii*nny. 

Anno 1543. f/ir .i.>M of llmrji thf Eiffkik. 

Ipnjtrimis^ lUfeiviMl of the exiTUtor** of lur ItiiU-n 
Fuller, ^iven hy the said mr ltulK*n tu the chunrii« 
ten |H>undH. 

How is this man de;n^di*<l fn»ni the riftht biiDoar- 
ahli* tlie loni ahlxit of Waltham (the !a«t in tl^At 
|>lat*e) t«i iNMNinie a |NHir sir ltolH*rt, the title iif tb^ 
m(*ane>t |»rii*st in that ap* * Vet Mieh hi« rharitv m 
his ]iovi'rty, that, iN'MiIrn this le^^aey. he lM*«|U€^tb»«^i 
t«) till* eliureh a rhaliee ' silver and irilt, which tb«'% 
afterwards sohl for seven |Miunds. 

Anmt 1.j45. thi :)()//j of llmrfi ihr Kiffkik. 

Itti/o-imis, Herei\i*4| of Adam Tann«*r tin* liVefjdo* 
of (he iiuiui'V whieli wa** ^theretl fur tin* |nirrlia^ 
of (hr Ik'IN. (\in |iouiid four <*hilliiip» and el«-««t)- 

The history of Waltham^cMey. 641 

|>ence.] It seems the king's officers sold, and the 
parish then purchased, the five bells, being great and 
tuneable, (who, as they gave bountifully, so I pre- 
sume they bought reasonably,) and the surplusage of 
the money was delivered. 

Iie?n, Received of Richard Tanner for eight stoles, 
three shillings.] A stole was a vestment which the 
priest used. Surely these were much worn, and 
very mgs of popery, as sold for four pence halfpenny 
apiece. It seems the churchwardens were not so 
charitable to give away, nor so superstitious to bum, 
but so thrifty as to make profit by sale of these 
decayed vestments. 

Item, Paid for mending the handbell, twopence.] 
Til is was not fixed as the rest in any place of church 
or steeple^ but (being a diminutive of thesaint's-bell) 
was carried in the sexton's hands at the circumges- 
tation of the sacrament, the visitation of the sick, 
and such like occasions. 

licfn. Paid to Philip Wright, carpenter, for making 
a frame in the belfry, eighteen shillings fourpence.] 
The bells being bought by the parishioners were 
taken down out of the decayed steeple, and we shall 
afterwards see what became thereof. Meantime 
a timberframe was made (which the aged of the 
last generation easily remembered) in the southeast 
end of the churchyard, where now two yew trees 
stand, and a shift made for some years to hang the 
bells thereon. 

A?mo 1546, the 3Sth of Henry the Eighth. 

Item, For clasps to hold up the banners in the 
body of the church, eightpence.] By these I un- 
derstand, not pennons with arms hanging over the 
graves of interred gentlemen, but rather some 

•'i43 The ki$t'tr*t of WaliKtMm -attgy, ' *pr« - n i 

sii|M*rstitious stn*anic*rp, uHuallr rarrifHi ^BHit .1 

///'/;i. Paid to John I)o<«ton for niemlin;^ chet-rrmsA 

Thr stfitr of Walthmn church Jurinq ik^ r^*^\ 
nfkinn EdH^irtt the Sijrth. 

Old tliiiipi arc* imsM^I awav. Im^IioM all tliirijr^ r- « 
aro Ikm-oihc' iww. Sii|H»rititioii by «l«»jrni** ^»-rx 
l>:iiii*«li(*il nut of tli«* rliiin*li, we hear n«> ni«*n' 
prav«»rs ami ina»ises fur tliir di^ad. Kverv uInI :> « 
liad its own oliit, and fnlly e.x|iire«U the !aii*!% ?' .f. 
iniTJy f^iven thereunto l>eing etnpluyeU to ii>if«* 
charitahle u*ies. Hut let ii«» Mdivt M^nie |iarti*-u.Aj% 
of tlu* elum'hwanlens' aeeoiint.H in th» kiii^*4 *\xy^ 

Anno I.>4!h fhf "Ard of Edward thr Stj'fh. 

Imprimis. Snid the silver |date whirli waA on \ue 
desk in the elianeeh \«ei;;hin^ five ounce!i» fur tw- :.:«- 
five shillin^jfs. (uiesH the ^^allantry of f»ur rhurrj 
by tiiiN (presuniiiijr all tin* n*««t in |>ni|MYrtionA':*!c 
(U|uipa;:i'.) wlien the fl(***k uhenim the |irif«4 r^^i 
^Mi^ inlaid ^utli |dale uf hilver. 

//'//«. Sidd a ri»d of iron whirh the rurtaiii r^a 
u|N»n l>t-fore tin* pmmI, iiiiu*|H*nrt*. ] The rvuHl «&% x% 
iniaL^e of ('liri**t on tin* eri>s«, made p-ner^ilii .-:' 
wiMiil. aipl rpTted in a li>tt for that )»uqi«i*« . r .•« 
o\rr till' |«a"*«»ai:e nut of tin* elmreh intti ihe rhaL«'^d. 
Anil \\i»t \\\\\ what •opirittial ni%«t«'rv wa«i i^^mrhf^ 
in till** iHi^^itiiiii thiTfof f Tin* rhuri-li (fnrMMitli Mp«. 
fit d till' elinrrh militant, the i-haneel n*pn*^'iit« t!.^ 
rhurrli tninn|diaiit ; ami all who \m\\ |in<« out of tbe 
fornii-r nito thi* lattir niu*«t i;o under the ruoJ-loA; 
that i**. earry tin* ern^t, ami In* arquainteJ vii 

The hisfton/ of Waltham-akbey. 548 

aflliction. I add this the rather, because Harpsfield, 
that great scholar, (who might be presumed knowing 
in his own art of superstition,) confesseth himself 
ignorant of the reason of the rood-situation*. 

Item, Sold so much wax as amounted to twenty- 
six shillings.] So thrifty the wardens, that they 
bought not candles and tapers ready made, but 
bought the wax at the best hand, and payed poor 
people for the making of them. Now they sold 
their magazine of wax as useless. Under the re- 
formation, more light and fewer candles. 

Itpm. Paid for half of the book called Paraphrase, 
five shillings.] By the seventh injunction of king 
Edward, each parish was to procure the Paraphrase 
of Erasmus, namely, the first part thereof on the 
Gospels, and the same to be set up in some conve- 
nient place in the church. 

M/;/, Si)ent in the visitation at Chelmsford a- 
mongst the wardens and other honest men, fourteen 
shillings fourpence.] A round sum, I assure you, in 
those days. This was the first visitation (kept by 
Nicholas Ridley newly bishop of London) whereat 
^\'altham wardens ever appeared out of their own 
town, whose abbot formerly had episcopal juris- 

Anno 1551, the 5th of Edward the SiMh. 

linprimis. Received for a knell of a servant to 
the lady Mary her grace, tenpence.] Copt-hall in 
this parish being then in the crown, the lady (after- 
wards ()ueen) Mary, came thither sometimes to take 
the air ])robably, during whose residence there this 
her servant died. 

'* Fox, Acts and Mon. in the examination of Tho. Hawks, 

Y,\^. 1590. [III. 263.] 

Z//*;/!, I4<i8t forty-9iix iiliillinfrt Iit rviuvMi of tbr 
fall of inom*y Uy |»n>olaiimtioii.] Kitijr llcnnr murli 
<lel>asiM! tlif Kn^rlish coin, to Win omii pun atitl thr 
lan<r»( loss (if Kov(»n*i;n)^ niay bo mid to gvt liy tb^ 
dainapfi' r»f their Huhji^rt^,) yet all wouM not do to 
|my his ilrhts. His Hon KdwanI ondraTimrvH u* 
rvdiico the coin to its true ^ttandani, ilt^rrrinf; \^ 
money hy his pnMdamation to the intrinMc tmIoh^ 
then^of. But, pn^ventiMl hy death, he efliTtcd ouC 
this ditlicult di*si^ii, (adultery in men, ainl aiiult^ 
rateiu*SM in monev, Ixith hardly nvlaimcNlj which 
wari afterwanls completeil hy the care of quec« 

//#vii, |{«H*eiv<Ml for two liundnnl •OTentv-onc oancr* 
of plate, »(dd at <M*veral times for the bett ailTaiiCAc«*. 
sixty seven |NmndM fourt4*en nhillings and niiM»|R"flior. ] 
Now was the hnitherhfWMl in the rhuirh di«olTc«L 
consisting; as formerly of three priests, three rb^w 
ristern, anti two 84*xtons ; and the rich phue lickior* 
in^r to them was M>ld for thej^iod of the |4uisb. It 
may sei*m stranj^* the king's commissiom-ra ck-ptitt^ 
ft»r that pur|H>«M» siMze^i not an it, from iiih<«e baiKk 
Walthain found some favour, (lM*friefMle<l by the 
lonl Itirh tht*ir countrymaUt) the rather becaa^e uf 
their intenti4>ns t4) build their decaye<l ^terple. 

C/itirr/t fi/h'nifinn.% in thr rripn nf f/urrn Mnry, 

New lady new lau*. Now ntranp* the ni<-t»- 
morpli4i«iiH in Walthani. (*ondt*mn not this tnir 
cosmography, or desiTiption of a cftuntry town, m 
t4Mi low an<l narniw a MibjtH*t, M*t*in^ in some stwt 
thr ljiHt4»rv of Waltham chun^h is the church hi»» 
tory nf Kn:;land. all luifisln^ in that af»e beiii|f iw* 
Avtid ;ilik<' with >u|K*rstiti«»n. Nor inCffod I 
hen*by to n*new the memory of iikifaanr, bat to 

The history of WaUhanhahbey. 545 

revive our gratitude to God for the abolishing 
thereof, whose numerous trinkets here ensue. 

Anno\55iy Mari<B prima. 

fvipriinis^ For a cross with a foot, copper and gilt, 
twenty-five shillings. 

Item, For a cross-staff, copper and gilt, nine shil- 
lings and fourpcncc. 

Ifevi, For a pax, copper and gilt, five shillings.] 
(Ircct one another^ saith St. Paul, with an holy kiss^^ 
on which words of the apostle the pax had its 
original. This ceremony, performed in the primitive 
times and Eastern countries, was afterwards (to 
prevent wantonness, and to make the more expe- 
dition) commuted into a new custom, viz. a piece of 
wood, or metal, (with Christ's picture thereon,) was 
made, and solemnly tendered to all people to kiss. 
This was called the />tf*r, or peace, to shew the unity 
and amity of all there assembled, who, though not 
immediately, by the proxy of the pax kissed one 

Itcvi, For a pair of censers, copper and gilt, nine 
shillings and eightpence.] Tliese were pots in the 
which frankincense was burned, perfuming the 
church during divine service. 

If em. For a stock of brass for the holy water, 
seven shillings.] Which by the canon must be of 
marble or metal, and in no case of brick S lest the 
sacred liquor be sucked up by the sponginess 

fteviy For a dirismator}' of pewter, three shillings 
fourpence.] This was a vessel in which the con- 

^ 1 Cor. xvi. 20. 

^ Durantus de Ritibus Eccles. num. 6 p. 173. [i. 21.] 


•>Mi Tkt hi^tury «/ Withkam a ifay ( «m.%Mi 

siHTnt<Nl oil, iimhI ill liaptiMii. cHinfirniaUori, 
oxtn'Tiir utictifiii, waa (l('|MMiu*<L 

Itnn^ Kor a yanl of »ilvrr Harr«»ni'l for a rl«#th f-< 
tlio snrniiiHMit. Hovoii ^liillinpi iM^lit|H-ii<v/ llrtr 
soin<* silkinaii or tiiiTrrr must Hati«ifv \\% mliac tL^• 
was. llu* i>rici» s4H*ins t(Ni low for «ianviioC invovtro 
with hilviT, aiitl t<N> Iii;r|| fur plain rarrt* iirt of a ftilirf 

//'7/I, Fi>r a |»ix uf |H*wtc*r, two i^hilliiijipi. Thi» 
wa-s a Imix wlion*iii tin* lu»Nt, or c<»nM'cnit«'<I «mft-f. 
was put and pnH4i*rv«Ml. 

//'//I, For Marv and John tliat Htand in tht» r^**!* 
lofi, twciily-six HliilIin;:H i*if^ht|HMiiM*/ (*kriu *m 
tht' rmss snir his moffif't\ and thr fli%ripir wk»»m ke 

tnn-t/, sMfi'/ififi /«;/*'. In apish imitation whtTPxif th** 
hnmI (wlirn |HTfi'<*tly madi* with all tlio appurttf^ 
naiirrs thrn'nf) was attt*nd«*«l with tlu*^* tun imai^^ 

/frtn^ For washing (dcvrn antM-^ and &<» mmiki 
head rliith**, ••ixiMMUM*.] An anlN\ or allns «&« a 
priest *s piniHMit of white linen ilown to their U^-t, 
ginled ahnut his niidtlli*. Tin* thin matter ilen'^t*^! 
fiinipli4*ity ; eolnur. purity; len;^h, (di*«*p di%ini!«' 
|H»r!M»venin<'i» ; and tin- eineture then*«»f sipnili«'«! tb«- 
|N>p«on wearini; it pn»rnpt and pn*|^n*fi fur ^ ••-]'« 
servier*". Thrir head elothu were like our trrj^-mnc* 
eoir>, hut el(»M», and nnt ttirne<l up. 

///•m, Fi»r wutchini: the M*pulehre, eij»ht|»-rK^'. 
Thus till* pri4*e of that •(«*r\iee, hut a ffTt^t in kinc 
llniryV «lays, wan d«»nhlcH!. However, thf»ti|rh f»w 
|HTy was n'^tim'd to it« kind, yet was it n«u r«^> 
t*8tated in il»» f«»rnnT dejrni\ in the short rrign «^ 
ipiren Mary, for wi* find no mention of the ft 
six ohits anniviTsarilv perfonut*<l, the land* for «fa 

■> John xi\ 3fi. Sc. 

' DtimnttM dr Ritilin« Kcvlr% nubi «^ p. ii6w [li o %0 ^ 

The history of Wcdtham-ahbey, 547 

maintenance were alienated in the reign of king 
Edward, and the vicar of the parish not so charitable 
as to celebrate these obits gratis, without any reward 
for the same. 

Item^ For a processioner, and a manual, twenty- 

ffemy For a corporas cloth, twelvepence.] This 
was a linen cloth laid over or under the consecrated 

Item, To the apparitor for the bishop's Book of 
Articles at the visitation, sixpence.] This bishop 
was bloody Bonner, that corpulent tyrant, full (as 
one said) of guts and empty of bowels, who visited 
his diocese before it was sick, and made it sick with 
his visitation. His articles were in number thirty- 
seven, and John Bale' wrote a book against them. 
The bishop's chief care herein was the setting up of 
complete roods, commonly called (but when without 
his ear-reach) Bonner's block- Almighty. If any 
refused to provide such blocks for him, let them 
expect he would procure fagots for them. 

Amio 1556, Mar ice tertio. 

Imprimis, For coals to undermine a piece of the 
steeple which stood after the first fall, two shillings.] 
This steeple formerly stood in the middle (now east 
end) of the church ; and being ruined past possibility 
of repair, fell down of itself, only a remaining part 
was blown up by underminers. How quickly can a 
few destroy what required the age and industry of 
many in long time to raise and advance ! 

It soundeth not a little to the praise of this pa- 
rish, that neither burthensome nor beholden to the 

^ Fox, Acts and Mon. p. 1474. [iii. 37.] 

Nn S 

vicinage for a (Mi|le<*tiotK tlioy rebuilt the fltee|4r at 
the wt'st viu\ of the chureii on their own pff*^ 
rost, enabled th(*rcuiito, |mrtlv by their stock in thr 
chureli Ik)x, ariMii^ fnmi the sale (aH i« aforaai«li «i/ 
the p;o(nIs of the limtherlMMNl, and pMtly bj tbr 
vohiiitary contribution of the |Nui»hioner». Tbn 
tower-Hte<*|de in ei^hty-««ix fet*t hi^^h from the fiMin- 
tlatinii to the l»attlein<*nUi. each fof>t w|R*n*or (Ian 
Hu\i*n the luateriaU pn*|»roviile<I) costing tliirty-lhn-r 
HhillinjDpi f4iur|MMice the buihiing'. Three jT%n 
|miss(m1 fnun the founding to the finiiihintr tben^»f. 
(ever>' vc>ar*M work <Iis(*eniiMe br the diMcoUmrmtJuo 
of the ston4*H,) and tlie |iarif*h wan AirrtHl, fi>r ikc 
|>i*rftH*tin;: of the Imiltiin^, to Hell their bella» hanin'^Jr 
lN*fore in a w«MKk*n frame in the churrhyanl; «tj 
that Waltliain, which fonnerly ha«l 9teo|ileleHk bell% 
now hatl fnr !»onie yearn a b«dl-U*«8 uteeple. 

7Vir nm*/ifion of t/if ckurvh fri^m ihr ktyimminy ••$ 
tfto'th Klizn/n'th to ihU daj^. 

In el4*vt*ii full y(*ars viz. fnmi the last of kinf 
lb*nry tlit* Ki^lith« unn4i 15i7.till the first of t|u«H-n 
Kli/a)N*tli IJS.^H, thin church found four cliaiigv* in 
n*li;ri<»n ; pa|ii>t, anil |inite!«taiit; |ia|>i«ti anil |>nw 
totant a^AXu. The hunt turn i«ill apfiear by tlx 
warih^ns* ftdhiwin*; acc4»unt8. 

Aii/in l.jJSH, Klizn/ntkar prima, 

Imfn-imi^. For tin* taking d«)wii of the 
tliri-«* Hhillinp, t\iu|H*nce. if then tht*rv living* ami 
abli\ 1 h<»|H* I >lii»uld ha\e h*nt an hi*l|»ing hainl to 

* \\\*' t''.trt\ -thrtf tiHit itii i*r omi furli fthitlii 

The history of Walihant-^bbey. 549 

so good a work, as now I bestow my prayers that 
the like may never in England be set up again. 

Ile7fi, Received for a suit of vestments, being of 
blue velvet, and another suit of damask, and an 
altar-cloth, four pound. 

Ilcj/i, For three corporases, whereof two white 
silk, and one blue velvet, two pound thirteen shillings 

Item, For two suits of vestments and an altar- 
cloth three pound.] Now was the superstitious 
wardrobe dispersed, and that (no doubt) sold for 
shillings which cost pounds. They were beheld as 
the garments spotted with sin, and therefore the less 
j>ity to part with them. But see what folio weth. 

Anno 1562, Elizabethce quinto. 

Item, For a cloth of buckram for the communion 
table, and the making, four shillings.] Having sold 
so nmch, could they not afford a better carpet? Is 
there no mean betwixt painting a face, and not 
Mashing it? He must have a fixt aim and strong 
hand who hits decency, and misseth gaudiness and 
sluttery. But there is a generation of people who 
overdo in the spirit of opposition ; such conceive 
tluit a tressel is good enough for God's table, and 
such a table covering for itself. 

Item, For lattices for the church windows, fifteen 
shillings.] Fain would I for the credit of our church 
by lattices understand casements, if the word would 
bear it. Yet surely it was not for covetousness 
wholly to spare glazing, but thrift to preserve the 
glass, that these lattices did fence them on the 

Item, Paid for a bay nag given to Mr. Henry 
Denny for the abbey wall, three pound seventeen 

.^.i4) Tkt iuttorjif uf I I'd/rJUr M .«f Mny. [ « rr^, ^ - « i 

shilling. J TIiIn iiii^r \ia.*4 rntluT a thankful ark&*'«- 
l(*<l;riiiL'iit of Mr. Dniiiy \\\s prii|irifty, tliaii % j'^«c 
valuation of what tlic |»arihh n*«-(Mv«>ti fn»iii him. it 
it ro||o\\i'tli. 

///-///. To hihoiin'rs wliirli iliil tjinlfnuiiie the ml-; 
wall, torly-fivo hliilliiip* iiiiif|N'ii€n*/ What if.- - 
may tin* iiiat«>rinls i»r tliat uall In* pn-»iiiniNi «..r 
ill thriii»*i*lvcs { I roiirtMVc tlii<» wa.<« a l#uu*i.:.f 
which raii;:i'fl ra^c lN*yoiii| the* olil »ttf|ilt\ tb«- -i-^ 
inoli*»jiiii;( x^hrrcnf hnm^rht iiiiirh |>niHt !•• tht* {ar.«L 
whoso wanh'iis for >^\\\\v yt^ar^ «lRi\r a ^rx'Vki imlt . : 
tilt* sill* of li'a«l, stoiii* and tiiiilMT. all ilr\«>un^i :. 
the riHitiii;;. Hooriii;;, ami fiiii^hiii); of thrir "^tt'^j-h 

/ffi/tritnis, 1*1 ir an oM liniisi' in (In* i>I<l riiarkv-'- 
plai'i*, (liirtfrii piiiind -ix Nliillini:^ t*i;;lit|i«'nct^ ] Tl.« 
tcni'iiiriit li)U-ri'nt(*i| vIi'IiIimI aniiuallv niui* ^hill:!:r«. 
Ndw tlh' parish sii|i| it ami am»thiT Imhim* in \\<^!. 
•»ln'i'i DiitriL'ht, Ifltiii*' h-aM^s hImi uf thfir ••!?.• r 
rhtirrli lamU I'nr twcntv-oiii' \farN ■•urh liar-ra:-* 
make a trast tor the pn-M*iit a^ri* and a faniiii*- f- r 

//'///, I'lir tli«' n|i| tiiiilM*r in th*' litih* %«-*tr» ••• 
St lii'oriri-s rha|M'|. tith*4*ii ^hillin^. ' In %aiii laai- 
I iii<|niri'«l t'i*r tin* *«i:iiatioii hi*n*iif. Ion*; Mm^* •?- . 
imili^Iicil. ani no wmm-Iit if St. (■••••r^i* hi* rluij- ' 
ranmit In* tniuhl, ulim St. (iiHir^'i* liiin^'lf i% x*'- 
firnit'il li\ sunn* a^ i»m* nf*\t*r f\i<iti-iit in rr-rum 

/''//i. UiTi i\t*<| lit' Mr. Ikiiiiy fi»r nin» rt^pt* uf rl«<h 

• •! ::i«lil. thrri- |iiiuiiil s|\ shilling's ii^ht|i«*iirc. 

t ir..i \rl I iiiii : i 

The history of fValtham-cMey . 551 

Item^ For two altar-cloths of velvet and silk, two 
pound.] It seemeth the parish did not part with all 
their gallantry at once, but made several stakes 
thereof, and parcelled them out as their necessities 
did require. 

I tern ^ Received of Mr. Tarn worth twenty loads of 
timber ready hewed, which he gave to the parish.] 
This gentleman by his bounty to the public seems 
better known to God than to me, having neither 
heard nor read of any of his name living in or near 
to Waltham. 

Item, For taking down the stairs in the abbey, 
seven shillings eightpence.] This was part of the 
nag-i)urchase, whereby we collect that a large 
structure was by this bargain conveyed to the 

I tern J For taking down the lead from the charnel- 
house and covering the steeple, eighteen shillings.] 
The steej)le was conceived above the charnel-house, 
as in height so in honour. Wherefore now the lead 
taken from it was translated to the covering of the 
steei)Ie *. Call this removing of this metal from one 
part of the church to another, only the borrowing of 
St. Peter to lend to St. Paul. 

Item, For the archdeacon's man coming for a 
record of all the inhabitants of the parish, four- 
pence.] I know not on what canon this was founded. 
It may be her majesty in those dangerous times 
desired (not out of pride, but necessary policy) to 
know the number of her subjects, and might enjoin 
the archdeacons in their respective visitations to 
make this inquir}-. 

» Which is now but tiled. 

llii;h linir |)||t (|aV iN^milH tO (iftWII, AIhI tho llffht fif nQf h^ 

t.>kiM« . r. .7 

to appoar. insittcrH coiiiiiif^ within tht* mt-mon *4 
many alive. Wo will tlK>n*foro bn^ak nflT. WalthxTi 
since atronlini; no |HH*nliar olM(Tvable«. Onlv «. : 
add tliat sir Kdwani (frrandchijil to «ir Antlnir.v 
Denny, was cn*attHi by kinj? Jamr« banni *i 
Waitliam, and sinre made by kinj^ ('harb-<% «-ar^ 
of Nfirwirh''. A noble |K'i>on, wlm M*ttlotl on ••- 
eurate of Waltliani (to whom In^fon* a \iaa%* ^t\\mT^\ 
of ei^lit |M>iind dill lN*lf>n;?) oiii> bnniln^l |iour><l f-^ 
annnm. witli Minii' otlii*r ronHid<*rable aro»inTr>--^ 
dati(»us, tyin;r pNid laml for the tnie itcTformar"^ 
JuniMMrl The aldn^y i^ now tlie inheritam^t* of <tbi« far!"* 
pnJ^t f^randrhilil by llononi his dau^htrr) Jaint<« lla« 
WaJihMi. **ftrl *»f t arli*«le, uho niarritNl .\Iar;r»reK. ilan^bct-r * * 
Fnmeis «*arl of nt'dffini. bv whom as vt^t be baib :-- 
issnt\ for the rtintinuanei> of \1hos4* bappiiH-^ n^^ 
pniyers sliail never l)e uantin^. 

Tlie n*ader niav jn-tlv oxinvt fn»m mo a raiahv*-^' 
of all the abbots «if tlii<« nnMia^iter^'. IliiK tii ii«» :: 

falselv, I ilan* not ; iaiiu'lv, I would not; iH-rfi'Ttlv I 

• ■ ■ • 

rannot ; and thrn'fnn* nuist enne to \tc fxru****: 
N'M-tMiUa Oiilv let nil* iib«.fr\\ that Niehtda^ abbait nf W \1. 
tliaiii wa<« iiio**t triumphant in jnimit of any in \r* 
plae«* ; hr tliitiri**hiil in tht* nM<;n of kin;: Kirbani t'*- 
MMMiiid. and w:i«« nm* <if the t'<iurt«'«*n t'timmi^i^tMn^ r^ 
rliost'u by parliann nt tn rxainim* thr mi^rama.:*^ !v 
tliat kiiii:*- r«'i;:n sinrr tin* «h"atli «•!' hi* :;randfaih^ r 
Ani«»ii:;'«t the iiati\i-<* of Waltham fi»r «latt-«n>« n 

Jiiliii ilr 

wjiLani John di* Waltham U-ars auav th<' ln*ll. ||c ««• 

^ ("iMili-ii* Ilri! iri K"**i\. 

t Mi-ii i!r Kri-.j!.t<>u >ti- Kwllll^ll^ Au^t iili v. p :'»^; 


I%0 kithry of TTaftkm-oi&y. ASS 

keeper of the privy seal in the reign of king Biefaard 
the second, being the third in number, chosen 
amongst the fourteen conunissioners aforesaid, im- 
powered to examine all misdemeanours of state. 
And now was not Waltham highly honoured with 
more than a single share, when amongst those four- 
teen two were her gremials, the forenamed Nicholas 
living in Waltham, and this John having his name 
thence, because birth therein ™ ? 

But amongst scholars in our town, Roger Wal- B^verWai- 
tham must not be forgotten, canon of St. Paulas in 

London, and a great favourite to Fulk Basset, 
thereof. He wrote many learned books, whereof 
two especially (one called ^ Compendium Morale^ 
the other Imagines Oratarum) commend his parts 
and pains to posterity. 

Pass we from those who were bom to eminent {^jjg^NvHi 
persons buried therein. Here we first meet vHthwaUMUB. 
Hugh Nevil, a minion of king Richard the first ; he 
was interred in Waltham church, salth my author, 
in nobili sarcophaifo marmareo et imeidpto, in a 
noble coffin of marble engraved ^ If a coffin be 
called sarcophagus (from consuming the corpse), sore- 
ly sacrilege may be named sarcophago-phagui^ which 
at this day hath devoured that 6offin, and all be- 
longing thereunto. 

We spoil all,